Bangka Belitung Islands

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Bangka Belitung Islands Province
Provinsi Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
Other transcription(s)
 • Chinese 邦加-勿里洞
Tanjung pesona shade.jpg Chinese temple in AirDuren.jpg
Tanjung Tinggi Beach, Bangka-Belitung Province, Indonesia.jpg Lengkuas Island.JPG
Pasir-padi.jpg Matras beach.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : Parai Beach, Fuk Tet Che temple, Lengkuas Island, Matras Beach, Pasir Padi Beach, Tanjung Tinggi Beach, Tanjung Pesona Beach
Official seal of Bangka Belitung Islands Province
Motto: Bumi Serumpun Sebalai (Malay)
(The same root, the same place)
Location of Bangka-Belitung in Indonesia
Location of Bangka-Belitung in Indonesia
Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117Coordinates: 2°8′S 106°7′E / 2.133°S 106.117°E / -2.133; 106.117
Country  Indonesia
Established 21 November 2000
Capital Lambang Kota Pangkal Pinang.png Pangkal Pinang
 • Body Bangka-Belitung Regional Government
 • Governor Rustam Effendi (PDI-P)
 • Vice Governor Hidayat Arsani
 • Total 16,424.14 km2 (6,341.40 sq mi)
Area rank 27th
Highest elevation 669 m (2,195 ft)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 1,372,813
 • Rank 29th
 • Density 84/km2 (220/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bangka-Belitungese
Warga Bangka-Belitung (id)
 • Ethnic groups Malays (52.5%), Chinese (29.1%), others.
 • Religion Muslim (60%), Buddhist (22.2%), Confucianism (8.3%), Protestantism (4.8%), Roman Catholicism (1.2%), Hindu (0.1%)[2]
 • Languages Indonesian, Bangka Malay, Hakka
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postcodes 30xxx, 31xxx, 32xxx
Area codes (62)7xx
Vehicle sign BN
HDI Increase 0.682 (Medium)
HDI rank 15th (2014)
Largest city by area Pangkal Pinang - 118.80 square kilometres (45.87 sq mi)
Largest city by population Pangkal Pinang - (174,838 - 2010)
Largest regency by area South Bangka Regency - 3,607.08 square kilometres (1,392.70 sq mi)
Largest regency by population Bangka Regency - (2,029,308 - 2010)
Website Government official site
Bangka Belitung Islands
Chinese 邦加-勿里洞

The Bangka Belitung Islands (Indonesian: Kepulauan Bangka Belitung), is a province of Indonesia, previously a part of South Sumatra Province. Lying off the southeastern coasts of Sumatra, the province comprises two main islands, Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones. In 2010 its population was 1,223,048.[1] The capital is Pangkal Pinang.

The Bangka Strait separates Sumatra and Bangka, and the Gaspar Strait separates Bangka and Belitung. The South China Sea is to the north, the Java Sea is to the south, and the province is separated from Borneo in the east by the Karimata Strait.


Ethnic Chinese Tin miners in Bangka, Dutch East Indies.

The province of Bangka Belitung Islands consist of two large islands of Bangka and Belitung islands and islets. Before the Tuntang capitulation Bangka and Belitung is conquered areas of the kingdom of Srivijaya, Majapahit and Mataram. After that, Bangka-Belitung became a British colony and then implemented the handover to the Dutch government held in Muntok on 10 December 1816. In the Dutch colonial period, there was resistance unceasingly conducted by Depati Barin was continued by his son named Depati Amir and ended with the exile to Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara by the Dutch Government. During the colonial era a lot of wealth in the island was taken by the invaders.

Most of the first Chinese workers who came to Indonesia were men (mainly Hakka people). They began assimilating with local people and intermarriages followed, residents coexisting peacefully in spite of differences in religion and ethnicity. When anti-Chinese riots occurred in some parts of Indonesia at the end of the Soeharto regime in 1998, local people and those of Chinese descent lived peacefully in the Bangka Belitung province.[3]

Bangka Belitung province is created as the 31st province of Indonesia by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia based on Law No. 27 of 2000 on the establishment of Bangka Belitung Province which was part of the province of South Sumatra. The provincial capital is Pangkalpinang.[4]

Weather and Climate[edit]

In 2007 the moisture in the Bangka Belitung Province ranged from 77.4% to 87.3% with an average monthly reach of 83.1%, with a rainfall of 58.3 mm to 476.3 mm and air pressure during 2007 approximately 1010.1 MBS. The average temperature during 2007 in the province reached 26.7 °C with an average maximum temperature of 29.9 °C and average minimum temperature of 24.9 °C. The maximum air temperature was highest in October, with temperatures of 31.7 °C, while the minimum temperature was lowest in February and March with temperatures of 23.2 °C.

