- For other people named Balthazar, see Balthazar.
Balthazar in The Adoration of the Three Kings by Girolamo da Santacroce
|Three Magi, Three Kings, Three Wise Men|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Eastern Orthodox Church
|Major shrine||Shrine of the Three Kings, Cologne Cathedral|
|Feast||6 January (Epiphany)|
23 July (translation of relics)
24 July (Cologne, Germany)
|Attributes||King bearing gifts, king on a camel, three crowns|
|Patronage||Epilepsy, thunder, motorists, pilgrims, playing card manufacturers, sawmen, sawyers, travellers, travelling merchants, Cologne, Germany, Saxony|
Saint Balthazar; also called Balthasar, Balthassar, and Bithisarea, was according to tradition one of the biblical Magi along with Caspar and Melchior who visited the infant Jesus after he was born. Balthazar is traditionally referred to as the King of Arabia and gave the gift of myrrh to Jesus. In the Roman Catholic Church, he is regarded as a saint (as are the other two Magi).
The Gospel of Matthew does not give the names of the Magi (or even how many there were), but their traditional names are ascribed to a Greek manuscript from 500 AD translated into Latin and commonly accepted as the source of the names. In this original manuscript, Balthazar is called Bithisarea which later developed into Balthazar in Western Christianity. Balthazar was described in the 8th century by Saint Bede as being "[of] black complexion, with [a] heavy beard" with the "myrrh he held in his hands prefigured the death of the Son of man".
As part of the Magi, Balthazar followed the Star of Bethlehem first to the palace of Herod the Great who instructed them to return to him when they had found the Child Jesus. When they arrive at the house, the Magi worshipped him and presented their gifts. Balthazar gave the gift of myrrh, which symbolised the future death of a king, as myrrh was an expensive item at the time. Following his return to his own country, avoiding King Herod, it is purported that Balthazar celebrated Christmas with the other members of the Magi in Armenia in 54 AD but later died on 6 January 55 AD aged 112.
Balthazar, along with the other Magi, is purported to be buried in the Shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne Cathedral following his remains being moved from Constantinople by Eustorgius I in 344 AD to Milan. In 1164, Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa moved them to Cologne. Balthazar is commemorated on Epiphany with the other members of the Magi but in Catholicism, Balthazar's feast day is on the 11th of January.
Blackface controversy and traditional iconic representation
In Continental European countries Balthazar, based on Saint Bede's description of him, is often portrayed by a person in blackface. In a tradition dating from the Middle Ages dark skinned people were described as bringers of gold. In the 21st century, a number of campaigns in Spain pushed for a black person to play Balthazar rather than a person in blackface, which goes against the tradition that local city Councillors play the role.
Others have suggested that blackfacing has no history of controversy in Spain, pointing to the fact that, until recent times, many smaller Spanish towns had no people of sub-Saharan origin. Since King Balthazar, in traditional pictorial representations from the Late Middle Ages, is represented as a black person (as an integrating or cosmopolitan graphic symbol, in the tradition that the "wise men" or "magicians" who worshipped Jesus in Bethlehem represented the peoples of the whole world), fitting in with this traditional icon motivated his representation in the cavalcades of Three Wise Men by a person made up in black. In many Spanish towns that custom continues, while others now ask a prominent resident of African origin, for instance a star athlete of a local sports team, to take on this role in the cavalcades.
- "Excerpta Latina Barbari: 51B". Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- *Metzger, Bruce, New Testament Studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic, Volume 10, 1980, BRILL, ISBN 9004061630
- "Three Kings Balthazar, Gaspar, Melchior". CNN. 2013-01-06. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- Matthew 2:11
- Tischler, Nancy (2010). All Things in the Bible: M-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 476. ISBN 0313330840.
- Freeman, Margaret (1978). The story of the Three Kings: Melchior, Balthasar and Jaspar. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 67. ISBN 9780870991806.
- "The Magi". Catholiceducation.org. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- David Lowenthal, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), xvi.
- "Magi". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1910-10-01. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- "¡¡Guerra al Baltasar pintado!!" (in Spanish). GuinGuinBali.com. 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
- "El rey Baltasar de Pamplona seguirá siendo un blanco pintado de negro" (in Spanish). elperiodico.com. 2015-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-15.