Baltic Air Policing

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Baltic Air Policing
Russian SU-27 Flanker with RAF Typhoon MOD 45157730.jpg
Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon (bottom) escorts Russian Air Force Su-27 Flanker (top) over the Baltic in June 2014
Date30 March 2004 - present
LocationLithuania, Latvia and Estonia
Result Ongoing
The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Two French Mirage 2000s during a Baltic Air Policing deployment in 2010

The Baltic air-policing mission is a NATO air defence Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) in order to guard the airspace over the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

Mission[edit]

Within the Alliance, preserving airspace integrity is conducted as a collective task jointly and collectively using fighter aircraft for Air Policing. Air policing is a purely defensive mission. Since the 1970s, NATO has established a comprehensive system of air surveillance and airspace management means, as well as Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) assets for intercepts (QRA(I)) provided by its member nations. By means of radar sites, remote data transmission, Control and Reporting Centres (CRCs) and Combined Air Operations Centres (CAOCs) the Alliance ensures constant surveillance and control of its assigned airspace 24 hours a day and 365 days a year. NATO exploits these facilities to react within seconds to air traffic incidents in the Allies’ airspace. This structure of weapon systems, control centres and procedures is referred to as the NATO Integrated Air Defence System (NATINADS). NATINADS has been and remains one cornerstone of Alliance solidarity and cohesion. The responsible Allied Air Headquarters are at Izmir, Turkey and Ramstein, Germany. The dividing line is the Alps. The Headquarters Allied Air Command Ramstein’s air area of responsibility is divided in two Air Policing Areas (APAs):

NATO members without their own Air Policing assets are assisted by other NATO members. Luxembourg is covered by interceptors from Belgium, while Slovenia and Albania are covered by Italian and Greek aircraft.[2]

Since March 2004, when the Baltic States joined NATO, the 24/7 task of policing the airspace of the Baltic States was conducted on a three-month rotation from Lithuania's First Air Force Base in Zokniai/Šiauliai International Airport, near the northern city of Šiauliai, and starting 2014 at the Ämari Air Base in Harju County, Estonia. Starting with the Turkish deployment, rotations changed to a four-month basis. Usual deployments consist of four fighter aircraft with between 50 and 100 support personnel.

To ensure Air Policing performance is conducted in a safe and professional way, adequate training was and still is required, as NATO member nations deploy their assets to Šiauliai Air Base, Lithuania, on a rotational basis. To standardize training across nations, Headquarters Allied Air Command Ramstein introduced a series of training events formerly called Baltic Region Training Events, now referred to as Ramstein Alloy [2] to capitalize on experienced aircrews deployed to Šiauliai and to offer superior training for Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian air forces and control facilities.[3] The three host nations contributed €2.2 million in 2011 to cover the deployment expenses and are supposed to contribute €3.5 million yearly by 2015. In 2012, the Alliance allocated €7 million for Šiauliai airfield modernisation from the Security Investment Programme.[4]

Hungary performed the mission for the first time in 2015,[5] also Italy carried out the mission in January–April 2015,[6] with 14 members having participated in Baltic Air Policing so far.

In 2013, the Baltic patrol was called in when the Swedish Air Force was unable to respond to a simulated attack by Russian bombers against Stockholm.[7]

During the 2014 Crimean crisis, the U.S. Air Force deployed six F-15C Eagle fighter jets from US-run Lakenheath air base in eastern England to the Lithuanian Air Force Base near Šiauliai.[8][9] These aircraft will augment the present mission comprising four U.S. F-15C Eagle aircraft. The U.S. heightened its NATO presence to increase the strength of the Baltic Air Policing mission. Another two U.S. KC-135 aerial refuelling aircraft brought aircraft service personnel.[10] In May 2014, NATO established its second air base in Estonia's Ämari near Tallinn, beginning with a Danish deployment.[11] Additionally in May 2014, Polish Air Force units at Malbork Air Base were reinforced by the French Air Force [12][13]

