Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

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The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (Thai: กรุงเทพมหานคร; RTGSKrung Thep Maha Nakhon) (BMA) is the local government of Bangkok (also called Krung Thep Maha Nakhon in Thai), which includes the capital of the Kingdom of Thailand. The government is composed of two branches: the executive (or the Governor of Bangkok) and the legislative (or Bangkok Metropolitan Council). The administration's roles are to formulate and implement policies to manage Bangkok. Its purview includes transport services, urban planning, waste management, housing, roads and highways, security services, and the environment.[1]

According to the Thailand Future Foundation, Bangkok employs a workforce of 97,000, including 3,200 municipal officers in Bangkok city, 200 in the city Law Enforcement Department, and 3,000 in district offices.[2][3]

Bangkok City Hall, BMA Headquarters

Governor of Bangkok[edit]

Governor of Bangkok
ผู้ว่าราชการ
กรุงเทพมหานคร
Seal Bangkok Metropolitan Admin (green).svg
Seal of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration
Incumbent
Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang

since 18 October 2016
Term length4 years renewable once
Inaugural holderChamnan Yaovabun
Formation1973
Websitehttp://www.bangkok.go.th/
Bangkok flag

The Governor of Bangkok (Thai: ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) is the head of the local government of Bangkok. The governor is also the chief executive of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). The governor is elected to a renewable term of four years, currently it is one of the two directly elected executive offices in the kingdom. The office is comparable to that of a city mayor.

The current incumbent is Pol Gen Aswin Kwanmuang.[4] He was appointed by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha using Section 44 of the interim charter to replace Sukhumbhand Paribatra. The reason given for his ouster was "...because he was involved in many legal cases."[5]

Powers and roles[edit]

The powers and role of the office of Governor of Bangkok in accordance with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2528 are as follows:

  • Formulate and implement policies for the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
  • Head the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.
  • Appoint and remove deputy governors, advisors, board members, city officials, and public servants.
  • Coordinate and carry out the orders of the Cabinet of Thailand, the Prime Minister of Thailand, and the Ministry of Interior.
  • Oversee the smooth running of the various agencies and services of the city.
  • The governor is also invested with the same powers as any other governor of a province of Thailand and any other mayor.
  • The power to draw up legislation and bills for the city, to be considered in the Bangkok Metropolitan Council.

History[edit]

Since 1973 the city was administered by a single executive appointed by the cabinet from city civil servants. However soon it was determined that the executive office should a popularly elected office instead. The passage of the Bangkok Metropolis Administrative Organisation Act, BE 2518 (1975) (Thai: พระราชบัญญัติระเบียบบริหารราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2518), created the Bangkok Metropolis to replace Bangkok Province and created an elected governor with a four-year term.

The first election for the office was held on the 10 August 1975. Thamnoon Thien-ngern was elected as the first Governor of Bangkok. Conflicts between the governor and the Bangkok Metropolitan Council, however, became so fierce that Thanin Kraivichien, the Prime Minister of Thailand removed him and reinstated the appointment system. Elections resumed with the passing of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Act, BE 2528 (1985). Elections were held on 14 November 1985.

List of governors[edit]

No. Name Term Start Term Ends Political Party
1 Chamnan Yaovabun [th] 1 January 1973 22 October 1973 (Appointed)
2 At Visutyothaphiban 1 November 1973 4 June 1974 (Appointed)
3 Siri Santabutra 5 June 1974 9 March 1975 (Appointed)
4 Sai Hutacharoen 5 May 1975 9 August 1975 (Appointed)
5 Thammanoon Thien-ngern [th] 10 August 1975 29 April 1977 Democrat Party
6 Chalor Thammasiri 29 April 1977 14 May 1979 (Appointed)
7 Chaowat Sudlapa 4 July 1979 16 April 1981 (Appointed)
8 Thiem Mokaranont 28 April 1981 1 November 1984 (Appointed)
9 Asa Meksavan [th] 6 November 1984 13 November 1985 (Appointed)
10 Chamlong Srimuang 14 November 1985 14 November 1989 Ruam Palang Group
7 January 1990 22 January 1992 Palang Dharma Party
11 Krisda Arunvongse na Ayudhya 19 April 1992 18 April 1996 Palang Dharma Party
12 Bhichit Rattakul 3 June 1996 22 July 2000 Independent
13 Samak Sundaravej 23 July 2000 28 August 2004 Citizens Party
14 Apirak Kosayodhin 29 August 2004 28 August 2008 Democrat Party
5 October 2008 19 November 2008
15 Mom Rajawongse Sukhumbhand Paribatra 11 January 2009 9 January 2013 Democrat Party
3 March 2013 18 October 2016[6]
16 Aswin Kwanmuang 18 October 2016 Present (Appointed)
  • Unless otherwise indicated, they were elected.

