Offshoring is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting. Typically this refers to a company business, although state governments may also employ offshoring. More recently, offshoring has been associated primarily with the outsourcing of technical and administrative services supporting domestic and global operations from outside the home country ("offshore outsourcing"), by means of internal (captive) or external (outsourcing) delivery models.
The term is in use in several distinct but closely related ways. It is sometimes used broadly to include substitution of a service from any foreign source for a service formerly produced internally to the firm. In other cases, only imported services from subsidiaries or other closely related suppliers are included. A further complication is that intermediate goods, such as partially completed computers, are not consistently included in the scope of the term.
Offshoring can be seen in the context of either production offshoring or services offshoring. After its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the People's Republic of China emerged as a prominent destination for production offshoring. Another focus area has been the software industry as part of global software development and developing global information systems. After technical progress in telecommunications improved the possibilities of trade in services, India became one prominent destination for such offshoring, though many parts of the world are now emerging as offshore destinations.
The economic logic is to reduce costs, sometimes called labor arbitrage, to improve corporate profitability. Jobs are added in the destination country providing the goods or services (generally a lower-cost labor country), but are subtracted in the higher-cost labor country. The increased safety net costs of the unemployed may be absorbed by the government (taxpayers) in the high-cost country or by the company doing the offshoring. Europe experienced less offshoring than the United States due to policies that applied more costs to corporations and cultural barriers.
- 1 Frequently used terms
- 2 Transfer of intellectual property
- 3 Debate
- 4 Effects of factor of production mobility
- 5 History
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
Frequently used terms
Offshoring is defined as the movement of a business process done at a company in one country to the same or another company in another, different country. Almost always work is moved because of a lower cost of operations in the new location. More recently, offshoring drivers also include access to qualified personnel abroad, in particular in technical professions, and increasing speed to market. Offshoring is sometimes contrasted with outsourcing or offshore outsourcing. Outsourcing is the movement of internal business processes to an external organizational unit. Outsourcing refers to the process by which an organization gives part of its work to another firm / organization and makes it responsible for most of the applications as well as the design of the enterprise business process. This process is done under restrictions and strategies in order to establish consistency with the offshore outsourcing organizations. Many companies nowadays outsource various professional areas in the company such as e-mail services, payroll and call center. These jobs are being handled by other organizations that specialize in each sector allowing the offshoring company to focus more on other business concerns. However, subcontracting in the same country would be outsourcing, but not offshoring. A company moving an internal business unit from one country to another would be offshoring or physical restructuring, but not outsourcing. A company subcontracting a business unit to a different company in another country would be both outsourcing and offshoring.
Related terms include nearshoring, which implies relocation of business processes to (typically) lower cost foreign locations, but in close geographical proximity (e.g., shifting United States-based business processes to Canada/Latin America); inshoring, which means picking services within a country; and bestshoring or rightshoring, picking the "best shore" based on various criteria. Business process outsourcing (BPO) refers to outsourcing arrangements when entire business functions (such as Finance & Accounting, Customer Service, etc.) are outsourced. More specific terms can be found in the field of software development - for example Global Information System as a class of systems being developed for / by globally distributed teams.
A further term sometimes associated with offshoring is bodyshopping which is the practice of using offshored resources and personnel to do small disaggregated tasks within a business environment, without any broader intention to offshore an entire business function.
Production offshoring, also known as physical restructuring, of established products involves relocation of physical manufacturing processes to a lower-cost destination. Examples of production offshoring include the manufacture of electronic components in Costa Rica, production of apparel, toys, and consumer goods in China, Vietnam etc.
Product design, research and the development process that leads to new products, are relatively difficult to offshore. This is because research and development, in order to improve products and create new reference designs, require a skill set that is harder to obtain in regions with cheap labor. For this reason, in many cases only the manufacturing will be offshored by a company wishing to reduce costs.
However, there is a relationship between offshoring and patent-system strength. This is because companies under a strong patent system are not afraid to move work offshore because their work will remain their property. Conversely, companies in countries with weak patent systems have an increased fear of intellectual property theft from foreign vendors or workers, and, therefore, have less offshoring.
A major incentive for physical restructuring arrived when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) made it easier for manufacturers to shift production facilities from the US to Mexico. This trend later shifted to China, which offered cheap prices through very low wage rates, few workers' rights laws, a fixed currency pegged to the US dollar, (currently fixed to a basket of economies) cheap loans, cheap land, and factories for new companies, few environmental regulations, and huge economies of scale based on cities with populations over a million workers dedicated to producing a single kind of product. However, many companies are reluctant to move high value-added production of leading-edge products to China because of lax enforcement of intellectual property laws. NAFTA has increased the velocity at which physical restructuring is occurring.