According to a former staff of the National Defence University of Finland the Baltic air bases are untenable in a war scenario as they lack hardened aircraft shelters which makes them vulnerable to attack.[14] Also Russia operates long-range SAMs in Kaliningrad, Pskov and Leningrad Oblast which would severely hamper or stop air operations from the area.[14]

Deployments[edit]

LT-LV-EE Baltic Air Policing Medal BAR
Starting Date[15] Country Air Force Aircraft Note Reference
30 March 2004  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon [16]
1 July 2004  Denmark Flag of Denmark (state).svg Royal Danish Air Force Roundel of Denmark.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon [17]
30 October 2004  United Kingdom  Royal Air Force RAF roundel.svg Panavia Tornado F.3 [18]
1 January 2005  Norway Flag of Norway, state.svg Royal Norwegian Air Force Roundel of Norway.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon [19]
30 March 2005  Netherlands Flag of the Royal Netherlands Air Force.svg Royal Netherlands Air Force Roundel of the Netherlands border.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon [20]
30 June 2005  Germany Roundel of the German Air Force (with Border).svg German Air Force Roundel of the German Air Force (with Border).svg F-4F Phantom II [21]
12 October 2005  United States  United States Air Force Roundel of the USAF.svg F-16CJ Fighting Falcon [22]
1 January 2006  Poland  Polish Air Force Roundel of Poland.svg MiG-29A [23]
31 March 2006  Turkey Flag of Turkish Air Force Command.svg Turkish Air Force Roundel of Turkey.svg F-16C Fighting Falcon [24]
1 August 2006  Spain Emblem of the Spanish Air Force.svg Spanish Air Force Roundel of Spain.svg Mirage F1M [24][25]
1 December 2006  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component Roundel of Belgium.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon
1 April 2007  France Logo of the French Air Force (Armee de l'Air).svg French Air Force French-roundel.svg Mirage 2000C [26]
1 August 2007  Romania Stema Statului Major al Fortelor Aeriene.jpg Romanian Air Force Roundel of Romania.svg MiG-21 Lancer 'C' Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [27]
1 November 2007  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force Roundel of Portugal.svg F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [28][29]
16 December 2007  Norway Royal Norwegian Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon [30]
15 March 2008  Poland  Polish Air Force MiG-29A [31]
30 June 2008  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force F-4F Phantom II
30 September 2008  United States  United States Air Force F-15C Eagle [32]
2 January 2009  Denmark Royal Danish Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon
1 May 2009  Czech Republic Emblem of Czech Air Force.svg Czech Air Force Roundel of the Czech Republic.svg JAS 39C Gripen [33]
1 September 2009  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon [34]
3 November 2009  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force F-4F Phantom II [34]
4 January 2010  France French Air Force Mirage 2000C [35]
1 May 2010  Poland  Polish Air Force MiG-29A [36]
1 September 2010  United States  United States Air Force F-15C Eagle [37]
5 January 2011  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force F-4F Phantom II [38]
28 April 2011  France French Air Force Mirage 2000C [39]
2 September 2011  Denmark Royal Danish Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon [40]
4 January 2012  Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force F-4F Phantom II [41]
26 April 2012  Poland  Polish Air Force MiG-29A [42]
1 September 2012  Czech Republic Czech Air Force JAS 39C Gripen [43]
3 January 2013  Denmark Royal Danish Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon [44]
30 April 2013  France French Air Force Mirage F1CR [45]
3 September 2013  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component F-16AM Fighting Falcon [46][47][48]
3 January 2014  United States  United States Air Force F-15C Eagle [49][50]
28 April - 1 May 2014  Poland  Polish Air Force MiG-29A Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [51]
 United Kingdom  Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [52][53]
 Denmark Royal Danish Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Ämari, Estonia. [54]
 France French Air Force Rafale C, Mirage 2000C Based in Malbork, Poland. [55]
1 September 2014  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [56]
 Canada CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force Roundel of Canada.svg CF-18 Hornet Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [57]
 Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [56][58]
 Netherlands Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Malbork, Poland [59][60]
1 January 2015  Italy Italian Air Force LV Italian Air Force roundel.svg 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Detachment had a strength of 96 personnel [61][62]
 Poland  Polish Air Force 4 x MiG-29A Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [63]
 Spain Spanish Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [64]
 Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Malbork, Poland [65]
1 May 2015  Norway Royal Norwegian Air Force 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [66][67][68]
 Italy Italian Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [66][68]
 United Kingdom  Royal Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [66][67][68][69]
 Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Malbork, Poland [68]
1 September 2015  Hungary Hungarian Air Force Roundel of Hungary.svg 4 x JAS 39C Gripen Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [70][71]
 Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [71]
7 January 2016  Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Ämari, Estonia [72]
 Spain Spanish Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [73]
28 April 2016  United Kingdom United Kingdom Royal Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [74][75]
 Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [74]
31 August 2016  France French Air Force 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [76][77][78]
 Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [76]
5 January 2017  Netherlands Royal Netherlands Air Force 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [79]
 Germany Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [80]
1 May 2017  Poland  Polish Air Force 4 x F-16C Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [81]
 Spain Spanish Air Force 5 x EF-18 Hornet Based in Ämari, Estonia
30 August 2017  United States  United States Air Force 4 x F-15C Eagle Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania
 Belgium Belgium Belgian Air Component 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Ämari, Estonia
10 January 2018  Denmark Royal Danish Air Force 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [82]
 Italy Italy Italian Air Force 4 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Ämari, Estonia [83]
2 May 2018  Portugal Roundel of Portugal.svg Portuguese Air Force 4 x F-16AM Fighting Falcon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [84]
 France French Air Force 4 x Mirage 2000-5F Based in Ämari, Estonia [85]
 Spain Spanish Air Force 6 x Eurofighter Typhoon Based in Šiauliai, Lithuania [86]

