Bangka Island (North Sulawesi)

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Manado Coral Garden, divings in Bangka Island, North Sulawesi
Native name:
Palau Bangka
LocationPacific Ocean
Adjacent bodies of waterCelebes Sea
Molucca Sea
Area4,778 ha (11,810 acres)
Population2,397 (2010)

Bangka Island is a small island located off of the northeastern tip of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Bangka is known for its unspoiled beaches and dive tourism. It belongs administratively to the district of East Likupang in the North Minahasa regency, North Sulawesi province. The island has three main coastal villages: Lihunu, Kahuku and Libas. Controversy exists over the local government's decision to grant mining exploration permits for Bangka to a Chinese company, which would then plan to mine iron ore and build a refining smelter.[1]


Bangka is located in the western Pacific Ocean, between the Celebes Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi) to the west and the Molucca Sea to the east. Bangka is southwest of Biaro Island, separated by the Bangka Passage. Just west of Bangka are the islands of Kinabohutan, Talisei, Tindila and Gangga.

Bangka has an area of 4,778 hectares. Geographical faces of the island include forests, hills, coconut plantations, rocky outcrops, mangroves and pristine beaches.

The largest village is Lihunu, followed by Kahuku and Libas.


Local commerce involves selling fish and agricultural products such as coconuts, copra, cloves, maize and vegetables. Some locals are also employed by the island's five eco-tourism ventures, which specialize in diving and snorkeling.[2] Tourism: Bangka's popularity as international tourism destination has increased since its first dive resort was opened in 1987. Most of the sandy beaches and coral reefs attractive to tourists are located at the southwestern and southern parts of the island. The northern coastline is rockier and its waters contain more seagrass than spectacular coral.


Most residents are from the Sangihe-Siao ethnic group. According to the 2000 census, the population of the island's three villages totaled 2,649 (Lihunu 1,162, Kahuku 983 and Libas 504), while in 2010 the population of the villages had declined to 2,397 (Lihunu 1,029, Kahuku 938 and Libas 430).[3] Other residents live outside the villages and at the five resorts.

Most of the population is split between those who work as fishermen and those who work as farmers. Other islanders work as civil servants, teachers, on resorts or other occupations.


Small-scale clearing of forest has taken place for several decades, leaving just grass cover on parts of the hilly interior. The island's land also includes forests, orchards, shrubs, and coconut plantations. Mangroves cover just 1.98% (58.7 hectares) of the island.[4]

Ecologically, Bangka and its waters contain an abundance of biodiversity. Land animals include Javanese deer (Rusa timorensis), tarsier (Carlito syrichta - a nocturnal arboreal primate), common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis), Asian water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). There are many coral reefs that attract tropical fish species, such as Napoleon fish, frogfish, pygmy seahorses and nudibranchs, as well as dugongs: a species of protected marine mammal. Dugongs are known to dwell and feed in waters off the island's coast.[5] Also present is a species of tubular marine sponge, the Petrosia nigricans,[6] from which four new purine derivatives have been isolated.[7]

Bangka Island is located close to Bunaken Marine National Park, a popular marine-based international tourism destination. Bangka does not have protected marine park status. The area around Bangka lies on a whale migration path.[8]

Mining controversy[edit]

The Regent of North Minahasa, Sompie Singal, in 2008 issued a permit to PT Mikgro Metal Perdana (PT MMP), a subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based Aempire Resource Group, to explore for iron ore on Bangka. The Regent has twice extended the permit: first on 20 July 2010, and then again on 20 July 2012. The concession area covers 2,000 hectares and the 2012 extension was broadened to cover "iron ore and other minerals".[9] Many Bangka residents and the local tourism operators oppose the mining plan. They fear that a full-scale mining operation and pollution would devastate Bangka's fragile ecosystem and destroy traditional livelihoods and eco-tourism.[10] Residents and the tourism operators sued the Regent and PT MMP in an effort to prevent the mining. They partly based their lawsuit on the fact that Bangka is defined as a small island under Law No.27/2007 on the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. This law states that mining is illegal on islands smaller than 2,000 km². Bangka has a surface area of just about 48 km².[11]

