|(2,700 Bangandu cited 1977)|
12,000 Ngombe (2010 census)
Bangandu and Ngombe constitute a Gbaya language of Cameroon and CAR.
There are two populations: Bangandu proper (Bàngàndò), in Cameroon, and Ngombe (Ba(n)gando-Ngombe, Ngombe-Kaka) clustered around Mambéré-Kadéï Prefecture across the border in the Central African Republic. There are several populations called Ngombe, and it is not clear to which the spurious ISO code for Ngombe belongs. On a global scale, Bangandu is considered to be a threatened language with approximately anywhere between 2,700-3,500 speakers. Language status levels can be derived from the Ethnologue Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale.
Speakers of Bangandu tend to be localized around regions of Southern Cameroon. The language of Bangandu is classified as a field dependent and relies on a specific level of field dependence in order to be learned, according to authors J.W. Berry, S.H Irvine and E.G. Hunt in their book Indigenous Cognition: Functioning in Cultural Context. Field dependent language learning involves the complete envelopment of an individual into the community of which the language is spoken. Authors J.W. Berry, S.H Irvine and E.G. Hunt further develop upon the lack of education indigenous speakers receive in order to thrive outside of the Bangandu community. This aspect of the Bangandu community could be indirectly linked to the exclusivity of the Bangandu language. Multiple accounts of Bangandu speakers, including an account written by author Victor Barnouw found in journal American Anthropologist tend to depict indigenous speakers as agriculturalists and gatherers.
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- Barnouw, V.. (1978). [Review of Basic Problems in Cross-Cultural Psychology: Selected Papers from the Third International Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. American Anthropologist, 80(2), 405–406.]
- Friedrich, A., Wiese, L. V., Heims, E. M., Schubotz, H., Schultze, A., & Mildbraed, J. (1913). From the Congo to the Niger and the Nile: An account of the German Central African Expedition of 1910-1911. London: Duckworth & Co. Hunt, E. B., Irvine, S. H., & Berry, J. W. (1988). Indigenous Cognition: Functioning in Cultrual Context (Vol. 1). Retrieved February 10, 2016
- Malcolm, L. (1924). Sex-Ratio in African Peoples. American Anthropologist, 26(4), 454-473.
- Bangandu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Nombe at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngombe-Bangandu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngombe (Central African Republic)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
- Language Status
- J.W. Berry, S.H Irvine, E.G. Hunt, Indigenous Cognition: Functioning in Cultural Context, 1988
- Victor Barnouw, American Anthropologist, Basic Problems in Cross-Cultural Psychology: Selected Papers from the Third International Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology pg 405-406, 1978