Baltic Air Policing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Baltic Air Policing
Russian SU-27 Flanker with RAF Typhoon MOD 45157730.jpg
Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon (bottom) escorts Russian Air Force Su-27 Flanker (top) over the Baltic Sea in June 2014
Location
Date30 March 2004 – present
Executed byNATO
OutcomeOngoing

The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace above the three Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.[1]

Mission[edit]

Ämari and Zokniai air bases in the Baltic states.

Within the Alliance, preserving airspace integrity is conducted as a collective task jointly and collectively using fighter aircraft for air policing. Air policing is a purely defensive mission. Since the 1970s, NATO has established a comprehensive system of air surveillance and airspace management means, as well as Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) assets for intercepts (QRA(I)) provided by its member nations. By means of radar sites, remote data transmission, Control and Reporting Centres (CRCs) and Combined Air Operations Centres (CAOCs) the Alliance ensures constant surveillance and control of its assigned airspace 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. NATO exploits these facilities to react within seconds to air traffic incidents in the Allies’ airspace. This structure of weapon systems, control centres and procedures is referred to as the NATO Integrated Air Defence System (NATINADS). NATINADS has been and remains one cornerstone of Alliance solidarity and cohesion. The responsible Allied Air Headquarters are at Izmir, Turkey and Ramstein, Germany. The dividing line is the Alps. The Headquarters Allied Air Command Ramstein’s air area of responsibility is divided in two Air Policing Areas (APAs):

NATO members without their own Air Policing assets are assisted by other NATO members. Luxembourg is covered by interceptors from Belgium, while Slovenia and Albania are covered by Italian and Greek aircraft.[3]

Since March 2004, when the Baltic States joined NATO, the 24/7 task of policing the airspace of the Baltic States was conducted on a three-month rotation from Zokniai Air Base in Lithuania and, starting from 2014, at the Ämari Air Base in Harju County, Estonia. Starting with the Turkish deployment, rotations changed to a four-month basis. Usual deployments consist of four fighter aircraft with between 50 and 100 support personnel.

To ensure Air Policing performance is conducted in a safe and professional way, adequate training was and still is required, as NATO member nations deploy their assets to Šiauliai Air Base, Lithuania, on a rotational basis. To standardize training across nations, Headquarters Allied Air Command Ramstein introduced a series of training events formerly called Baltic Region Training Events, now referred to as Ramstein Alloy Home to capitalize on experienced aircrews deployed to Šiauliai and to offer superior training for Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian air forces and control facilities.[4] The three host nations contributed €2.2 million in 2011 to cover the deployment expenses and are supposed to contribute €3.5 million yearly by 2015. In 2012, the Alliance allocated €7 million for Šiauliai airfield modernisation from the Security Investment Programme.[5]

Two French Mirage 2000s during a Baltic Air Policing deployment in 2010

Hungary performed the mission for the first time in 2015,[6] also Italy carried out the mission in January–April 2015,[7] with 14 members having participated in Baltic Air Policing so far.

In 2013, the Baltic patrol was called in when the Swedish Air Force was unable to respond to a simulated attack by Russian bombers against Stockholm.[8]

During the 2014 Crimean crisis, the U.S. Air Force deployed six F-15C Eagle fighter jets from US-run Lakenheath air base in eastern England to the Lithuanian Air Force Base near Šiauliai.[9][10] These aircraft will augment the present mission comprising four U.S. F-15C Eagle aircraft. The U.S. heightened its NATO presence to increase the strength of the Baltic Air Policing mission. Another two U.S. KC-135 aerial refuelling aircraft brought aircraft service personnel.[11] In May 2014, NATO established its second air base in Estonia's Ämari near Tallinn, beginning with a Danish deployment.[12] Additionally in May 2014, Polish Air Force units at Malbork Air Base were reinforced by the French Air Force.[13][14]

In January 2022, due to the massing of Russian military forces along its border with Ukraine; American and Danish fighter jets were deployed to the NATO Baltic Air Policing detachments in Estonia and Lithuania, respectively, to provide enhanced air policing (eAP) over the Baltic States.[15][16]

According to a former staff of the National Defence University of Finland the Baltic air bases are untenable in a war scenario as they lack hardened aircraft shelters, which make them vulnerable to attack.[17] Also, Russia operates long-range SAMs in Kaliningrad, Pskov and Leningrad Oblast, which might severely hamper or stop air operations from the area.[17]