PT MMP and local government officials pressed ahead with the mining plan, insisting it will bring economic benefits.[12] The Director of PT MMP, Yang Yongjian, accused a non-government organization of masterminding anti-mining protests in an effort to extort money from his company, but he did not name the NGO.[13] Manado Administrative Court (in Decision No.04/G.TUN/2012/PTUN.MDO) on 30 August 2012, rejected a lawsuit by Bangka residents and tourism operators to cancel the exploration permit.[14] The plaintiffs successfully appealed at the High Administrative Court of Makassar, South Sulawesi, which on 1 March 2013 (in Decision No.165/B.TUN/2012/PT.TUN.MKS) overturned the Manado Court's ruling. The judges accepted all points of the plaintiffs' case. The verdict revoked the exploration permits and their extensions.[15] The Regent and PT MMP rejected this verdict and appealed to the Supreme Court in Jakarta. On 23 September 2013, the Supreme Court dismissed their appeal.[16] As stipulated in Government Regulation No.26/2008 on National Spatial Planning and Government Regulation No.50/2011 on National Tourism Development Planning, Bunaken National Park and its “surrounding areas” should be regarded as a strategic area for marine tourism, conservation and fishing.[17][18]

Almost the entire concession area of 2,000 hectares granted to PT MMP has Limited Production Forest Zone status. Therefore, a special permit must be obtained from the Forestry Ministry, through the North Sulawesi Governor, prior to exploration activities. This was not obtained, so PT MMP's exploration permit was ruled a violation of Law No.41/1999 on Forestry.[19] Local civil servants, including school teachers, have been accused of intimidating locals opposed to the mining plan.[20] A campaign to prevent the planned mining gained national attention after receiving support from veteran Indonesian rock band Slank.[21] Divers have warned that pollution from mining at Bangka would lead to the destruction of marine life and nearby marine tourism sites.[22]


  1. ^ Diplomatic Ties (2011-12-07). "Activist: Chinese Company Has No Mining Permit". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2014-06-26.
  2. ^ Andaria, Kalvin S.; Marsoedi, Diana Arfiati; Luchman Hakim, Soemarno (2013). "Stakeholder Analysis for Coastal Tourism Development in Bangka Island, North Sulawesi Indonesia" (PDF). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research: 1044.
  3. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk dan Rumahtangga Kecamatan Likupang Timur". BPS.[dead link]
  4. ^ "Stakeholder Analysis for Coastal Tourism Development in Bangka Island, North Sulawesi Indonesia" (PDF). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2013.
  5. ^ Ponti, Massimo; Marco Bay, Antonella Lavorato; et al. (2012). "Rapid reef health assessment by volunteers in North Sulawesi, Indonesia" (PDF). 12th International Coral Reef Symposium Book of Abstracts: 478. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  6. ^ De Voogd, N.J.; Van Soest, R.W.M. "Indonesian sponges of the genus Petrosia Vosmaer". Zoölogische Mededelingen Leiden. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  7. ^ Ashour, M.; R. Edrada-Ebel; R. Ebel; V. Wray; R.W.M. van Soest; P. Proksch (2008). "New purine derivatives from the marine sponge Petrosia nigricans". Natural Product Communications. 3 (11): 1, 889–1, 894. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
  8. ^ Anggraini, Fransiska (April 28, 2011). "A Charming Alternative". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  9. ^ Iqbal, TM. Dhani. "Ketika Kapal Perang Menjadi Alat Transportasi Tambang". Lentera Timur. Archived from the original on 2013-12-28. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  10. ^ "EXPERT OPINION: Michael Ishak". WWF. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  11. ^ "Law No.27/2007 on the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands". Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  12. ^ Hari, Agust. "Sarundajang Sebut Investasi Pulau Bangka 19 Triliun". Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  13. ^ "Presdir PT MMP: LSM Dalang Kekisruhan di Pulau Bangka". 5 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  14. ^ "Putusan PTUN MANADO Nomor 04/G.TUN/2012/PTUN.MDO Tahun 2012". Indonesian Supreme Court.
  15. ^ "Ini Alasan Tolak PT Micgro Metal Perdana Beroperasi di Pulau Bangka". Berita Kawanua. August 31, 2013.
  16. ^ "Supreme Court Information on Case No. 291 K/TUN/2013". Indonesian Supreme Court. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  17. ^ "PERATURAN PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 26 TAHUN 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  19. ^ Amas (October 15, 2012). "WALHI "Tantang" Pemprov Sulut dan Pemkab Minut". Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  20. ^ Buol, Ronny Adolof (October 2, 2013). "Beda Pendapat Soal Tambang, Warga Kahuku Saling Intimidasi". Kompas.
  21. ^ Buol, Ronny Adolof (September 29, 2013). "Kaka Slank Tolak Eksplorasi di Pulau Bangka". Kompas. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  22. ^ Amoto, Olga (26 October 2013). "Petition Set Up to Save Sulawesi's Bangka Isle". The Jakarta Globe.

Coordinates: 1°47′17″N 125°08′56″E / 1.788°N 125.149°E / 1.788; 125.149