Bandon, County Cork

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Bandon
Droichead na Bandan
Town
Oliver Plunkett Street
Oliver Plunkett Street
Motto(s): Auxilio Dei Parva Crescunt  (Latin)
"With the help of God small things grow" [1]
Bandon is located in Ireland
Bandon
Bandon
Location in Ireland
Coordinates: 51°44′46″N 8°44′06″W / 51.746°N 8.735°W / 51.746; -8.735Coordinates: 51°44′46″N 8°44′06″W / 51.746°N 8.735°W / 51.746; -8.735
CountryIreland
ProvinceMunster
CountyCork
Area
 • Urban4.1 km2 (1.6 sq mi)
Elevation30 m (100 ft)
Population (2016)[2]
 • Town6,957
 • Density1,694.3/km2 (4,388/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-1 (IST (WEST))
Irish Grid ReferenceW488551
Websitewww.bandon.ie

Bandon (/ˈbæn.dən/; Irish: Droichead na Bandan) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. It lies on the River Bandon between two hills. The name in Irish means Bridge of the Bandon, a reference to the origin of the town as a crossing-point on the river. In 2004 Bandon celebrated its quatercentenary. The town, sometimes called the Gateway to West Cork, had a population of 6,957 at the 2016 census.[8] Bandon is in the Cork South-West (Dáil Éireann) constituency, which has three seats.

History[edit]

In September 1588, at the start of the Plantation of Munster, Phane Beecher of London acquired, as Undertaker, the seignory of Castlemahon. It was in this seignory that the town of Bandon was formed in 1604 by Phane Beecher's son and heir Henry Beecher, together with other English settlers John Shipward, William Newce and John Archdeacon. The original settlers in Beecher's seignory came from various locations in England. Originally the town proper was inhabited solely by Protestants, as a by-law had been passed stating "That no Roman Catholic be permitted to reside in the town".[9] A protective wall extended for about a mile around the town. Written on the gates of Bandon at this time was a warning "Entrance to Jew, Turk or Atheist; any man except a Papist".[10] A response was scrawled under the sign noting: "The man who wrote this wrote it well, for the same thing is writ on the gates of hell." [11]

Buildings sprang up on both sides of the river and over time a series of bridges linked both settlements. Like other towns in Cork it benefitted greatly from the patronage of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, although he was not, as he liked to claim, its "founder". In 1689 it was the scene of a clash between Jacobite and Williamite forces during the War of the Two Kings. After an uprising by Protestant inhabitants who expelled the Irish Army garrison, a larger force under Justin MacCarthy arrived and retook the town.

Sir John Moore, who was later leader of the British Army and was killed at the Battle of Corunna in Spain in 1809, was governor of the town in 1798.

In the 19th century, the town grew as a leading industrial centre which included brewing, tanning, distilling, corn and cotton milling.[12] The now closed Allman's Distillery produced at one point over 600,000 gallons of whiskey annually.[13] The industrial revolution in the 1800s and the advent of the railways had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural ecosystem of the area. Local weaving operations could not compete with mass-produced cheap imports.

Main Street, Bandon, c.1900

Major General Arthur Ernest Percival was commander of the British garrison in Bandon in 1920–21 during the Irish War of Independence. He was subsequently the commanding officer of the British troops who surrendered Singapore to the Japanese forces in 1941. In 1945 he was invited by Douglas MacArthur to witness the surrender of Japanese forces in Tokyo in 1945 which ended the Second World War. Irish army leader Michael Collins was killed in an ambush at Béal na Bláth, about 9.6 km (6.0 mi) outside Bandon.

Between 1911 and 1926, the non-Catholic population of Bandon dropped from 688 (22% of the population) to 375 (13% of the population), a decline of 45.5%.[14][15] Peter Hart argued in The IRA and its Enemies (1998) that during the Irish War of Independence, Bandon's Protestant population, which was largely unionist, suffered from Irish Republican Army (IRA) reprisals. In particular, ten Protestant men were shot over 27–29 April 1922 (two months before the start of the Civil War), "because they were Protestant."