Deployments[edit]

LT-LV-EE Baltic Air Policing medal bar
Starting date[18] Country Air force Aircraft Based in Reference
30 March 2004  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [19][20]
1 July 2004  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [21]
30 October 2004  United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Panavia Tornado F.3 Šiauliai, Lithuania [22][23]
1 January 2005  Norway Flag of Norway, state.svg Royal Norwegian Air Force Roundel of Norway.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [24]
30 March 2005  Netherlands Flag of the Royal Netherlands Air Force.svg Royal Netherlands Air Force Roundel of the Netherlands.svg 4x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [25]
30 June 2005  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x F-4F Phantom II Šiauliai, Lithuania [26]
12 October 2005  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 4 x F-16CJ Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [27]
1 January 2006  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [28]
31 March 2006  Turkey Flag of Turkish Air Force Command.svg Turkish Air Force Roundel of Turkey.svg 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [29]
1 August 2006  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 3 x Mirage F1M Šiauliai, Lithuania [29][30]
1 December 2006  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [31]
1 April 2007  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000C Šiauliai, Lithuania [32]
1 August 2007  Romania Stema Statului Major al Fortelor Aeriene.jpg Romanian Air Force Roundel of Romania.svg MiG-21 Lancer 'C' Šiauliai, Lithuania [33]
1 November 2007  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [34][35]
16 December 2007  Norway Flag of Norway, state.svg Royal Norwegian Air Force Roundel of Norway.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [36]
15 March 2008  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [37]
30 June 2008  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x F-4F Phantom II Šiauliai, Lithuania [38]
30 September 2008  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 4 x F-15C Eagle Šiauliai, Lithuania [39]
2 January 2009  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [40]
1 May 2009  Czech Republic Emblem of Czech Air Force.svg Czech Air Force Roundel of the Czech Republic.svg 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Šiauliai, Lithuania [41]
1 September 2009  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [42]
3 November 2009  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x F-4F Phantom II Šiauliai, Lithuania [43]
4 January 2010  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000C Šiauliai, Lithuania [44]
1 May 2010  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [45]
1 September 2010  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 4 x F-15C Eagle Šiauliai, Lithuania [46]
5 January 2011  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 6 x F-4F Phantom II Šiauliai, Lithuania [43]
28 April 2011  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000C Šiauliai, Lithuania [47][48]
2 September 2011  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [49][50]
4 January 2012  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 6 x F-4F Phantom II Šiauliai, Lithuania [51][52]
26 April 2012  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [53]
1 September 2012  Czech Republic Emblem of Czech Air Force.svg Czech Air Force Roundel of the Czech Republic.svg 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Šiauliai, Lithuania [54]
3 January 2013  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [55]
30 April 2013  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage F1CR Šiauliai, Lithuania [56][57]
3 September 2013  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [58][59][60]
3 January 2014  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 4 x F-15C Eagle Šiauliai, Lithuania [61]
1 May 2014  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [62]
 United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [62]
 Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Ämari, Estonia [62]
 France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Dassault Rafale Malbork, Poland [62]
1 September 2014  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg 6 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [63]
 Canada Royal Canadian Air Force Roundel of Canada.svg 4 x CF-188 Hornet Šiauliai, Lithuania [63]
 Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [63]
 Netherlands Flag of the Royal Netherlands Air Force.svg Royal Netherlands Air Force Roundel of the Netherlands.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon Malbork, Poland [63]
1 January 2015  Italy Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [64]
2 January 2015  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [65]
5 January 2015  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x MiG-29A Šiauliai, Lithuania [64]
7 January 2015  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Malbork, Poland [66]
