|In San Luis Obispo, California, USA|
Columba fasciata (Say, 1823)
The band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) is a medium-sized bird of the Americas. Its closest relatives are the Chilean pigeon, passenger pigeon and the ring-tailed pigeon, which form a clade of Patagioenas with a terminal tail band and iridescent plumage on their necks. Some authorities split this species into the northern band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) and the southern band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas albilinea).
It ranges from British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and southern Arizona south in higher elevations through Mexico and Central America to northern Argentina. In autumn it migrates out of its permanent resident range into northern California, New Mexico, and parts of Utah and Colorado. Populations from Costa Rica south are sometimes considered a separate species, the white-naped pigeon (P. albilinea). It is found at altitudes from 900 to 3,600 m (3,000 to 12,000 ft), generally in oak, pine-oak, and coniferous forests. It feeds on seeds, notably acorns.
It is the biggest pigeon in North America, measuring 33 to 40 cm (13 to 16 in) long and weighing 225–515 g (7.9–18.2 oz). The coastal subspecies P. f. monilis (averaging 392 g (13.8 oz)) is larger than the inland subspecies (averaging 340 g (12 oz)). The plumage is gray, somewhat darker above. The head and underparts have a faint pink cast, especially in the adult male; the belly is nearly white. The distal half of the tail is also pale (except in the subspecies of Baja California), whence the English name. The bill and feet are yellow, good identification marks at sufficiently close range. Adults have green iridescence on the back of the neck, adjacent to a thin white collar on the nape. Juvenile birds have white feather edges above, giving a scaly appearance.
Behavior and ecology
It builds a rudimentary platform nest out of twigs, in which it lays one or two eggs. Outside the breeding season it forms flocks, sometimes over 50 birds, and often becomes nomadic, following the acorn crop or moving to lower altitudes or other areas outside its breeding range. Toyon berries are a food consumed by the band-tailed pigeon. This species often visits bird feeders.
The parasitic louse Columbicola extinctus, believed to have become extinct with the extinction of the passenger pigeon, was recently rediscovered on the band-tailed pigeon. The band-tailed pigeon is the closest genetic relative of the passenger pigeon and has been investigated for being used in efforts to bring back that extinct species.
- BirdLife International (2014). "Patagioenas fasciata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Knopf. p. 260. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
- Johnson, Kevin P.; de Kort, Selvino; Dinwoodey, Karen; Mateman, A.C.; ten Cate, Carel; Lessells, C.M.; Clayton, Dale H. (2001). "A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba" (PDF). Auk 118 (4): 874–887.
- "Species factsheet: Patagioenas fasciata". BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Species factsheet: Patagioenas albilinea". BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Not to be confused with the African species Columba albinucha.
- Dunning Jr., John B., ed. (1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
- "Band-tailed Pigeon". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
- Mahler, Bettina; Tubaro, Pablo L. (2001). "Relationship between song characters and morphology in New World pigeons". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74 (4): 533–539. doi:10.1006/bijl.2001.0596.
- Hogan, C. Michael (2008). last=Stromberg, N., ed. "Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia)". GlobalTwitcher.
- Rich, Nathaniel (27 February 2014). "The Mammoth Cometh". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- Howell, Steven N.G.; Webb, Sophie (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854012-4.
- Jiménez, Mariano II; Jiménez, Mariano G. (2002–2003). "Paloma Encinera". Zoológico Electrónico (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 15 December 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Aguilar, Héctor F. (2000). "La paloma torcaza o gargantilla Columba (fasciata)) fasciata Say 1823 (Aves:Columbidae) algunas notas sobre su historia natural en venezuela" [The Band-Tailed Pigeon Columba (fasciata)) fasciata Say 1823 (Aves:Columbidae) Some Notes About His Natural History in Venezuela] (PDF). Revista de Ecología Latinoamericana (in Spanish) 7 (3): 29–44.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Patagioenas fasciata.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Patagioenas fasciata|
- BirdLife species factsheet for Patagioenas fasciata
- Patagioenas fasciata on Avibase
- Band-tailed pigeon videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Band-tailed pigeon photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
- Interactive range map of Patagioenas fasciata at IUCN Red List maps
- Audio recordings of Band-tailed pigeon on Xeno-canto.