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Karachay-Balkar language

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Karachay-Balkar
Къарачай-Малкъар тил
Таулу тил
Native toRussia
RegionKabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Afyonkarahisar Province
EthnicityKarachays, Balkars
Native speakers
310,000 (2010 census)[1]
Dialects
  • Karachay
  • Balkar
Cyrillic,
Latin
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2krc
ISO 639-3krc
Glottologkara1465[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Koran Karachay-Balkar language version

The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. It is divided into two dialects: Karachay-Baksan-Chegem, which pronounces two phonemes as /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, and Balkar, which pronounces the corresponding phonemes as /ts/ and /z/. The modern Karachay-Balkar written language is based on the Karachay-Baksan-Chegem dialect. The language is closely related to Kumyk.[3]

Alphabet[edit]

Modern Karachay-Balkar Cyrillic alphabet:

А а
/a/
Б б
/b/
В в
/v/
Г г
/g/
Гъ гъ
Д д
/d/
Дж дж
/dʒ/
Е е
/je/
Ё ё
/ø, jo/
Ж ж*
/ʒ/
З з
/z/
И и
/i/
Й й
/j/
К к
/k/
Къ къ
/q/
Л л
/l/
М м
/m/
Н н
/n/
Нг нг
/ŋ/
О о
/o/
П п
/p/
Р р
/r/
С с
/s/
Т т
/t/
У у
/u, w/
Ф ф*
/f/
Х х
/x/
Ц ц
/ts/
Ч ч
/tʃ/
Ш ш
/ʃ/
Щ щ
ъ
Ы ы
/ɯ/
ь
Э э
/e/
Ю ю
/y, ju/
Я я
/ja/
* Not found in native vocabulary

Karachay-Balkar Latin alphabet:

A a B в C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
Ƣ ƣ I i J j K k Q q L l M m N n
N̡ n̡ O o Ө ө P p R r S s Ş ş T t
Ь ь U u V v Y y X x Z z Ƶ ƶ

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[4]
Front Back
Close i y ɯ u
Mid e ø o
Open a
Consonants[4]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive p b t d k ɡ (q) (ɢ)
Fricative [f] s z ʃ x (ɣ) h
Affricate [ts] tʃ dʒ
Nasal m n ŋ
Liquid l r
Approximant w j

Parentheses indicate allophones.

Grammar[edit]

Nominals[edit]

Cases[edit]

Case Suffix
Nominative
Accusative -NI
Genitive -NI
Dative -GA
Locative -DA
Ablative -DAн

Possessive suffixes[edit]

1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular -Iм -Iнг -(s)I(n)
Plural -IбIз -IгIз -(s)I(n)

Language example[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Karachay-Balkar:

In Cyrillic Transliteration Translation
Бютеу адамла эркин болуб эмда сыйлары бла хакълары тенг болуб тууадыла. Алагъа акъыл бла намыс берилгенди эмда бир-бирлерине къарнашлыкъ халда къараргъа керекдиле. Bütew adamla erkin bolub emda sıyları bla haqları teñ bolub tuwadıla. Alağa aqıl bla namıs berilgendi emda bir-birlerine qarnaşlıq halda qararğa kerekdile. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Numerals[edit]

Numeral Karachay-Balkar Kumyk Nogay
0 ноль ноль ноль
1 бир бир бир
2 эки эки эки
3 юч уьч уьш
4 тёрт дёрт доьрт
5 беш беш бес
6 алты алты алты
7 джети етти йети
8 сегиз сегиз сегиз
9 тогъуз тогъуз тогыз
10 он он он

Loanwords[edit]

Loanwords from Ossetian, Kabardian, Arabic, and Persian are fairly numerous.[3]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chodiyor Doniyorov and Saodat Doniyorova. Parlons Karatchay-Balkar. Paris: Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2-7475-9577-3.
  • Steve Seegmiller (1996) Karachay (LINCOM)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Row 102 in Приложение 6: Население Российской Федерации по владению языками [Appendix 6: Population of the Russian Federation by languages used] (XLS) (in Russian). Федеральная служба государственной статистики [Federal State Statistics Service].
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Karachay-Balkar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b George L. Campbell and Gareth King (2013). Compendium of the World Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1362-5846-6. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  4. ^ a b Seegmiller, Steve. Phonological and Orthographical Information in Dictionaries: The Case of Pröhle's Karachay Glossary and its Successors.

External links[edit]