1 May 2015  Norway Royal Norwegian Air Force Roundel of Norway.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [67]
 Italy Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [67][68]
 United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [67]
 Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Malbork, Poland [67]
25 August 2015  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [69]
31 August 2015  Hungary Hungarian Air Force emblem Hungarian Air Force Roundel of Hungary 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Šiauliai, Lithuania [70]
7 January 2016  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [71]
 Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Ämari, Estonia [71]
28 April 2016  United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [72]
4 May 2016  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [73]
31 August 2016  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Šiauliai, Lithuania [74]
 Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [75]
5 January 2017  Netherlands Flag of the Royal Netherlands Air Force.svg Royal Netherlands Air Force Roundel of the Netherlands.svg|4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [76]
 Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [77]
2 May 2017  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [78]
3 May 2017  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 5 x EF-18 Hornet Ämari, Estonia [79]
30 August 2017  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 4 x F-15C Eagle Šiauliai, Lithuania [80]
5 September 2017  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Ämari, Estonia [81]
8 January 2018  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [82]
10 January 2018  Italy Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [83]
2 May 2018  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [84]
 Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 6 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [84]
3 May 2018  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Ämari, Estonia [85]
30 August 2018  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [86]
31 August 2018  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [87]
3 January 2019  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [88][89]
1 May 2019  Hungary Hungarian Air Force emblem Hungarian Air Force Roundel of Hungary 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Šiauliai, Lithuania [90]
 Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 5 x EF-18 Hornet Šiauliai, Lithuania [90]
 United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [90]
3 September 2019  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [91][92]
 Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [91][93]
 Czech Republic Emblem of Czech Air Force.svg Czech Air Force Roundel of the Czech Republic.svg 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Ämari, Estonia [91][94]
2 January 2020  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Ämari, Estonia [95][96]
30 April 2020  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Ämari, Estonia [97][98]
1 May 2020  United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [99][100]
 Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 6 x EF-18 Hornet Šiauliai, Lithuania [101][102]
15 July 2020  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg Eurofighter Typhoons Šiauliai, Lithuania [103]
31 August 2020  Germany Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg German Air Force Roundel of Germany – Type 1 – Border.svg 6 x Eurofighter Typhoons Ämari, Estonia [104][105]
4 September 2020  Italy LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [106][107]
30 April 2021  Italy LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x F-35A Lightning II Ämari, Estonia [108]
30 April 2021  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 7 x Eurofighter Typhoon Šiauliai, Lithuania [109]
May 2021  Turkey Flag of Turkish Air Force Command.svg Turkish Air Force Roundel of Turkey.svg 4 x Lockheed Martin F-16 Malbork, Poland [110]
31 August 2021  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [111]
 Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon
15 September 2021  Italy LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel color.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Ämari, Estonia [112]
30 November 2021  Poland  Polish Air Force Szachownica.svg 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [113]
1 December 2021  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Ämari, Estonia [114]
26 January 2022  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg 6 x F-15E Eagle [115]
29 January 2022  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Šiauliai, Lithuania [116][117]
13 March 2022  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force Roundel of France.svg 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Ämari, Estonia [118][119]
1 April 2022  Czech Republic Emblem of Czech Air Force.svg Czech Air Force Roundel of the Czech Republic.svg 5 x JAS 39C Gripen Šiauliai, Lithuania [120]
 Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg 8 x EF-18 Hornet Šiauliai, Lithuania [121]

