Bandy X. Lee
Bandy X. Lee
|Born||1970 (age 48–49)|
|Education||Yale University School of Medicine, Yale Divinity School|
|Institutions||Yale School of Medicine|
|Notable works||Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures|
Bandy Xenobia Lee (born 1970) is an American psychiatrist with Yale University and a specialist in violence prevention programs in prisons and in the community who initiated reforms at New York's Rikers Island prison. Her scholarly work includes the writing of a comprehensive textbook on violence. In 2017 she organized a conference on the mental health of Donald Trump at Yale and was the editor of The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, a book of essays that has contributed to the debate about Trump's mental stability and within the psychiatric profession in the United States about the interpretation of the Goldwater rule.
Early life and education
Bandy Lee was born in 1970 and raised in the Bronx, New York. She is of Korean descent. Her mother was Inmyung Lee and her grandfather was Geun-Young Lee, a South Korean physician who she says inspired her with a belief that practicing medicine also involves social responsibility. As a teenager she volunteered in Harlem as a tutor for homeless African-American children.
Lee interned at the Bellevue Hospital Center in New York and was chief resident at the Massachusetts General Hospital. She received her MD from Yale University School of Medicine in 1994 and her MDiv from Yale Divinity School in 1995. She then studied the anthropology of violence in East Africa as a fellow of the National Institute of Mental Health and has co-authored academic papers on Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania, and Rwanda. She is a specialist in violence prevention programmes in prisons and in the community and worked for several years in maximum security prisons in the United States when she was instrumental in initiating reforms at New York's Rikers Island jail complex. Since then, she consulted with five different U.S. states on prison reform. She was director of research for the Center for the Study of Violence and with Kaveh Khoshnood founded Yale University's Violence and Health Study Group. She heads a project group of the Violence Prevention Alliance for the World Health Organization and wrote the textbook, Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures.
Views on Donald Trump
In April 2017 Lee hosted a meeting at Yale University medical school to discuss the mental health of President Donald Trump. In an interview with Salon in May 2017 she argued that the subject of the President's mental health amounted to a "state of emergency" as "our survival as a species may be at stake." She also discussed her political views, linking what she sees as increasing inequality in the United States to a deterioration in collective mental health. Later in 2017 she was the editor of The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump, a book of essays that examined Trump's mental health and resulted in her receiving thousands of threatening messages by letter, phone and on social media that included death threats.
In December 2017 she met 12 members of the United States Congress (11 Democrats, 1 Republican) to give them her opinion on the mental health of Donald Trump in which she reportedly argued that he was "unraveling".
Lee's book and her presentation to members of Congress has contributed to the debate about whether the Goldwater rule, the informal name given to the rule of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that it is unethical for psychiatrists to give a professional opinion about public figures they have not examined, still holds and its precise interpretation. In a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine, Jeffrey Lieberman, past president of the APA, argued that while he accepted that Lee and her co-authors were acting in good faith and out of a sense of moral obligation, they were guilty of a "misguided and dangerous morality". Lieberman himself, however, was later reported to have speculated on diagnosing Trump, the very act he accused Lee and colleagues of committing.
According to the APA Code of Ethics (Section 7.1), coming before the Goldwater rule, "Psychiatrists are encouraged to serve society by advising and consulting with the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the government." Lee and colleagues maintain that it is especially important to abide by professional norms and standards during politically charged times, and that it is dangerous to turn reasonable ethical guidelines such as the Goldwater rule into a gag rule.
- "Detecting depressive disorder with a 19-item local instrument in Tanzania." International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol. 54 (2008), pp. 21–33. (With S.F. Kaaya, J.K. Mbwambo, M.C. Smith-Fawzi, & M.T. Leshabari)
- "Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d’Ivoire." Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 146 (2015), pp. 341–347. (With M. Blay-Tofey)
- "A reflection on the madness in prisons", Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol. 26 (2015), pp. 253–268. (With M. Prabhu)
- "Health system re-design following sexual violence during the genocide in Rwanda." International Journal of Public Health, Vol. 61 (2016), pp. 959–960. (With G. Uwizeye & T. Kroll)
- "Transforming our world: Implementing the 2030 agenda through sustainable development goal indicators." Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 37 (2016), pp. 13–31. (With F. Kjaerulf, S. Turner, L. Cohen, P.D. Donnelly, R. Muggah, R. Davis et al.)
- The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President. Thomas Dunne Books, 2017. (Editor) ISBN 978-1250179456
- Violent States and Creative States: From the Global to the Individual. Vol. 1: Structural Violence and Creative Structures. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018. (With J. Adlam & T. Kluttig) ISBN 978-1785925641
- Violent States and Creative States: From the Global to the Individual. Vol. 2: Human Violence and Creative Humanity. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2018. (With J. Adlam & T. Kluttig) ISBN 978-1785925658
- Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures. Wiley-Blackwell, 2019. ISBN 978-1119240693
- The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 37 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President. Thomas Dunne Books, 2019. (Editor) ISBN 978-1250212863
- "Government political structure and gender differences in violent death: A longitudinal analysis of forty-three countries, 1960–2008." Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 46 (2019), pp. 174–179. (With M. Blay-Tofey, P. Marotta, K.K. Schuder & J. Gilligan)
- "Government political structure and violent death rates: A longitudinal analysis of forty-three countries, 1960–2008." Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 47 (2019), pp. 101313. (With P. Marotta, M. Blay-Tofey, K.K. Schuder, C.H. Kim, G. Lee & J. Gilligan)
- Lee, Bandy X. (2019-02-19). "Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Causes, Consequences, and Cures". Wiley.com.
- Are Donald Trump’s test results fake news? Rhys Blakely, The Times, 18 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018. (subscription required)
- Bandy X. Lee, MD, MDiv. Archived 2018-01-18 at the Wayback Machine Yale School of Medicine: Psychiatry. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Bandy Lee, Yale University's Violence and Health Study Group. Archived 2016-04-03 at the Wayback Machine Violence Prevention Alliance, World Health Organization. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- An Ethical Dilemma. Archived 2018-01-24 at the Wayback Machine Susan Milligan, U.S. News, 21 April 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Who Is Bandy Lee? Trump's Mental Health Questioned By Yale Psychiatrist. Archived 2018-01-24 at the Wayback Machine Gayathri Anuradha, International Business Times, 3 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Psychiatrist Bandy Lee: "We have an obligation to speak about Donald Trump’s mental health issues. . . . Our survival as a species may be at stake". Archived 2017-11-06 at the Wayback Machine Chauncey DeVega, Salon, 25 May 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump" A new book delves into the president’s mental health. Rosemary K.M. Sword and Philip Zimbardo, Psychology Today, 28 September 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Washington's growing obsession: The 25th Amendment. Archived 2018-01-21 at the Wayback Machine Annie Karni, Politico, 3 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- Yale psychiatry professor warns President Trump’s mental health is ‘unraveling’ in meeting with more than a dozen lawmakers. Archived 2018-01-22 at the Wayback Machine Jessica Chia, New York Daily News, 4 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- "Correspondence: Psychiatrists Diagnosing the President — Moral Imperative or Ethical Violation?", New England Journal of Medicine, December 27, 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
- "Psychiatrists call for rollback of policy banning discussion of public figures’ mental health", STAT News, June 28, 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- "The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry, 2013 Edition".
- Lee, Bandy X.; Fisher, Edwin B.; Glass, Leonard L. "The Goldwater rule has been turned into a silencing mechanism aimed at those who would speak out - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2019-06-07.