||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (October 2009)|
A crewman poses with the Sperry ball turret of a Royal Air Force B-24, Burma, c.1943-1945
|Used by||United States, United Kingdom, China|
|Wars||World War II|
It was a manned turret, as distinct from remote-controlled turrets also in use. The turret held the gunner, two heavy machine guns, ammunition, and sights. The Sperry Corporation designed, ventral versions became the most common version, thus the term "ball turret" is most specific to these versions.
Sperry ball turret
Sperry and Emerson Electric each developed a ball turret, and the designs were similar in the case of the nose defense version. Development of the spherical Emerson was halted. The Sperry nose turret was tested and preferred, but delayed until later aircraft. The Sperry-designed ventral system saw widespread use and production became sourced to several manufactures to meet the defense needs on several aircraft after the unacceptability of remotely-manned ventral turret systems. The predominant use was on the B-17 Flying Fortress and the B-24 Liberator, as well as the United States Navy's Liberator, the PB4Y-1. The ventral turret was used in tandem in the Convair B-32, successor to the B-24. Ball turrets appeared in the nose and tail as well as the nose of the final series B-24.
The Sperry ball turret was very small in order to reduce drag, and was typically operated by the shortest man of the crew. To enter the turret, the turret was moved until the guns were pointed straight down. The gunner placed his feet in the heel rests and then crouched down into a fetal position. He would then put on a safety strap, close and lock the turret door. There was no room inside for a parachute, which was left in the cabin above the turret. A few gunners wore a chest parachute.
The gunner crouched in a fetal position within the turret with his back and head against the rear wall, his hips at the bottom, and his legs held in mid-air by two footrests on the front wall. This left him positioned with his eyes roughly level with the pair of light-barrel Browning AN/M2 .50 caliber machine guns which extended through the entire turret, and located to either side of the gunner. The cocking handles were located too close to the gunner to be operated easily, so a cable was attached to the handle through pulleys to a handle near the front of the turret. Another important factor relative to the guns was the fact that not all stoppages could be corrected by simply charging (cocking) the guns. In many cases, when a gun failed to fire, it was necessary for the gunner to "reload" the gun, which required access to the firing chamber of the guns. Access to the firing chamber of the guns was severely restricted by the guns location in the small turret. Normally, the gunner accessed the firing chamber by releasing a latch and raising the cover to a position perpendicular to the gun but this was not possible in the ball turret. To remedy that, the front end of the cover was "slotted". The gunner released the latch and removed the cover which allowed a few inches over the firing chamber for the gunner to access and clear a stoppage. Small ammunition boxes rested on the top of the turret and the remaining ammunition belts fed the turret by means of an elaborate chute system. A reflector sight was hung from the top of the turret, positioned roughly between the gunner's feet.
The directional control was by two hand control grips with firing buttons incorporated. The left foot controlled the reflector sight range reticule. The right foot operated a push-to-talk intercom switch. The turret was normally electrically powered in azimuth and altitude. An emergency hand crank could be attached to reposition the turret from inside the aircraft fuselage. In the event of a power failure another crewman would use this to crank the turret into the vertical position to allow the gunner to exit.
On the B-17, the A-2 turret was close to the ground, but had enough clearance for takeoff and landing. However, the gunner did not enter the turret until well into the air, in case of landing gear failure. During take-off and landing, the turret had to be positioned with its guns horizontal, pointing aft. As the guns had to be vertical before the gunner could enter or leave the turret, a set of external controls were fitted so the turret could be repositioned while unoccupied.
In the case of the B-24, the Liberator's tricycle landing gear design mandated that its A-13 model Sperry ball turret have a fully retractable mount, so that the ball turret would always be retracted upwards into the lower fuselage while the aircraft was on the ground, providing ground clearance with it in the stowed position.
ERCO ball turret
After testing in mid-1943, the ERCO ball turret became the preferred bow installation in the Navy's Consolidated PB4Y-1 Liberator and PB4Y-2 Privateer patrol bombers although other types continued to be installed. Earlier designs appeared in other patrol seaplanes. It served a double purpose, defense against bow attacks as well as fire suppression and offensive strafing in antisubmarine warfare. Since this turret is of the ball type, the gunner moves with his guns and sight in elevation and azimuth by means of control handles. Among the earlier designs was the Martin 250SH bow turret of the PBM-3 twin-engined patrol flying boat which had many points of similarity in design and action.
- A ball turret features in the poem "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner", by Randall Jarrell.
- The father of T.S. Garp, the main protagonist in John Irving's fourth novel The World According to Garp (1978), is a severely injured ball turret gunner.
- In "The Mission," a 1985 episode of the television series Amazing Stories, a young ball turret gunner is trapped in his turret until his skill as a cartoonist saves him.
- Video games (such as Call of Duty 2: Big Red One, Secret Weapons Over Normandy, and Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII) have the player manning a ball turret, typically in brief sequences to provide gameplay variety.
- Kenneth Cleveland Drinnon (2004). Wings of Tru Love: A WW II B17 Ball-turret Gunner Memoir. Xlibris Corporation. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-4653-9776-8.
- Kenneth Cleveland Drinnon (2004). Wings of Tru Love: A WW II B17 Ball-turret Gunner Memoir. Xlibris Corporation. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4653-9776-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to B-17 ventral gun turrets.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to B-24 Liberator ventral gun turrets.|
- Diary Of A B-17 Ball Turret Gunner
- Pastor, Iris Ruth (November 11, 2015). "My Dad was a Ball Turret Gunner". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 11, 2015.