Ban Borić

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Borić
Ban of Bosnia
Office fl. 1154–1163
Predecessor Ladislaus II of Hungary 1137–1159 as Duke of Bosnia
Successor Ban Kulin 1180–1204 as Ban of Bosnia
Spouse(s) Lavica Vukmirović
Issue
Kulin, Stefan, Pavle, Bogdan, Dragiša, Anastasija, Vera Boričević
Titles and styles
Ban of Bosnia
Noble family Boričević (as progenitor)
Father Berislav
Died 1168.
Slavonia
Buried Slavonia
Occupation Hungarian vassal

Borić[A] (Serbian: Борић, Latin: Boricius, Greek: Βορίτξης; fl. 1154–67) was the first known ruler of medieval Bosnia, at a time when Bosnia became independent and autonomous state. Historians have little information about his life before he became ban, except that he was a subject of Dalmatian King, like all his predecessors. Borić is mentioned for the first time in 1154, during the Byzantine-Hungarian War. As a Hungarian vassal, he took part, alongside a Bohemian detachment, in the attack on Byzantine-held Braničevo.[1][2] Ban Boric was expelled from Bosnia in 1164, after which the authorities in Bosnia took Byzantium.

Historical background[edit]

Bosnia in the 10th century as one of the region was part of the state of Prince Časlav. During his reign, the prince Časlav tried to equalize the position of Serbian tribes, as well as efforts to remove certain areas to separate and become an independent state. Knez Časlav was the best representative of the central state authorities, strong authority and a great statesman, but after his death, some regions have taken advantage of the new situation and declared independence, but the state itself apart into smaller clans independent from each other. In the north of the country of prince Časlav there was a province of Bosnia where they started to create conditions for independence. [3]The first local ruler of Bosnia, yet as a region Časlav state, in book, Geography and histori of Bosnia (Serbian: Земљопис и повијесница Босне), was known under the name of Želimir. After the death of Časlav, Bosnia during the next 200 years, fell under different country until the time of ban Borić when first time became an independent territory.

Origins[edit]

Origin of Ban Borić is not fully established, but it is certainly knows that he is not from Bosnia. He had possessions on both sides of the river Sava, in the Eastern and Western parts of Požega County.[4] In 1162 Borić donated part of his family lands in Slavonia, to the Knights Templar. Andrew II issued a charter which confirmed some possession of the Templars in the Požega Banate (in Slavonia[5]) that had been gifted by "Ban Borić of Bosnia" (banus Boricius de Bosna), with the permission of King Stephen (1163).[6] This informations are of great importance, because they are based on that historians concluded that the family lands of Ban Boric have been located in Slavonia, which clarifies origins of Borić. It was a family lands, evidenced by the fact that for many years after the death of Borića,, his descendants lived in Slavonia, as the heirs of a grate Ban Borić, but ban himselfe after exile from Bosnia, settled in Slavonia, where he died.[7]

Historians have not recorded anything about the origin of Borić, except that his father was the local mayor named Berislav. It is believed that Borić blood relatives where the future rulers of Bosnia, Kotromanić dynasty, because the latter the king of Hungary, a large number of documents confirmed rights over lands in Slavonia to ban Prijezda I. In that same area, the subsequent ban Matej Ninoslav, gave to the Bosnian bishoprics some lands, from the part of his family legacy, with the consent of the Hungarian king. These are precisely the properties on which settled descendants of Ban Borić, however, this is what draws a conclusion about the blood ties between Borić and Prijezda I, and the Kotromanić dynasty.[8]

Rule[edit]