Accidents[edit]

  • 30 August 2011 - A French Mirage collided with Lithuanian trainer jet L-39, which dived into a marsh. Both pilots ejected.[87]
  • 29 April 2013 - A Danish F-16 landed in Tallinn after it suffered a bird strike, which caused minor engine damage.[88]
  • 9 October 2015 - A German Eurofighter's right external tank dropped "while taxiing to the start position" on the taxiway in Ämari airbase, Estonia. The necessary torque of the tightening bolts "was not present".[89]
  • 8 August 2018 - A Spanish Eurofighter accidentally launched an AMRAAM missile without a target while on patrol over Estonia. The missile was not confirmed to have self-destructed as designed.[90]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CAOC Finderup 1993-2013 Archived July 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ "L'A.M. assicura lo spazio aereo albanese" (in Italian). Retrieved 20 September 2011. L’Aeronautica Militare assicura già dal 2007, con i propri velivoli, l’"Air Policing" dello spazio aereo sloveno. 
  3. ^ Baltic Region Training Event.
  4. ^ A Mission in the Interest of the Whole Alliance. PISM Bulletin No 88 (421), September 21, 2012
  5. ^ Hungary will join NATO's Air Policing mission in Baltics.
  6. ^ Italy’s Typhoon fighter jets secure airspace of Iceland. 10 June 2013
  7. ^ Benitez, Jorge (22 April 2013). "Russian jets practiced attacks on Sweden". NATO Source. Atlantic Council. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  8. ^ US sends six fighters for NATO Baltics patrols: Lithuania Archived March 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ 6 F-15s, KC-135 to augment NATO mission in Baltics
  10. ^ The United States augment its participation in NATO's air policing mission in the Baltics
  11. ^ "NATO opens an air base in Estonia". estonianworld.com. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  12. ^ NATO's tripled Baltic Air Policing Mission begins by Nicholas de Larrinaga Jane's Defence Weekly 29 April 2014
  13. ^ [ http://aco.nato.int/alliance-solidarity-in-the-baltic-region-continues.aspx Alliance Solidarity in the Baltic Region Continues] Allied Command Operations 26 Aug 2014
  14. ^ a b Gestrin-Hagner, Maria (2015-01-20). "(sv) Försvarsexpert: Flygövning fredstida spel för gallerierna". Hufvudstadsbladet. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  15. ^ NATO Air - policing mission, Lithuanian Armed Forces
  16. ^ Belgium Baltic Air Policing
  17. ^ Air-police functions in the Baltic States to be taken over by Danish personnel
  18. ^ Hansard, 14/12/04
  19. ^ Norwegian Ministry of Defence:Norwegian fighter aircraft on a temporary NATO mission in the baltic
  20. ^ Air policing mission in the Baltic States to be taken over by Dutch troops
  21. ^ Germans takes over Baltic NATO mission
  22. ^ 23rd EFS protects Baltic skies
  23. ^ Zakończenie misji AIR POLICING przez Siły Powietrzne RP. mon.gov.pl
  24. ^ a b Turkish Military Personnel to Take Over Execution of NATO Air Policing Mission Over the Baltic States.
  25. ^ Spain to carry out NATO patrol in Baltic countries
  26. ^ Estonian Review, Volume 17 No 13 Mar28-Apr3, 2007, p.3: French Take over Baltic Air Policing Mission Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Romania Performs Air Police Service In The Baltic Countries.