Accidents[edit]

  • 30 August 2011 – A French Mirage collided with Lithuanian trainer jet L-39, which crashed into a marsh. Both pilots ejected.[122]
  • 29 April 2013 – A Danish F-16 landed in Tallinn after it suffered a bird strike, which caused minor engine damage.[123]
  • 9 October 2015 – A German Eurofighter's right external tank dropped "while taxiing to the start position" on the taxiway in Ämari airbase, Estonia. The necessary torque of the tightening bolts "was not present".[124]
  • 8 August 2018 – A Spanish Eurofighter accidentally launched an AMRAAM missile without a target while on patrol over Estonia. The missile was not confirmed to have self-destructed as designed.[125]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Baltic Air Policing". ac.nato.int. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
  2. ^ "CAOC Finderup 1993-2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2015.
  3. ^ "L'A.M. assicura lo spazio aereo albanese" (in Italian). Retrieved 20 September 2011. L’Aeronautica Militare assicura già dal 2007, con i propri velivoli, l’"Air Policing" dello spazio aereo sloveno.
  4. ^ "Baltic Region Training Event". Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  5. ^ A Mission in the Interest of the Whole Alliance. PISM Bulletin No 88 (421), September 21, 2012
  6. ^ курс, The Baltic Course-Балтийский. "Hungary will join NATO's Air Policing mission in Baltics". The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics.
  7. ^ Italy’s Typhoon fighter jets secure airspace of Iceland. 10 June 2013
  8. ^ Benitez, Jorge (22 April 2013). "Russian jets practiced attacks on Sweden". NATO Source. Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 2013-04-26. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  9. ^ "US sends six fighters for NATO Baltics patrols: Lithuania". Archived from the original on March 8, 2014.
  10. ^ "6 F-15s, KC-135 to augment NATO mission in Baltics". U.S. Air Force.
  11. ^ "The United States augment its participation in NATO's air policing mission in the Baltics". Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  12. ^ "NATO opens an air base in Estonia". estonianworld.com. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  13. ^ NATO's tripled Baltic Air Policing Mission begins by Nicholas de Larrinaga Jane's Defence Weekly 29 April 2014
  14. ^ [ http://aco.nato.int/alliance-solidarity-in-the-baltic-region-continues.aspx Alliance Solidarity in the Baltic Region Continues] Allied Command Operations 26 Aug 2014
  15. ^ "Seymour Johnson F-15Es arrive in Baltics for NATO air policing mission". airforcetimes.com. 26 January 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  16. ^ "Denmark's F-16s to deploy for Nato's eAP mission in Lithuania". airforce-technology.com. 19 January 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  17. ^ a b Gestrin-Hagner, Maria (2015-01-20). "(sv) Försvarsexpert: Flygövning fredstida spel för gallerierna". Hufvudstadsbladet. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  18. ^ "NATO Air - policing mission, Lithuanian Armed Forces". Archived from the original on 2013-12-30. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  19. ^ Belgium Baltic Air Policing
  20. ^ "Operation Baltic Air Policing". Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  21. ^ "Air-police functions in the Baltic States to be taken over by Danish personnel".
  22. ^ "Lords Hansard Written Answers text for 14 Dec 2004". publications.parliament.uk.
  23. ^ "Eastern Europe: Military Aircraft". Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  24. ^ Norwegian Ministry of Defence:Norwegian fighter aircraft on a temporary NATO mission in the baltic
  25. ^ "Air policing mission in the Baltic States to be taken over by Dutch troops".
  26. ^ "Germans takes over Baltic NATO mission". www.baltictimes.com.
  27. ^ "23rd EFS protects Baltic skies". www.globalsecurity.org.
  28. ^ Zakończenie misji AIR POLICING przez Siły Powietrzne RP. Archived 2010-02-18 at the Wayback Machine mon.gov.pl
  29. ^ a b "Turkish Military Personnel to Take Over Execution of NATO Air Policing Mission Over the Baltic States".
  30. ^ "People's Daily Online -- Spain to carry out NATO patrol in Baltic countries". en.people.cn.
  31. ^ "Belgium F-16s to police Baltic airspace". Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  32. ^ "The Baltic Air Policing operation will handed over to French". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Romania Performs Air Police Service In The Baltic Countries". Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  34. ^ "Portuguese F-16s to defend Baltic skies". www.f-16.net.
  35. ^ "Baltics Air Policing 07 - Reportagem Final". April 8, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08.
  36. ^ "Alfa.lt". www.alfa.lt.
  37. ^ Gazeta.pl: Prezydent podpisał postanowienie o użyciu wojska w dwóch zagranicznych operacjach (in Polish)
