Basa Bali, Bhāṣā Bali1
|Region||Bali, Nusa Penida, Lombok and Java, Indonesia|
|Ethnicity||Balinese, Bali Aga|
|3.3 million (2000 census)|
Balinese or simply Bali is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000[update]) on the Indonesian island of Bali, as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java. Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian.
In 2011, the Bali Cultural Agency estimates that the number of people still using Balinese language in their daily lives on the Bali Island does not exceed 1 million, as in urban areas their parents only introduce Indonesian language or even English, while daily conversations in the institutions and the mass media have disappeared. The written form of the Balinese language is increasingly unfamiliar and most Balinese people use the Balinese language only as a spoken tool with mixing of Indonesian language in their daily conversation. But in the transmigration areas outside Bali Island, Balinese language is extensively used and believed to play an important role in the survival of the language.
The official spelling denotes both /a/ and /ə/ by a. However, a is usually pronounced [ə] when it ends a word, and [ə] occurs also in prefixes ma-, pa- and da-.
Stress falls on the last syllable.
The word order is similar to that of standard Indonesian, and verb and noun inflectional morphology is similarly minimal. However, derivational morphology is extensive, and suffixes are applied to indicate definite or indefinite articles, and optionally to indicate possession.
Balinese has different registers depending on the relationship and status of those speaking: low (basa ketah), middle (basa madia), and high (basa singgih). Basa singgih contains many loanwords from Sanskrit and Javanese.
Balinese has a decimal numeral system, but this is complicated by numerous words for intermediate quantities such as 45, 175, and 1600.
The Balinese script (Aksara Bali, ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬩᬮᬶ), which is arranged as Hanacaraka (ᬳᬦᬘᬭᬓ), is an abugida, ultimately derived from the Brāhmī script of India. The earliest known inscriptions date from the 11th century AD.
Schools in Bali today teach a Latin alphabet known as Tulisan Bali.
Balinese palm-leaf manuscript
Sign at Pura Puseh Temple, Batuan, Bali
Page from a Bible printed with Balinese script
Street sign in Singaraja, written in Latin and Balinese script
^1 In Balinese script, sanskrit and kawi loanword has different orthography than native words. The first Balinese script is influenced by orthography of sanskrit and kawi as word basa derives from the Sanskrit word भाषा bhāṣā. Meanwhile, diacritics is not written in current romanization of Balinese language. Thus, ᬪᬵᬱᬩᬮᬶ and basa Bali are the standard forms.
- Balinese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Balinese". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Balinese language 'will never die'". March 30, 2012.
- Spitzing, Günter (2002). Practical Balinese: Phrasebook and Dictionary. Rutland VT: Tuttle Publishing. p. 22.
- The Balinese Languages by Fred B Eiseman, Jr – Bali Vision
|Balinese language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Ager, Simon. "Balinese". Omniglot. Archived from the original on 9 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
- The Balinese Digital Library.
- Widiadana R. A. & Erviani N. K. (29 January 2011). Ancient ‘lontar’ manuscripts go digital. The Jakarta Post.
- Erviani N. K. (14 January 2011). US scholar brings ancient Balinese scripts to digital age. The Jakarta Post.
- Paradisec open access recording of Balinese song.
- Kaipuleohone's Blust collection includes materials on Balinese, including RB2-006, RB2-009.