Manuel I Komnenos

Borić had title of the ban, and was the successor of the Ban Tvrtko, abouth whom historians have no information except that he was subordinate to the Dalmatian king. Boric was the first ruler that became independent of Dalmatian kings, and his rule began in 1141 year.[9] As the Hungarian crown's domination over Bosnia grew, Borić became its supporter and was by 1154 made a Hungarian Viceroy of Bosnia and instated with the title of Ban of the newly created Banate of Bosnia.[10][full citation needed] John Kinnamos, Byzantine historian, in his books wrote that the ban Borić was subject to the Hungarian King and that he was paying tribute to him. Borić war helped the Hungarian King, during the war with Manuel I Komnenos. For the time of the battle with the Greeks, Borić proved to be a great military strategist and successfully stopped the military decline of the Greeks. The successful conduct of the army, it was one of the key reasons for the beginning of the reign, and the partial independence of Bosnia. Thirteen years after this battle, Byzantium tzar, again sent troops to the Hungarian king, but did not allow progression over the river Drina, because that therein the territory under the control of Ban Borić. Manuel I Komnenos than atacked Desa, chief of Raška, occupied the Hum land and surrounded Ban Borić, which was successfully launched attenuation Borić power, which resulted in the collapse of government of the ban. According to John Kinnamos, Borić held the country of Bosnia, which was a province (region) in Dalmatia (Serbia[11]), while noting that Bosnia was not dependent on the Serbian Grand Prince, and that he was an ally of the Hungarian king in the war with Byzantine Emperor Manuel.[12]

Borić was the first ruler, who was trying to secede from Bosnia excessive influence of Hungary and the Byzantine Empire, and because of that reasons, during his government conducted a large number of wars. In his attempts he failed, his rule was interrupted by force, a country occupied by the Byzantine Empire. As the Byzantine candidate, the authorities in Bosnia has taken by Kulin son of Borić, one of the most important rulers of Bosnia.

Battles[edit]

Ban Borić during his reign, he had a large number of battles and wars, primarily aiming at the highest possible independence of Bosnia. Bosnian Bishop Milovan was under the authority of the archbishop of Split, but after the request of the Metropolitan of Dubrovnik, the Pope decided to Milovan fall under its jurisdiction. The church organization is not liable gor Bishop or for ban, and than ban Borić with the help of the Hungarian king, sent an army to Dubrovnik, forcing the Metropolitan to withdraw his application. Dubrovnik with the help of Perast and Kotor, ready to welcome this war, and the army under the command of Miho Bobalić successfully defended themselves. One of the commanders of the army of ban Borić was also Tomaš Vukmirovic, whose daughter was the wife of Borić. Tomaš was killed in this war. Through the efforts of Trebinje Bishop, Borić with Dubrovnik, and after military defeats made peace under certain conditions; Milovan Bosnian bishop, he remained under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Dubrovnik, and ban has pledged to pay war damages, as well as the appropriate gift to send to know peace with Dubrovnik.

Ban was in constant conflict with Byzantium and led a large number of battles against Manuel I Comnenos. Borić during the war with Dubrovnik had sent part of the army to the city of Biograd, which was under the direct authority of Komnin.[13] Neither this military campaign did not go well for ban, because the Greeks at first defended the attack and launched a counter-attack on Bosnia, but the ban Borić was forced to make peace with Dubrovnik, and later with Byzantium provided to terminate friendship and alliance with Hungary king. By concluding peace with Dubrovnik, ban to the Benedictine Order gave the church of St. Pankratije on the island of Mljet in the settlement of Babino Polje.

Ban Boric is mentioned in the books of John Kinnamos, which describes the battle between Byzantium and Hungary of 1154. After the siege of Braničevo by Hungary and their allies and prepared attack on Belgrade, the emperor Manuel I Comnenos, having learned that the Borić was on the side of the Hungarians, sent an army, which was supposed to intercept Borića, but the army by mistake instead of ban Borić theyattacked Hungarian army and suffered defeat.[14]