  38. ^ "German contingent took over Baltic Air-policing mission". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  39. ^ "QRA Baltic Air-policing mission transferred to US troops". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  40. ^ "NATO Baltic Air-policing mission will be transferred to Danish Contingent". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  41. ^ "Air Contingent of the Czech Republic took over the NATO Baltic Air-policing mission".
  42. ^ "German Air Contingent took over Baltic Air-policing mission from Czechs". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  43. ^ a b "Luftwaffe". www.bundeswehr.de.
  44. ^ "Home". ac.nato.int. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012.
  45. ^ "Air Contingents on the NATO Baltic Air-policing mission will rotate". Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  46. ^ "US Air Contingent readying to take over NATO Baltic Air-policing mission". Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  47. ^ "Šiauliuose leisis Prancūzijos naikintuvai".
  48. ^ "French Air Force takes command of NATO's Baltic Air Policing Mission". 4 May 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  49. ^ "NATO oro policijos misiją Baltijos šalyse perims Danijos kariai" (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on 2014-08-10. Retrieved 2013-03-19.
  50. ^ "Danish F-16s Take-Over Baltic Air Policing Mission". Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  51. ^ "Šiauliuose nusileido Vokietijos karinių oro pajėgų naikintuvai". DELFI.
  52. ^ "F-4 Phantom of the German Air Force landed in Šiauliai". Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  53. ^ Orlik 4 na posterunku, sp.mil.pl Archived 2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine (in Polish)
  54. ^ "Czech Gripen Baltic Airspace Policing Encore".
  55. ^ "tv3.lt naujienos - svarbiausios žinios iš Lietuvos ir užsienio". www.tv3.lt.
  56. ^ "NATO oro policijos misijoje danus keičia Prancūzijos karinių oro pajėgų kariai". 15min.lt.
  57. ^ "Denmark's Air Contingent replaced by France's air capabilities on the Baltic Air policing mission". Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  58. ^ Nicholas Fiorenza (17 June 2013). "Belgium To Take Over Baltic Air Policing". Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  59. ^ Belgian Air Force (2 July 2013). "Baltic Air Policing" (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  60. ^ AIRheads/MB (26 July 2013). "Belgian F-16s take on Baltic Air Policing". Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  61. ^ "U.S. air contingent took over NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission from Belgian troops". 3 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  62. ^ a b c d "Allies enhance NATO air-policing duties in Baltic States, Poland, Romania". 29 April 2014.
  63. ^ a b c d "Responsibility for the security of the Baltic airspace will be passed on to Portugal and Canada at the Lithuanian Air Force Base in Šiauliai". 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 September 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  64. ^ a b "End of 2014 Marks Hand-Over of NATO's Baltic Air Policing". 1 January 2015.
  65. ^ "Second Participation of Spanish Air Force in NATO Baltic Air Policing". 2 January 2015.
  66. ^ "Surveillance aérienne de Pologne" (in French). 16 January 2015.
  67. ^ a b c d "Norway takes the lead in NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission". Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  68. ^ "Italy ended its NATO Baltic Air Policing mission". 28 August 2015.
  69. ^ "RAF hands over NATO Air Policing to Luftwaffe at Ämari, Estonia". 25 August 2015.
  70. ^ "Hungary takes over lead role in Baltic Air Policing". 31 August 2015.
  71. ^ a b "Spain and Belgium ensure Safe Skies over the Baltic Region". 7 January 2016.
  72. ^ "Augmenting Baltic Air Policing Nations hand over responsibility". 28 April 2016.
  73. ^ "Portugal assumes lead over Baltic Air Policing at Šiauliai". 4 May 2016.
  74. ^ "Lead in Baltic Air Policing handed over to France at Šiauliai, Lithuania". 31 August 2016.
  75. ^ "Baltic Air Policing augmenting nations pass baton at Ämari, Estonia". 31 August 2016.
  76. ^ "France hands over lead in Baltic Air Policing to the Netherlands at Siauliai". 5 January 2017.
  77. ^ "Germany continues augmenting Baltic Air Policing". 6 January 2017.
  78. ^ "Baltic Air Policing mission changes lead nation at Šiauliai Air Base". 2 May 2017.
  79. ^ "Spanish F-18 jets to augment NATO Baltic Air Policing". 3 May 2017.
  80. ^ "US Air Force assumes lead of 45th rotation of Baltic Air Policing". 30 August 2017.
  81. ^ "First Ally to conduct Baltic Air Policing, Belgium, back at Ämari". 5 September 2017.
  82. ^ "NATO Air Policing in Baltics continues with Denmark in lead". 8 January 2018.
  83. ^ "Italy welcomed in Estonia to augment NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission". 10 January 2018.
  84. ^ a b "Portugal to take over lead of Baltic Air Policing". 2 May 2018.