Bangka Belitung Islands have tropical climate influenced monsoons are experiencing a wet month for seven months throughout the year and dry month for five months continuously. In 2007 the dry months occurred in August to October with rainy days 11–15 days per month. For the month of wet rainy days 16–27 days per month, occurred in January to July and November to December.


Forest in Bangka Island.

The province of Bangka-Belitung is entirely surrounded by water. It borders:

The natural state of Bangka Belitung Province is largely a plateau, valley and a small portion of the mountains and hills. Lowland altitude average of about 50 meters above sea level and altitude mountain areas among others to Mount Maras reach 699 meters in Belinyu District, Bangka. Mount Tajam Kaki height is approximately 500 meters above sea level on the island of Belitung. As for the hilly areas like Bukit Menumbing reaches a height of approximately 445 meters in the Bukit Nenas and Mangkol district with a height of about 395 meters above sea level in the Pangkalan Baru district. Soil in Bangka Belitung generally have a pH or acidic soil reaction averaging below 5, but has a very high aluminum content. Within it are various minerals, such as tin, sand, quartz sand, granite, kaolin, clay, and others.

The province is connected by sea waters and small islands. Overall land and water Bangka Belitung is an integral part of the plains of Sunda, so that its waters are part of the Sunda Shelf with a sea depth of no more than 30 meters. As the water area, Bangka Belitung has two types of waters, namely the open waters and semi-enclosed waters. Open water contained around Bangka island located to the north, east and south of the island of Bangka. While there is a semi-enclosed waters in the straits and bays Kelabat Bangka in Bangka North. Waters on the island of Belitung is generally open. In addition, as the territorial waters of the sea, the area of Bangka Belitung Island also has many rivers such as Baturusa, Layang, Manise, and Kurau rivers.

Bangka Belitung has various kinds of quality wood that is traded outside the region, such as pelawan, meranti, ramin, mambalong, mandaru, bulin and kerengas. Other forest plants found in the island are keramunting, buk-buk, mate ayem, kapuk, jelutung, pulai, gelam, meranti rawa, mentagor, mahang, various species of mangrove, and others. Other forest products are natural honey and rattan. Bangka Belitung is also known for its bitter honey. Fauna in Bangka Belitung have more common similarities with the fauna in the Riau Archipelago and Peninsular Malaysia than with Sumatra. Some of the animals that can be found in Bangka Belitung are deer, wild boar, beruk, eagle, weasel, and hare, among others.


Gross Regional Domestic Product[edit]

In 2007, GDP at current prices in Bangka Belitung province with oil and gas amounted to 17,895,017 million, while the GDP without oil and gas amounted to 17,369,399 million. When compared with the previous year showed an increase where in 2006 the GDP at current prices with the oil and gas is 15,920,529 million and the GDP without oil and gas amounted to 15,299,647 million. Likewise, GDP at constant 2000 prices, either with or without oil and gas in 2007 showed an increase.

Economic Growth[edit]

The rate of economic growth in Bangka Belitung province in 2007 has improved compared to 2006. Based on the calculation of GDP at constant 2000 prices, the economic growth rate in 2007 with oil and gas is about 4.54 percent and non-oil economic growth is around 5.37 percent. The value of GDP at 2000 constant prices in 2006 with oil and gas is 9,053,906 million in 2007 increased to 9,645,062 million, while without the oil and gas into 9,257,539 million.

Economic Structure[edit]

The economy in Bangka Belitung Province in 2007 is supported by the primary sector and secondary sector. The primary sector includes agriculture and mining and quarrying. The primary sector has a considerable contribution each by 18.67 percent and 20.40 percent.

While in the secondary sector, namely the manufacturing sector provides a sizeable contribution in the GDP Bangka Belitung province that is equal to 22.51 per cent and for electricity, gas and water supply and construction sectors each contributed 0.65 percent and 5, 87 percent. For the tertiary sector is trade, hotel and restaurant sector, transport and communications, financial services, leasing and business services sector and the services sector has accounted for 34.81 percent.

In terms of the use of GDP at current prices is used for household consumption. In 2007 the amount of household consumption expenditure amounted to 9,015,057 million or about 50.38 percent of total GDP. Besides foreign trade activities also have a substantial contribution to exports worth 8,741,217 million or 48.84 percent and for imports were valued at 5,284,414 million or 29.53 percent of total GDP.

Export and Import[edit]

The balance of trade which include exports and imports of Bangka Belitung province in 2007 increased the value of the surplus from the previous year. The value of exports in 2007 reached 1254.43 million US dollars, up 17.38 percent over the previous year. While the value of imports declined from 25.09 million US dollars in 2006 to 21.58 million in 2007 or a decrease of 16.27 percent. The amount of trade surplus in 2007 amounted to 1232.85 million US dollars. Thus the surplus value in 2007 increased by 18.13 percent.