Borić was included in the subsequent struggle for succession to the throne of Hungary. The winner of this conflict, Stefan IV thanked Ban for help, and gave him lands in Slavonia in 1163, which ban family possessions increased. These lands occupied Byzantine army during the battles from 1166 to 1167. When Emperor Manuel I Comnenos took Dalmatia, parts of Slavonia, Syrmia and Bosnia, army did not have enough power to continue the war started, and than in 1167 peace was concluded, by which the long-time conflicts between Hungary and Byzantium paused. In 1167, Borić provided troops to the Hungarian Army in the battle of Zemun against the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines were victorious, and Bosnia became a Byzantine territory.[15] By concluding peace Srem was divided, so as to remain only on Hungarian territory north of the river Sava, a Byzantium took the southern part. In the Middle Ages Srem included a teritrori south of the Sava river, and teritrory of today Mačva. Temporary upcoming under Byzantine rule in Bosnia happened major political changes.[1] Good relations with the Hungarians, lasted for a short period and terminate with the coming to power son of Geiza. Unhappy with the situation in Bosnia, the new king of Hungary sent the German Prince Gottfried at Ban Borić. This is violently interrupted rule of ban Borić.[16]

Ban Borić helped Stefan Nemanja, during the conquest of power in Serbia and wars with Byzantium. In addition to various difficulties and subsequent hostilities Borić with Hungary, he managed to keep his land north of the river Sava in Slavonia.

Family and legacy[edit]

Great Prince Miroslav, brother of Stefan Nemanja married Vera, the daughter of ban Borić. These family ties between the two noble houses strengthened the already strong friendly relations and enabled fight to strengthen Bosnia as a ruler[clarification needed] and his position as a hereditary transfer of ban on his son Kulin.[clarification needed] The woman of Ban Borić was Lavica, daughter of Grand Duke and ruler of Zahumlje, Tomaš Vukmirović, with whom he had several children, of whom the most famous is Kulin. Boric died in 1168, after 27 years in power. After death, the descendants of Ban Boric continue to live in Slavonia, as evidenced by the large number of orders, which hires Ban Boric discussed for many years.[7]

Borić's descendants are sometimes referred to as the Boričević. He had sons named Borić and Pavao, and his grandsons were called Odola, Čelk and Borić.[17] The extended family also included Detmar and Benedikt (also called Borić).[17]

Simeon Bogdanović–Siniša claimed that Ana, the wife of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, was the daughter of Borić, however, he thought that Borić and Boris Kalamanos were the same person (when in fact, Boris died in 1154, and Borić was alive in 1163), thus Ana would have been the daughter of Boris.[18]

Borić is believed to have been a predecessor to the noble house of Berislavići Grabarski.[19]

Titles[edit]