Niall Meehan argued, however (2008,[16] 2014[17]), that Hart was mistaken. The killings were not "motivated by either land agitation or by sectarian considerations." In Peter Hart, the Issue of Sources, Brian Murphy noted a British intelligence assessment, A Record of the Rebellion in Ireland in 1920–1921, that Hart cited selectively.[18][19] Hart wrote, "the truth was that, as British intelligence officers recognised, "in the south the Protestants and those who supported the Government rarely gave much information because, except by chance, they had not got it to give.””.[20] Murphy observed, "Hart does not give the next two sentences from the official Record which read":

an exception to this rule was in the Bandon area where there were many Protestant farmers who gave information. Although the Intelligence Officer of the area was exceptionally experienced and although the troops were most active it proved almost impossible to protect those brave men, many of whom were murdered while almost all the remainder suffered grave material loss.

Murphy therefore concluded in a 1998 review of Hart's research, "the IRA killings in the Bandon area were motivated by political and not sectarian considerations". He amended this in 2005 to "Possibly, military considerations, rather than political, would have been a more fitting way to describe the reason for the IRA response to those who informed." [21]<cite web| url = https://www.academia.edu/166387/ | title = Meehan, Murphy, 2008, p48}}</ref> In 2013 Bandon Mayor Gillian Coughlan described a song about these historical events by Professor David Fitzpatrick of TCD as "insulting to the memory of people who fought and to people who died".[22]

Castle Bernard, the seat of Lord Bandon, was also burned in the Irish War of Independence.

Festivals[edit]

Local festivals include the Bandon Summer Fest - a family festival run by volunteers over the August Bank Holiday weekend. The Bandon Music Festival takes place every June Bank Holiday weekend, and has included acts like Mick Flannery, Mundy, The Flaws, Jack L, Fred and The Delerentos.[citation needed] The Bandon Walled Town Festival runs every year on the last weekend of August, and celebrates the heritage of the town with cultural and family entertainment.[citation needed]

Twin city[edit]

Bandon has a twin city agreement with Bandon, Oregon in the United States. That city was founded in 1873 by Lord George Bennet, a native of the Irish Bandon who named the American one after it, and who is known especially for having introduced gorse into the US ecology with some disastrous results.

Transport[edit]

Bandon is 27 km southwest of Cork City, on the N71 national secondary road, and served by Bus Éireann bus services from Cork City. The nearest airport is Cork Airport.

Sports and community groups[edit]

Sports clubs in the area include Bandon Rugby Football Club (inaugural winners of the 1886 Munster Senior Rugby Cup), Bandon Association Football Club (whose men's senior team play in the Munster Senior League Senior Premier Division),[23] and Bandon GAA (affiliated to the Carbery GAA division of Cork GAA).

Bandon Golf Club is an 18-hole golf course on the grounds of CastleBernard. Bandon Tennis Club (which has three courts at the golf club) operates a childrens' section with members on the Junior Irish Tennis Squad.[citation needed] There are a number of martial arts clubs in the town, including the Bandon Shotokan Karate Club at the Town Hall, Warrior Martial Arts Bandon (taekwondo) at Scoil Phádraig Naofa, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu at Studio Galera, and Muay Thai at Brucie's Gym.[citation needed]

A monthly community magazine, "The Opinion", is published locally.[24]

Education[edit]

There are four secondary schools in Bandon. One of these, Bandon Grammar School, is a fee paying Church of Ireland-ethos boarding school. The other schools include Hamilton High School, St. Brogan's, and Coláiste na Toirbhirte (formerly known as Presentation Sisters College).[25] Bandon Grammar School and St. Brogan's are both mixed schools, Hamilton High School is a boys only Catholic school,[26] and Coláiste na Toirbhirte is a girls only school.[27]

People[edit]

People from or associated with Bandon include :