  28. ^ Portuguese F-16s to defend Baltic skies
  29. ^ A participação dos Jaguares na missão Baltics Air Policing 2007 (Portuguese Air Force 301 Squadron) (in Portuguese)
  30. ^ Oro policijos misiją Baltijos valstybėse iš portugalų perima norvegai (in Lithuanian)
  31. ^ Gazeta.pl: Prezydent podpisał postanowienie o użyciu wojska w dwóch zagranicznych operacjach (in Polish)
  32. ^ U.S. Forces begin air policing mission in Baltics Archived 2008-10-14 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Air Contingent of the Czech Republic took over the NATO Baltic Air-policing mission
  34. ^ a b German Air Force to conduct once more NATO Air Policing over Baltic States
  35. ^ Air Baltic 2010 – France takes over Archived 2012-05-25 at Archive.is
  36. ^ Dalyvauti oro policijos misijoje atvyksta Lenkijos naikintuvai Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. (in Lithuanian)
  37. ^ US Air contingent take over Baltic Air-policing mission
  38. ^ Richthofengeschwader sichert baltischen Luftraum (in German)
  39. ^ Šiauliuose leisis Prancūzijos naikintuvai (in Lithuanian)
  40. ^ NATO oro policijos misiją Baltijos šalyse perims Danijos kariai (in Lithuanian)
  41. ^ Šiauliuose nusileido Vokietijos karinių oro pajėgų naikintuvai (in Lithuanian)
  42. ^ Orlik 4 na posterunku, sp.mil.pl Archived 2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine. (in Polish)
  43. ^ Czech Gripen Baltic Airspace Policing Encore
  44. ^ Baltijos erdvėje patruliuos Danijos karinių oro pajėgų naikintuvai (in Lithuanian)
  45. ^ NATO oro policijos misijoje danus keičia Prancūzijos karinių oro pajėgų kariai (in Lithuanian)
  46. ^ Nicholas Fiorenza (17 June 2013). "Belgium To Take Over Baltic Air Policing". Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  47. ^ Belgian Air Force (2 July 2013). "Baltic Air Policing" (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  48. ^ AIRheads/MB (26 July 2013). "Belgian F-16s take on Baltic Air Policing". Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  49. ^ U.S. air contingent took over NATO’s Baltic Air Policing mission from Belgian troops
  50. ^ US to add six F-15 jet fighters to Nato Baltic patrols, Lithuania says
  51. ^ Lotnicza Polska (in Polish)
  52. ^ UK Sends Typhoon Fighters to Baltic States To Guard Against Russia
  53. ^ "RAF Typhoons Wow Lithuanian Crowds". www.raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  54. ^ Wammen: Danske F-16 klar til Baltic Air Policing (in Danish)
  55. ^ France to send fighter jets to Baltics for NATO Air Policing
  56. ^ a b UPDATE: France sends Rafale fighters to Poland
  57. ^ Canadian fighter jets to help patrol Baltic skies
  58. ^ Ukraine-Krise: Nato verstärkt militärische Präsenz im Osten Europas (in German)
  59. ^ NATO to triple Baltic air patrol from next month
  60. ^ Dutch Ministry of Defence (3 September 2014). "Baltic Air Policing" (in Dutch). Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  61. ^ Italian Typhoons committed to watch for Russian aircraft in Baltics as NATO air policing mission expands
  62. ^ http://www.ilprimatonazionale.it/esteri/ali-italiane-guardia-del-baltico-16127/