  85. ^ "French Air Force takes up NATO mission in Baltics". 3 May 2018.
  86. ^ "Germany starts Baltic Air Policing mission in Estonia". 30 August 2018.
  87. ^ "NATO Air Policing in Baltic region continues with Belgium in lead". 31 August 2018.
  88. ^ "Poland first Ally to safeguard Baltic Airspace in 2019". 3 January 2019.
  89. ^ "Poland first ally to safeguard baltic airspace in 2019". ac.nato.int. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  90. ^ a b c "Hungary takes over lead role in Baltic Air Policing". 1 May 2019.
  91. ^ a b c "Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark take up NATO air-policing duties". 25 October 2019.
  92. ^ "Czechs and Belgians take over in latest Baltic air police rotation". Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  93. ^ "Denmark takes over NATO Air Policing in the Baltics". Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  94. ^ "NATO announces change in Baltic air policing duties". Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  95. ^ "Poland takes over Baltic Air Policing in Estonia, Belgium continues to lead from Lithuania". 17 January 2020.
  96. ^ "Estonian parlt speaker to welcome personnel of Polish Air Forces at Amari air base". baltictimes.com. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  97. ^ "France to Take Over NATO Baltic Air Policing Duties at Ämari". 3 June 2020.
  98. ^ "Meet Flight Lieutenant Quentin, a French fighter pilot protecting the Baltic skies". 3 June 2020.
  99. ^ "RAF Typhoons begin NATO Air Policing mission in Lithuania". 3 June 2020.
  100. ^ "NATO and European Security signalled through Joint Expeditionary Force Readiness Declaration and Baltic Air Policing deployment". 3 June 2020.
  101. ^ "Spain successfully completes first month leading NATO's Baltic Air Policing". 3 June 2020.
  102. ^ "Spain, France and UK take up Baltic air policing second 2020 rotation". 3 June 2020.
  103. ^ "GERMAN FIGHTER JETS JOIN RAF BALTIC AIR POLICING DETACHMENT AT ŠIAULIAI AIRBASE, LITHUANIA". 9 August 2020.
  104. ^ "Germany to fly NATO Air Policing sorties out of Estonia". 31 August 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  105. ^ "German Air Force back again Nato-Partners in the Baltics". tallinn.diplo.de. 31 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  106. ^ "Italy Assumes Lead For Baltic Air Policing". ac.nato.int. 1 September 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  107. ^ "The Italian Typhoons Supporting NATO Baltic Air Policing in Lithuania Intercept A Russian Il-20M ELINT Aircraft". theaviationist.com. 12 September 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  108. ^ "F-35 makes Baltic air policing debut". janes.com. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  109. ^ "Spain takes the lead within NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission". 7 July 2021.
  110. ^ "NATO ALLIES CONTINUE ENDURING AIR POLICING MISSION IN BALTIC REGION". ac.nato.int. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
  111. ^ "Denmark and Portugal take over NATO's Baltic Air Policing Mission from Spain". baltictimes.com. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  112. ^ "Italian Air Force Deploys Eurofighter in Support of Enhanced Air Policing". ac.nato.int. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  113. ^ "Polish troops deploy to Lithuania to carry out NATO Air Policing Mission in the Baltic states". kam.lt. Retrieved 28 November 2021.[permanent dead link]
  114. ^ "Italy passes Baltic air policing responsibility at Ämari to Belgium". 5 December 2021.
  115. ^ "F-15Es Deploy to Estonia to Aid NATO Air Policing Amid Russian Tensions". airforcemag.com. 26 January 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  116. ^ "Danish Jets Prepare to Return to Nato's Air Mission in the Baltic Sea Region". ac.nato.int. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  117. ^ "Danish F-16 jets arrive in Lithuania to bolster Baltic defence". thelocal.dk. 29 January 2022. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  118. ^ "French Air and Space Force employs assets for NATO's Deterrence and Defence". 6 March 2022.
  119. ^ "France deploys four fighter jets to Estonia". estonianworld.com. 24 March 2022.
  120. ^ "Czech Gripens to Guard Baltic Airpace This Year". saab.com. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  121. ^ "Spain Leads Nato's Air Policing Mission In The Baltics". emad.defensa.gob.es. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  122. ^ "Lithuanian L-39 crashes after collision with French Mirage".
  123. ^ "Danish jets make unscheduled landing after bird collision in Estonian airspace". Estonian news - news.postimees.ee. April 29, 2013.
  124. ^ Hickmann, Christoph. "Bundeswehr-Eurofighter - Schrauben locker". Süddeutsche.de.
  125. ^ "Spanish fighter jet accidentally fires missile in Estonia". Sky News.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 55°53′38″N 23°23′42″E / 55.8939°N 23.3950°E / 55.8939; 23.3950