Bangkok Metropolitan Council[edit]

Bangkok Metropolitan Council

สภากรุงเทพมหานคร

Sapha Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Type
Type
Leadership
Chairman of the Council
Capt. Kriangsak Lohachala[7]
since 3 March 2013
Seats57 members
Elections
Last election
3 March 2013
Meeting place
Bangkok City Hall
Website
http://www.bangkok.go.th/sbmc

The Bangkok Metropolitan Council or BMC (Thai: สภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the legislative branch of the administration. It is vested with primary legislative powers as well as the power to scrutinize and advise the governor. The council is headed by the Chairman of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: ประธานสภากรุงเทพมหานคร). The current chairman, since 2013, is Captain Kriangsak Lohachala.

The number of members depends on the size of Bangkok's population. One member represents one hundred thousand people. Currently there are 60 members,[8] elected from 57 constituencies (some constituencies elect more than one member) in Bangkok. Each is elected to a four-year term. The last election was held on 30 April 2006.

Committees[edit]

The council is divided into 11 general committees with five to nine members appointed by the councillors themselves:

  1. Committee of Cleanliness and Environment
  2. Committee for Checking the Minutes of Sittings and for Considering Closure of the Minutes of the Secret Sittings
  3. Committee for the Affairs of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council
  4. Committee for the Public Works and Utilities
  5. Committee for Education and Culture
  6. Committee for Health
  7. Committee for Community Development and Social Welfare
  8. Committee for Local Administration and Orderliness
  9. Committee for Economics, Finance, and Follow-up of Budget Utilization
  10. Committee for Tourism and Sports
  11. Committee for Traffic, Transportation, and Drainage

Secretariat of the council[edit]

The Secretariat of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: สำนักงานเลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) is the executive agency of the council. The secretariat helps the council in all its roles including drafting of legislation, organisation of sessions, minutes and procedures of the council. The secretariat also helps members of the council by providing research and legal counsel. The secretariat is headed by the Secretary of the Bangkok Metropolitan Council (Thai: เลขานุการสภากรุงเทพมหานคร) The current secretary is Manit Tej-Apichok. The secretariat itself is divided into nine sections:

  1. General Administration Section
  2. Council and Committee Meetings Section
  3. Working Committees Section
  4. Legislation Section
  5. Legal Section
  6. Foreign Affairs Section
  7. Council Service Section
  8. Academic Section
  9. Secretary Section

Budget[edit]

As of 2018 BMA's annual budget is nearly 80 billion baht.[9]

Krungthep Thanakom[edit]

Krungthep Thanakom Co., Ltd. is the BMA's holding company for public investment projects such as the concession for the BTS Skytrain and a 20 billion baht underground cable project.[10][11]

Criticism[edit]

The Bangkok Post has made the point that, although the city suffers from the "worst traffic congestion in the world after Mexico City", 37 disparate agencies are responsible for traffic management, planning, and infrastructure. It maintains that the city government panders to personal automobile use. As evidence, it points to the city's plans to construct four new bridges across the Chao Phraya River, its runaway air pollution, its lack of green space—less than that of any other Asian capital—and its "...obsession with felling trees along Bangkok streets."[9]

Operational units[edit]

Fire and Rescue Department[edit]

The Bangkok City Council reported in February 2018 that, of Bangkok's 874 fire trucks, only 88 were in "good" condition. Another 340 were rated "only just usable", 232 were "dilapidated", and 225 were parked permanently. Firefighting boats were found to be in roughly the same shape: three of 31 vessels were ranked in "good" condition and 21 were out of service and permanently docked. The BMA's firefighting unit has not been allocated a vehicle maintenance budget for nearly 10 years.[12] The BMA employs 1,800 firefighters as of 2018.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "General Responsibilities of BMA". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  2. ^ Sankam, Visarut (2015-10-31). "Research reveals ugly side to Bangkok life". The Nation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  3. ^ "งานแถลงผลการศึกษาเรื่อง"10 ข้อเท็จจริงชีวิตคนกรุงเทพ"". Thailand Future Foundation. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  4. ^ Mokkhasen, Sasiwan (30 October 2016). "MEET BANGKOK'S NEW GOVERNOR: ASWIN KWANMUANG". Khaosod English. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  5. ^ "Sukhumbhand says goodbye to Bangkokians". Bangkok Post. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  6. ^ "ด่วน! ใช้ม.44 ให้สุขุมพันธุ์และทีมรองฯพ้นจากตำแหน่ง ตั้งอัศวิน ขวัญเมือง เป็นผู้ว่าฯกทม". matichon. 2016-10-18. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  7. ^ "BMA council chairman". The Secretariate of Bangkok Metropolitan Council. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Bangkok Metropolitan Council". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Big Problems in the City" (Editorial). Bangkok Post. 21 April 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  10. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (30 July 2019). "Resignations dim trust in Aswin". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Telecoms bosses lobby PM over Bangkok cables". The Nation. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  12. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (15 February 2018). "Study reveals woeful state of fire dept". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  13. ^ Wancharoen, Supoj (5 May 2018). "Battling through the blazes". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 5 May 2018.

External links[edit]