IT-enabled services offshoring
The growth of IT-enabled services offshoring is linked to the availability of large amounts of reliable and affordable communication infrastructure following the telecommunication and Internet expansion of the late 1990s. This was seen all the way up to the year 2000. Coupled with the digitization of many services, it was possible to shift the actual production location of services to low-cost countries in a manner theoretically transparent to end-users. Services include administrative services, such as finance and accounting, HR, and legal; call centers; marketing and sales services; IT infrastructure; application development; and knowledge services, including engineering support, product design, research and development, and analytics.
India first benefited from the offshoring trend, as it has a large pool of English speaking people and technically proficient manpower. India's offshoring industry took root in low-end IT functions in the early 1990s and has since moved to back-office processes such as call centers and transaction processing. This spawned the neologism Bangalored, used to indicate a layoff, often systemic, and usually resulting from corporate outsourcing to lower wage economies – derived from Bangalore in India, where some of the first outsource centers were located.
Because of inflation, high domestic interest rates, robust economic growth and increased IT offshoring, the Indian IT sector has witnessed 10 - 15% wage growth in the 21st century. Consequently, Indian's operations and firms are concerned that they are becoming too expensive in comparison with competition from the other offshoring destinations. To maintain high growth rates, attempts have been made to grow up the value chain and diversify to other high-end work in addition to software and hardware engineering. These jobs include research and development, equity analysis, tax-return processing, radiological analysis, medical transcription, and more.
The choice of offshoring destination is often made according to cultural concerns. Japanese companies are starting to outsource to China, where large numbers of Japanese speakers can be found—particularly in the city of Dalian, which was Japanese-occupied Chinese territory for decades (this is discussed in the book The World is Flat). German companies tend to outsource to Eastern European countries, such as Poland and Romania, where proficiency in German is common. French companies outsource to North Africa for similar reasons. For Australian IT companies, Indonesia is one of the major choice of offshoring destination. Near-shore location, common time zone and adequate IT work force are the reasons for offshoring IT services to Indonesia.
The Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) made nearshoring more attractive between the Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic and the US.
Once companies are comfortable with services offerings and started realizing the cost savings, many high-tech product companies, including some in Silicon Valley, started offshoring innovation work to countries like Colombia, Belarus, South Africa, India, China, Mexico, Russia and Ukraine. Accessing the talent pools in these countries has the potential to cut costs or even shorten product lifecycles. Developing countries like India are also involved in this practice.
When offshoring knowledge work, firms heavily rely on the availability of technical personnel at offshore locations. In order to secure access to talent, Western firms often establish collaborative relationships with technical universities abroad and thereby customize university programs to serve their particular needs. Examples include universities in Shanghai, such as Tong-Ji University, where German firms and scholars co-sponsor labs, courses, and provide internships. Similar examples of collaborative arrangements can be found in Eastern Europe, e.g. Romania. Additionally, EU companies looking for IT innovation often setup collaboration with universities in countries such as Belarus and Ukraine, which have a high percentage of ICT graduates and overall a very skilled IT labor.
John Urry (distinguished professor of sociology at Lancaster University) argues that the concealment of income, the avoidance of taxation and eluding legislation relating to work, finance, pleasure, waste, energy and security may be becoming a serious concern for democratic governments and ordinary citizens who may be adversely affected by unregulated, offshore activities. Further, the rising costs of transportation could lead to production nearer the point of consumption becoming more economically viable, particularly as new technologies such as additive manufacturing mature
Transfer of intellectual property
Offshoring is often enabled by the transfer of valuable information to the offshore site. Such information and training enables the remote workers to produce results of comparable value previously produced by internal employees. When such transfer includes protected materials, as confidential documents and trade secrets, protected by non-disclosure agreements, then intellectual property has been transferred or exported. The documentation and valuation of such exports is quite difficult, but should be considered since it comprises items that may be regulated or taxable.
Offshoring has been a controversial issue spurring heated debates among economists, some of which overlap those related to the topic of free trade. It is seen as benefiting both the origin and destination country through free trade, providing jobs to the destination country and lower cost of goods and services to the origin country. This makes both sides see increased gross domestic product (GDP). And the total number of jobs increases in both countries since those workers in the origin country that lost their job can move to higher-value jobs in which their country has a comparative advantage.