  63. ^ NATO airmen report growing Russian activity in Baltic airspace
  64. ^ Rotation of NATO BAP Mission Gets Underway. 22 December 2014.
  65. ^ Nicholas Fiorenza (13 October 2014). "Belgium to deploy F-16 fighter jets to Poland". Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  66. ^ a b c "The Royal Norwegian Air Force will, starting May and through August, guard Baltic air space". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  67. ^ a b Gareth Jennings (22 April 2015). "Norway to deploy F-16s for Baltic air policing". Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  68. ^ a b c d "Norway takes the lead in NATO's Baltic Air Policing mission". Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  69. ^ Admin, News (2015-02-07). "Lossiemouth jets set for deployment to protect Baltic states". inside>Moray News. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  70. ^ NATO’s Baltic Air Policing down to eight aircraft.
  71. ^ a b Gareth Jennings (4 August 2015). "NATO to scale back enhanced Baltic Air Policing Mission". Retrieved 16 August 2015. 
  72. ^ "Belgium to send F-16 fighter jets to protect airspace over Baltics". www.unian.info. Retrieved 2015-12-20. 
  73. ^ "El Ejército del Aire enviará de enero a mayo de 2016 cuatro Eurofighter a la misión". www.defensa.com. Retrieved 2015-12-20. 
  74. ^ a b "UK jets and warship to bolster Baltic security". Ministry of Defence. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  75. ^ "RAF Jets Fly on Baltic Policing Mission". www.raf.mod.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-29. 
  76. ^ a b Allies ready to continue NATO’s Baltic Air Policing
  77. ^ French fighters “Mirage 2000” will land in Šiauliai
  78. ^ En vol à bord d’un Mirage 2000 assurant la protection du ciel des pays Baltes (in French)
  79. ^ After four months of duty the French Air Force detachment will be succeeded by the Royal Netherlands Air Force detachment with four Fighting Falcon F-16 fighter aircraft.
  80. ^ Augmentation of the Air Policing Mission deployed in Amari Air Base (Estonia), a German air contingent with Eurofighter Typhoon fighter jets, will stay for the second consecutive rotation.
  81. ^ Poland new lead nation in NATO Baltic Air Policing.
  82. ^ https://www.nato.int/cps/ua/natohq/news_150489.htm?selectedLocale=en
  83. ^ http://www.aeronautica.difesa.it/comunicazione/notizie/Pagine/20180110_Baltic-Eagle_continua-la-missione-dell-Aeronautica-Militare-italiana-nei-Paesi-Baltici.aspx
  84. ^ https://ac.nato.int/archive/2018/portugal-to-lead--france-and-spain-to-augment-nato-air-policing-in-baltics
  85. ^ https://ac.nato.int/archive/2018/portugal-to-lead--france-and-spain-to-augment-nato-air-policing-in-baltics
  86. ^ https://ac.nato.int/archive/2018/portugal-to-lead--france-and-spain-to-augment-nato-air-policing-in-baltics
  87. ^ Lithuanian L-39 crashes after collision with French Mirage
  88. ^ Danish jets make unscheduled landing after bird collision in Estonian airspace.
  89. ^ [1]
  90. ^ https://news.sky.com/story/spanish-fighter-jet-accidentally-fires-missile-in-estonia-11465025

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 55°53′38″N 23°23′42″E / 55.8939°N 23.3950°E / 55.8939; 23.3950