In 2007, Bangka Belitung province dominated by the chemical industry and building materials in quantity, as many as 1187 business units spread across the districts / cities, mostly in Central Bangka regency with 339 business units. Employment in the industrial sector reached 19 462 people where 7375 is the largest employment were in the group of metal machinery and electronics industry.

Handicraft industry in Bangka Belitung Islands is a result of agro industry processing industry, fishery, agriculture and marine products. Industry craft cultivated population are hand crafted pewter industry in the form of tin, bracelet / ring / stick from the root bahar, woven cap / cap resam and so on. While the craft industry in the form of food / confectionary in the form of paste, rusip, brittle / crackers, and others.


According to the Indonesian Health Department, Bangka-Belitung is highly malarious area, with an annual malaria incidence rate of 29.3/1000 population.[5]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Pangkal Pinang, the capital city of the province as well as the largest in the province.
Sungailiat, the second largest town in Bangka Island.
Tanjung Pandan, the largest town in Belitung Island.

Bangka-Belitung is divided into six regencies and one city, below with their (provisional) populations at the 2010 Census and at the most recent (January 2014) estimates.

Name Area
Estimate 2005
Census 2010
2014 Estimate
Capital HDI[6]
2014 Estimates
Pangkal Pinang City 118.80 145,945 174,838 159,689 Pangkal Pinang 0.762 (High)
Bangka Regency 2,950.69 246,579 277,193 312,886 Sungailiat 0.697 (Medium)
Central Bangka Regency (Bangka Tengah) 2,126.36 133,380 161,075 152,645 Koba 0.680 (Medium)
South Bangka Regency (Bangka Selatan) 3,607.08 148,912 172,476 164,867 Toboali 0.635 (Medium)
West Bangka Regency (Bangka Barat) 2,820.61 147,855 175,110 164,555 Muntok 0.664 (Medium)
Total Bangka 11,623.54 822,671 960,692 954,642
Belitung Regency 2,293.69 132,777 155,925 176,041 Tanjung Pandan 0.695 (Medium)
East Belitung Regency (Belitung Timur) 2,506.91 87,380 106,432 95,827 Manggar 0.681 (Medium)
Total Belitung 4,800.60 220,157 262,357 271,868


Bangka-Belitung Islands have numerous beaches and several small islands. Some beaches are famous for their natural attractiveness with blue sea waters, variety of coral reefs, white sand, and giant granite rock formations. Thus, Bangka-Belitung beaches have attracted tourists from around the world. Some of the well-known beaches in Bangka Island are Pasir Padi, Matras, Parai Tenggiri, Tanjung Pesona, Rambak, Teluk Limau, Teluk Uber, Tanjung Penyusuk,Tanjung Kalian, and Tanjung Kerasak.[7]

Some of the beaches in Belitung Island are Tanjung Kiras, Tanjung Pendam, Tanjung Tinggi, Tanjung Kelayang Beach, Tanjung Binga, Panyaeran Beach, Tanjung Kubu, Teluk Gembira, and Tanjung Ru Beach. Most of the beaches in Belitung features the sites for diving, scuba, snorkeling, fishing and sailing.[8]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 507,231 —    
1980 653,897 +28.9%
1990 822,900 +25.8%
2000 900,197 +9.4%
2010 1,223,296 +35.9%
Source: Statistics Indonesia 2010. Bangka-Belitung part of South Sumatra Province until 2000


Religion in Bangka-Belitung Islands
religion percent

The population of Bangka Belitung Province in 2010 (SP2010) amounted to 1,223,296 inhabitants showed 36.06 percent increase from 2000, with a population of 899 095 inhabitants (the results of the 2000 Population Census). The local Malay who lived in the province are locally called "Melayu Bangka-Belitung".[9]

Number of male population in 2010 about 635 094 inhabitants and a population of 588 202 inhabitants as much as women. The sex ratio of the same year amounted to 108, meaning that in 2010 for every 208 residents in Bangka Belitung there are 100 women and 108 residents of the male population. Population growth rates Bangka Belitung province in 2010 amounted to 2.83 per cent, if the review by district / city for the period of 2010, the growth rate is highest in Bangka Tengah3, 43 percent, followed by 3.06 percent and the City Pangkalpinang Bangka District 2, 79 percent. The number of households in Bangka Belitung in 2010 about 311 145 households and counties that have the largest number of households is Bangka amounted to 70 468 households and who have the lowest number of households is East Belitung amounted to 27 941 households.

The population density Bangka Belitung province reached 74 people per km2, when seen by district / city, Pangkalpinang has the highest density of 1,471 people per km2 and East Belitung province has the lowest density is 42 people per km2.


Further reading[edit]

  • Somers Heidhues, Mary F.(1992)Bangka tin and Mentok pepper : Chinese settlement on an Indonesian island Singapore : Social Isuues in Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-3035-99-4