On the other hand, job losses and wage erosion in developed countries have sparked opposition to offshoring. Experts argue that the quality of any new jobs in developed countries are less than the jobs lost and offer lower pay. Economists against offshoring charge that currency manipulation by governments and their central banks causes the difference in labor cost creating an illusion of comparative advantage. Further, they point out that even more educated highly trained workers with higher-value jobs such as software engineers, accountants, radiologists, and journalists in the developed world have been displaced by highly educated and cheaper workers from India and China. On May 1, 2002, Economist and former Ambassador Ernest H. Preeg testified before the Senate committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs that China, for instance, pegs its currency to the dollar at a sub-par value in violation of Article IV of the International Monetary Fund Articles of Agreement which state that no nation shall manipulate its currency to gain a market advantage.
Impact on jobs in western countries
The Economist reported in January 2013 that: "High levels of unemployment in Western countries after the 2007-2008 financial crisis have made the public in many countries so hostile towards offshoring that many companies are now reluctant to engage in it." Economist Paul Krugman wrote in 2007 that while free trade among high-wage countries is viewed as win-win, free trade with low-wage countries is win-lose for many employees who find their jobs offshored or with stagnating wages. Two estimates of the impact of offshoring on U.S. jobs were between 150,000 and 300,000 per year from 2004-2015. This represents 10-15% of U.S. job creation.
The increased safety net costs of the unemployed may be absorbed by the government (taxpayers) in the high-cost country or by the company doing the offshoring. Europe experienced less offshoring than the U.S. due to policies that applied more costs to corporations and cultural barriers.
Research has found that offshoring has mixed effects on wages and employment, with some studies showing insignificant effects, some showing negative effects, whereas other studies have found that offshoring actually increases low-skilled employment and wages in the offshoring country. A 2017 study found that offshoring benefits "offshoring can generate wage and employment gains for both high- and low-skilled workers through a “technology channel” wherein it induces skill-complementary capital deepening and greater innovation in U.S. industries." The study also found that "offshoring increases real wages for both high- and low-skilled workers, but more so for the former, increasing inequality."
Legal implications in Japan
Japanese companies use offshoring to exploit foreign laborers, particularly Chinese and Vietnamese, in violation of the Employment Security Act and Labor Standard Act guidelines set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. Article 44 of the Employment Security Act implicitly bans unauthorized companies supplying domestic/foreign workers, regardless of their operating locations. The laws apply if at least one party among suppliers, clients and workers reside in Japan, and if the workers are part of the integral part of the chain of command of the client company or the supplier:
|“||No person shall carry out a labor supply business or have workers supplied by a person who carries out a labor supply business work under his/her own directions or orders, except in cases provided for in the following Article.||”|
|“||Unless permitted by act, no person shall obtain profit by intervening, as a business, in the employment of other||”|
The Employment Security Act sets punishment guidelines as follows:
|“||A person who falls under any of the following items shall be punished by imprisonment with work for not more than one year or a fine of not more than one million yen||”|
Victims can lodge a criminal complaint against the CEO's of the suppliers and clients to the Labor Standards Inspection Office (in the case of the Labor Standards Act) or Public Prosecutor's Office in the company's location. Due to the risk of CEO's arrest, Japanese companies tend to privately settle with plaintiffs, offering between 20 and 100 million JPY (approximately 200,000 - 1 million USD) in damages.
In 2015, IT employment in the United States has recently reached pre-2001 levels and has been rising since. The number of jobs lost to offshoring is less than 1 percent of the total US labor market. According to a study by the Heritage foundation, outsourcing represents a very small proportion of jobs lost in the US. The total number of jobs lost to offshoring, both manufacturing and technical represent only 4 percent of the total jobs lost in the US. Major reasons for cutting jobs are from contract completion and downsizing. Some economists and commentators claim that the offshoring phenomenon is way overblown.
U.S. opinion polls indicate that between 76-95% of Americans surveyed agreed that "outsourcing of production and manufacturing work to foreign countries is a reason the U.S. economy is struggling and more people aren't being hired."
Effects of factor of production mobility
According to classical economics, the three factors of production are land, labor, and capital. Offshoring relies heavily on the mobility of two of these factors. That is, how offshoring affects economies depends on how easily capital and labor can be repurposed. Land, as a factor of production, is generally seen to have little or no mobility potential.
The effects of capital mobility on offshoring have been widely discussed. In microeconomics, a corporation must be able to spend working capital to afford the initial costs of offshoring. If the state heavily regulates how a corporation can spend its working capital, it will not be able to offshore its operations. For the same reason the macroeconomy must be free for offshoring to succeed. Generally, those who favor offshoring support capital mobility, and those who oppose offshoring call for greater regulation.
