Bandhua Mukti Morcha

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Bandhua Mukti Morcha (BMM) (Hindi: बंधुआ मुक्ति मोर्चा, Urdu: بندھوا مکتی مورچا‎) or Bonded Labour Liberation Front (BLLF) is a non-governmental organisation in India working to end bonded labour. Based in New Delhi, it was founded in 1981 by Swami Agnivesh who continues as its chairman.

Bonded labour was legally abolished in India in 1976 but remains prevalent, with weak enforcement of the law by state governments. Estimates of the problem vary. Official figures include a 1993 estimate of 251,000 bonded labourers[1] while BMM says there are 20 - 65 million bonded labourers. A 2003 project by Human Rights Watch has reported a major problem with bonded child labour in the silk industry.[2]


BMM's efforts are credited with the passing of legislation to abolish child labour in India (the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986. This followed a 1984 Supreme Court decision in a case brought by BMM.[3] Other cases on bonded labour brought to the Supreme Court by BMM have also extended the interpretation of the Constitution in areas of human rights.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "".
  2. ^ "Small Change".
  3. ^ "Center for International Development - Harvard Kennedy School" (PDF).
  4. ^ S. Muralidhar (2002). "Implementation of Court Orders in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: An Overview of the Experience" (PDF) (Working paper). First South Asian Regional Judicial Colloquium on Access to Justice. New Delhi, India: IELRC.

External links[edit]