  • In Latin, his title was "Ban of Bosnia" (banus Boricius de Bosna), according to a 1163 charter.
  • In Greek, his title was "Exarch of the country of Bosnia" (Βορίτξης ὁ Βόσθνης χώρας ἔξάρχων), according to John Kinnamos (1176)[20][21]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ Name: Also spelled Borich, and scarcely as Latin: Borizes. His name in Serbian Cyrillic: Бан Борић.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dinić 1978.
  2. ^ Slipičević 1950.
  3. ^ Stanojević 1926, p. 56.
  4. ^ Karbić 2005, p. 48–61.
  5. ^ Judith Mary Upton-Ward; H.J.A. Sire. "24. The Priory of Vrana". The Military Orders: On Land and by Sea. p. 221. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  6. ^ Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Bosni i Hercegovini. Zemaljska štamparija. 1903. p. 367. издае крал, Андриа II. повел>у, корм noTBphyje темпларима у пожешко бановини неки послед, што им га ôjeiue даровао некоЬ "banus Boricius de Bosna" дозво.ъеаем крал>а Степапа (дакле год. 1163). Ову даровницу потврдио je ... 
  7. ^ a b Ćorović 1940, p. 52.
  8. ^ Čorović 1940, p. 52.
  9. ^ Bošnjak 1851, p. 87.
  10. ^ Joannes Cinnamus. Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus. Columbia University Press. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-0-231-52155-0. 
  11. ^ Eupsychia: mélanges offerts à Hélène Ahrweiler. Publications de la Sorbonne. 1998. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-2-85944-344-3. Serbie ... Boric, le ban de Bosnie 
  12. ^ Glasnik Srpskoga učenog društva ... 48. 1881. p. 36. а за другог Борића — Воpur: каже, да је био кнез у покрајини далматској или српској (јер Кинам зове на више места Србе Далматима "Servi Dalmatie gens" p. 12. cf. 101, 102,104) но да није зависио, као што исти Кинам на стр. 104 примећује, од српског великог жупана, — и да је био савезник угарског краља у рату c грчким царем Манојлом. 
  13. ^ Bošnjak 1851, p. 88.
  14. ^ Ćorović 1940, p. 48.
  15. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780472082605. 
  16. ^ Bošnjak 1851, p. 89.
  17. ^ a b Karbić, Marija (2005). "Posjedi plemićkog roda Borića bana do sredine XIV. stoljeća" [Landed estates of the noble lineage of Borić Ban until the middle of the 14th century]. Scrinia Slavonica (in Croatian). Croatian Historical Institute - Department of History of Slavonia, Srijem and Baranja (5): 48–61. 
  18. ^ Milenko M. Vukićević; Stevo Ćosović (2005). Znamenite žene i vladarke srpske. Svet knjige. Међутим, један од познијих писаца (Синиша у Летопису Матице српске, књ. 151) вели, такође, да је Ана била кћи босанскога бана Борића. Али ту узима да су бан Борић и Борис, син Коломана I, краља угарског, једно лице, те би по томе Ана била кћи Бориса Коломановића, а унука кра- ља утарског Коломана I. Али се јасно зна да је Борис Коломановић погинуо 1154. године у борби с Кумани- ма, а бан Борић помиње се још у животу 1 163. године. 
  19. ^ Karbić, Marija (2006). "Hrvatsko plemstvo u borbi protiv Osmanlija, primjer obitelji Berislavića Grabarskih iz Slavonije" [Croatia's nobility in fight against the Ottomans, an example of the Berislavić Grabarski family from Slavonia]. Historical Contributions (in Croatian). Croatian Institute of History. 31: 72. 
  20. ^ Barthold Georg Niebuhr (1836). Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae. impensis E. Weberi. pp. 343–. 
  21. ^ Gyula Moravcsik (1984). Az Árpád-kori magyar történet bizánci forrásai. Akadémiai Kiad. Βορίτζης ό Βόσθνης χώρας έξάρχων 

Further reading[edit]

  • Dinić, Mihailo (1978). "Srpske zemlje u srednjem vijeku:istorijsko-geografske studije (Serbian country in the Middle Ages: the historical and geographical studies)". 
  • Slipičević, Fuad (1950). "Istorija stari i sredni vijek; priručnik za i razred srednih stručnih škola. (History of Old and Middle Ages; Manual and grade of secondary schools.)". 
  • Karbić, Marija (2005). "Posjedi plemićkog roda Borića bana do sredine XIV. stoljeća (Landed estates of the noble lineage of Borić Ban until the middle of the 14th century)". 
  • Stanojević, Stanoje (1926). "Istorija srpskog naroda (Serbian history)". 
  • Ćorović, Vladimir (1940). "Ban Borić i njegovi potomci (Ban Borić and his descendants)". 
  • Bošnjak, Slavoljub (1851). "Zemqopis i povjesnica Bosne (Geography and histori of Bosnia)". 
  • Živković, Tibor (2008). "Бан Борић". Зборник за историју Босне и Херцеговине, бр. 5, стр. 49-60. 
  • Nedeljković, B. M. (1960). "Postojbina prvog bosanskog bana Boriča". (9-10): 55–69. 

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
New title Ban of Bosnia
fl. 1154–1163
Vacant
Byzantine rule
Title next held by
Kulin