Labor mobility also plays a major role, and it is hotly debated. When computers and the Internet made work electronically portable, the forces of free market resulted in a global mobility of work in the services industry. Most theories that argue offshoring eventually benefits domestic workers assume that those workers will be able to obtain new jobs, even if they have to obtain employment by downpricing themselves back into the labor market (by accepting lower salaries) or by retraining themselves in a new field. Foreign workers benefit from new jobs and higher wages when the work moves to them.
Offshoring faces criticism from labor scholars who argue that global labor arbitrage leads to unethical practices, connected to exploitation of workers, eroding work conditions and decreasing job security.
In the developed world, moving manufacturing jobs out of the country dates to at least the 1960s while moving knowledge service jobs offshore dates to the 1970s and has continued since then. It was characterized primarily by the transferring of factories from the developed to the developing world. This offshoring and closing of factories has caused a structural change in the developed world from an industrial to a post-industrial service society.
During the 20th century, the decreasing costs of transportation and communication crossed with great disparities on pay rates made increased offshoring from wealthier countries to less wealthy countries financially feasible for many companies. Further, the growth of the Internet, particularly fiber-optic intercontinental long haul capacity, and the World Wide Web reduced "transportation" costs for many kinds of information work to near zero.
With the development of the Internet, many new categories of work such as call centres, computer programming, reading medical data such as X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging, medical transcription, income tax preparation, and title searching are being offshored.
Before the 1990s, Ireland was one of the poorest countries in the EU. Because of Ireland's relatively low corporate tax rates, US companies began offshoring of software, electronic, and pharmaceutical intellectual property to Ireland for export. This helped create a high-tech "boom" and which led to Ireland becoming one of the richest EU countries.
In 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect. As concerns are widespread about uneven bargaining powers, and risks and benefits, negotiations are often difficult, such that the plan to create free trade areas (such as Free Trade Area of the Americas) has not yet been successful. In 2005, offshoring of skilled work, also referred to as knowledge work, dramatically increased from the US, which fed the growing worries about threats of job loss.
- Call center security
- Decline and Fall of the American Programmer
- Domestic sourcing
- Global sourcing
- Globally Integrated Enterprise
- Job migration
- Low-cost country sourcing
- Offshore company
- Offshore outsourcing
- Offshoring Research Network
- Personal offshoring
- Programmers Guild
- Runaway production
- Tax haven
- Business process outsourcing
- Information technology consulting
- Legal outsourcing
- Offshore software R&D
- Offshore custom software development
- "The Offshoring of American Government", Cornell Law Review, Nov. 2008, available: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1143044
- Stephan Manning, Silvia Massini, Arie Lewin (October 20, 2008). "SSRN-A Dynamic Perspective on Next-Generation Offshoring: The Global Sourcing of Science and Engineering Talent". Academy of Management Perspectives. Social Science Electronic Publishing. 22 (3): 35–54. doi:10.5465/amp.2008.34587994. SSRN .
- See "Appendix II: Definitions of Offshoring" in General Accounting Office: "International Trade: Current Government Data Provide Limited Insight into Offshoring of Services", September 2004. Imported intermediate goods are included in offshoring in "Swenson, D: "International Outsourcing", in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2008.
- Miszczynski, Milosz (2016-06-22). "Labour arbitrage: the lifecycle of a global production node". Journal of Organizational Ethnography. 5 (2): 106–122. doi:10.1108/JOE-04-2016-0009. ISSN 2046-6749.
- "Staying put. European jobs are not coming back because few of them went in the first place". The Economist. January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Fishman, T: "China, Inc." Scribner, 2006.
- Working Through Outsourcing: Software Practice, Industry Organization and Industry Evolution in India Kyle Eischen. eScholarship Repository, 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2006.
- "World Wide Words: Bangalored". World Wide Words. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Manning, Stephan; Sydow, Jörg; Windeler, Arnold (2012). "Securing Access to Lower-cost Talent Globally: The Dynamics of Active Embedding and Field Structuration". Regional Studies. 46 (9): 1201–1218. doi:10.1080/00343404.2011.571243.
- "Colombia Moves Towards Top of Outsourcing A-List". BnAmericas. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Opportunities for EU ICT Actors. Oct 2009. http://www.eeca-ict.eu/uploads/dmdocuments/Opportunities_Report_for_EU_ICT_actors_in_UKRAINE.pdf
- Workforce Management Online, Dec 2007
- "Inshoring". Mike Karlesky. 17 May 2005. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- Zacks Investment Research (29 April 2015). "Reshoring Bringing Back Jobs to USA". Zacks Investment Research. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- John Urry (14 April 2014). Offshoring. polity UK. ISBN 978-0745664866.