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bandon". www.bandon.ie. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Census 2016 - Small Area Population Statistics (SAPMAP Area) - Settlements - Bandon". Census 2016. Central Statistics Office.
  3. ^ "Server Error 404 - CSO - Central Statistics Office". www.cso.ie. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Histpop.org". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016.
  5. ^ "NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (c) 2013". Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. 2010-09-27. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  6. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "Pre-famine". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
  7. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850". The Economic History Review. Volume. 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
  8. ^ "Population Density and Area Size 2016". Central Statistics Office (Ireland). Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  9. ^ Tom Barry: IRA Freedom Fighter by Meda Ryan (ISBN 1-85635-480-6), page 25
  10. ^ "Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle". Volume 24. 1816. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
  11. ^ Moczar, Diane (2013). The Church Under Attack: Five Hundred Years That Split the Church and Scattered the Flock. Manchester, New Hampshire: Sophia Institute Press. ISBN 9781933184937.
  12. ^ "Map of Historic Bandon with brief history" (PDF). Cork County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  13. ^ "An Amazing Past". Bandon.ie. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
  14. ^ "Server Error 404 - CSO - Central Statistics Office" (PDF). www.cso.ie. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  15. ^ info@histpop.org. "HISTPOP.ORG - Search > Results > Census > General report, Ireland, 1911 Page Page 222". www.histpop.org. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  16. ^ Brian P Murphy osb and Niall Meehan, Troubles in Irish History: A 10th anniversary critique of The IRA and its Enemies, Aubane Historical Society (2008)
  17. ^ Niall Meehan, Examining Peter Hart, Field Day Review 10 2014)
  18. ^ A Record of the Rebellion in Ireland in 1920–1921, Jeudwine Papers, 72/8212, Imperial War Museum.
  19. ^ Brian P Murphy osb and Niall Meehan, Troubles in Irish History: A 10th anniversary critique of The IRA and its Enemies, Aubane Historical Society (2008), ISBN 978-1-903497-46-3 p.47
  20. ^ Hart, pp.305, 306
  21. ^ "Irish Political Review". Irish Political Review. 20 (7): 10–11. July 2005. ISSN 0790-7672.
  22. ^ Lecturer Ballad insults victims of Dunmanway, Justine McCarthy, Sunday Times, 17 February 2013.
  23. ^ "Bandon AFC". Bandonafc.ie. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  24. ^ "The Opinion | opinion magazine". Bandonopinion.com. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  25. ^ "Coláiste na Toirbhirte – Presentation College, Bandon, Co. Cork". presbandon.ie. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  26. ^ "Hamilton High School – Ardscoil Uí Urmoltaigh". Hamiltonhighschool.ie. 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  27. ^ "Bandon Parish". Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  28. ^ "The life and loves of a boy from Bandon". Independent.ie. 27 October 2014.
  29. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Brady, Nicholas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 375.
  30. ^ "Bandon Museum - George Bennett". Bandonhistoricalmuseum.org. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  31. ^ Costello, Kevin (2011). The Irish Court of Admiralty 1575-1839. Four Courts Press. p. 15.
  32. ^ Bennett, George (1862). The History of Bandon. Henry and Coghlan. p. 202.
  33. ^ "Margaret Wolfe Hungerford". The Irish Story. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  34. ^ "Bandon, County Cork". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016.
  35. ^  Lee, Sidney, ed. (1912). "O'Sullivan, Cornelius". Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  36. ^ Prest, Jean (1967). "'Kingston, Sir George Strickland (1807–1880)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 2. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  37. ^  "Cox, Richard (1650-1733)". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  38. ^ "Minister for Finance". General Michael Collins. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  39. ^  Holyoake, George Jacob (1892). "Jones, Lloyd". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 30. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  40. ^ Russell, Victor Loring; Fraser, Robert Lochiel; Cross, Michael S. (1985). "Sullivan, Robert Baldwin". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VIII (1851–1860) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  41. ^ Juno McEnroe (5 June 2018). "Renewed calls for MEP Brian Crowley to resign or clarify position". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  42. ^ "Corkman Conor Hourihane happy to be hitting his peak". Irish Examiner. 6 September 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.

External links[edit]