The river rises in the Band-e Amir lakes in the Hindu Kush. In its upper reaches the river is known as the Band-e Amir River (Rud-e Band-e Amir). The river flows west, then north, and terminates in irrigation canals in the area of the cities of Balkh and Mazar-e Sharif or in the desert. In times of exceptional flood the river drains into the lowlands of Turkmenistan. In ancient times the river terminated in a delta at the Amu Darya, but has not reached that river since irrigation canals were developed centuries ago.
- Kamal, Gomal (May 10, 2004). "River basins and Watersheds of Afghanistan" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-30. p.5
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