- Ernest H. Preeg (May 1, 2002). Testimony on Chinese Currency Manipulation Manufacturers Alliance
- The Economist-Here, there and everywhere-January 2013
- NYT-Paul Krugman-Trouble with Trade-December 2007
- The Economist-What to Do Now: Shape Up-January 2013
- Amiti, Mary; Wei, Shang-Jin; Haskel, Jonathan; Auriol, Emmanuelle (2005). "Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is It Justified?". Economic Policy. 20 (42): 307–347. doi:10.2307/3601072.
- Groshen, Erica; Hobijn, Bart; McConnell, Margaret M. (2005). "U.S. jobs gained and lost through trade: a net measure". Current Issues in Economics and Finance. 11 (Aug).
- Liu, Runjuan; Trefler, Daniel (June 2008). "Much Ado About Nothing: American Jobs and the Rise of Service Outsourcing to China and India". NBER Working Paper No. 14061. doi:10.3386/w14061.
- Ebenstein, Avraham; Harrison, Ann; McMillan, Margaret; Phillips, Shannon (2013-05-15). "Estimating the Impact of Trade and Offshoring on American Workers using the Current Population Surveys". The Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (4): 581–595. doi:10.1162/rest_a_00400. ISSN 0034-6535.
- Pierce, Justin R.; Schott, Peter K. (July 2016). "The Surprisingly Swift Decline of US Manufacturing Employment". American Economic Review. 106 (7): 1632–1662. doi:10.1257/aer.20131578. ISSN 0002-8282.
- Feenstra, Robert C.; Hanson, Gordon H. (1996). "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality". The American Economic Review. 86 (2): 240–245. doi:10.2307/2118130.
- Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P; Peri, Giovanni; Wright, Greg C (2013). "Immigration, Offshoring, and American Jobs". American Economic Review. 103 (5): 1925–1959. doi:10.1257/aer.103.5.1925. ISSN 0002-8282.
- Grossman, Gene M.; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban (2008). "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring". American Economic Review. 98 (5): 1978–1997. doi:10.1257/aer.98.5.1978.
- Wright, Greg C. (2014-02-01). "Revisiting the employment impact of offshoring". European Economic Review. 66: 63–83. doi:10.1016/j.euroecorev.2013.11.008.
- Feenstra, Robert C.; Hanson, Gordon H. (1999-08-01). "The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates For the United States, 1979–1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 114 (3): 907–940. doi:10.1162/003355399556179. ISSN 0033-5533.
- Kovak, Brian K.; Oldenski, Lindsay; Sly, Nicholas (October 2017). "The Labor Market Effects of Offshoring by U.S. Multinational Firms: Evidence from Changes in Global Tax Policies". NBER Working Paper No. 23947. doi:10.3386/w23947.
- "日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム - [法令本文表示] - 労働基準法". Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "IT Employment Reaches Record High In U.S." InformationWeek. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Business Technology News and Commentary - InformationWeek". InformationWeek. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Myths and Realities: The False Crisis of Outsourcing". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- "Samuelson: Debunking the Great Offshoring Myth". Newsweek.com. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Sara Murray And Douglas Belkin (2 October 2010). "Americans Sour on Trade". WSJ. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Gallup, Inc. "Americans' Top Job–Creation Idea: Stop Sending Work Overseas". Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Miszczynski, M. (2016-02-18). "Global Production in a Romanian Village: Middle-Income Economy, Industrial Dislocation and the Reserve Army of Labor". Critical Sociology. doi:10.1177/0896920515623076.
- General Accounting Office: "Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India", September 2006.
- Metters, Richard; Verma, Rohit (2008). "History of offshoring knowledge services". Journal of Operations Management. 26 (2): 141. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2007.02.012.
- Baase, Sara (2008). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and The Internet (Third ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-600848-4.
- Alan S. Blinder, "Offshoring: The Next Industrial Revolution?" in Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, No. 2 (March/April 2006), pp. 113–128.
- Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (2005).
- Catherine L. Mann & Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Accelerating the Globalization of America: The Role for Information Technology, Institute for International Economics, Washington D.C., Peterson Institute for International Economics (June 2006).
- Stephan Manning, Silvia Massini & Arie Y. Lewin, A Dynamic Perspective on Next-Generation Offshoring: The Global Sourcing of Science and Engineering Talent, Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3 (October 2008), pp. 35–54. JSTOR 27747462
|Look up offshoring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|