Bandhani

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Bandhani sarees


Bandhani is a type of tie-dye textile decorated primarily by plucking the cloth with the fingernails into many tiny bindings that form a figurative design. The term bandhani is derived from the Sanskrit word banda ("to tie").[1] [2] Today most Bandhini making centers are situatied in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Sindh, Punjab region[3] and in Tamil Nadu where it's known as Sungudi.[4] [5] Earliest evidence of Bandhani dates back to Indus Valley Civilization where dyeing was done as early as 4000 B.C. The earliest example of the most pervasive type of Bandhani dots can be seen in the 6th century paintings depicting the life of Buddha found on the wall of Cave 1 at Ajanta. [6] Bandhani is also known as Bandhej, Bandhni, Piliya, and Chungidi in Tamil as per the regional delicate. Leheria or leheriya derives from the word lahar, meaning wave is also another unique form of tie dye technique used in Rajasthan. Other tying techniques include Mothra, Ekdali and Shikari depending on the manner in which the cloth is tied. The final products are known with various names like Khombi, Ghar Chola, Patori and also Chandrokhani etc.


Overview[edit]

The art of Bandhani is a highly skilled process. The technique involves dyeing a fabric which is tied tightly with a thread at several points, thus producing a variety of patterns like Chandrakala, Bavan Baug, Shikari etcetera; depending on the manner in which the cloth is tied. The main colours used in Bandhani are yellow, red, blue, green and black.

The main colours used in Bandhani are natural. As Bandhani is a tie and dye process, dying is done by hand and hence best colours and combinations are possible in Bandhanis.

The Bandhani work has been exclusively carried out by the Khatri community of Kutchh and Saurashtra. A meter length of cloth can have thousands of tiny knots known as 'Bheendi' in the local language ('Gujarati'). These knots form a design once opened after dyeing in bright colours. Traditionally, the final products can be classified into 'khombhi', 'Ghar Chola', 'Chandrakhani', 'Shikari', 'Chowkidaar', 'Ambadaal' etc.

Ahmedabad in India is known for Bandhanis. Bandhani work is also done in Rajasthan state but having different types of colours and designs than the Kutch and Saurashtra of Gujarat. In Bandhani, different colours convey different meanings. People believe that wearing Red brings good luck to a newly wed's life.

History[edit]

Earliest evidence of Bandhani dates back to Indus Valley Civilization suggest that dyeing was done as early as 4000 B.C. The earliest example of the most pervasive type of Bandhani dots can be seen in the 6th century paintings depicting the life of Buddha found on the wall of Cave I at Ajanta.[7] This art finds its mentions in the Alexander the great time texts about the beautiful printed cottons of India. As per evidences in Historical Texts, the first Bandhani saree was worn at the time of Bana Bhatt`s Harshacharita in a royal marriage. It was believed that wearing a Bandhani saree can bring good future to a bride. Ajanta walls stand for the evidences of these Bandhani sarees. The dyers have experimented with the use of different elements both natural and man made for ages. Also there are experiments with different binding/tying techniques to create patterns on cloth immersed in containters of dye. Different types of tie and dyes have been practiced in India, Japan, and Africa for centuries. Tie-dye became fully developed in China during the T`ang dynasty (618-906 A.D.) and in Japan during the Nara period (552-794 A.D.).

Bandhani work in India was started by the Khatri Community of Gujarat The term `Bandhani` is derived from the word `Bandhan` that means tying up. It is an ancient art practise that is mainly used in the state of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Some 5000 years ago Indian Tie & Dye or Bandhani was started. Places in Rajasthan like Jaipur, Sikar, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Bikaner, Ajmer, and Jamnagar in Gurjarat are the well known centres producing odhnis, sarees and turbans in Bandhani. Different communities in Rajasthan have for ages followed the tradition on tying turbans with different patterns of bandhani on their heads. These were used to identify which community the person belonged to.

Market[edit]

Bandhani is being sold all over India and the demand has increased over the past few decades. Sales go up during the festive and wedding seasons in India. The bulk of the market is domestic with the main market being in Gujarat. As per survey, the most exclusive Bandhanis are being sold at well-known retailers like and Khatri Jamnadas Bechardas in Mumbai,Khatri Mangalya Heritage Bandhani in Ahmedabad and Sutaria Sons in Jamnagar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wada, Yoshiko Iwamoto (2002). Memory on Cloth: Shibori Now. Kodansha International. p. 28. ISBN 9784770027771. 
  2. ^ Gujarat State Gazetteers: Junagadh (1971)[1]
  3. ^ Feliccia Yacopino (1977) Threadlines Pakistan [2]
  4. ^ Nasreen Askari, Liz Arthur, Paisley Museum and Art Galleries Merrell Holberton, (1999) Uncut cloth [3]
  5. ^ Wada, Yoshiko Iwamoto (2002). Memory on Cloth: Shibori Now. Kodansha International. p. 28. ISBN 9784770027771. 
  6. ^ Wada, Yoshiko Iwamoto (2002). Memory on Cloth: Shibori Now. Kodansha International. p. 28. ISBN 9784770027771. 
  7. ^ Wada, Yoshiko Iwamoto (2002). Memory on Cloth: Shibori Now. Kodansha International. p. 28. ISBN 9784770027771.