|People's Republic of Bangladesh
|Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla"
"My Golden Bengal"
"The Song of Youth"
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2014)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Sheikh Hasina|
|-||Speaker of the House||Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury|
|-||Chief Justice||Surendra Kumar Sinha|
|-||Partition of India||15 August 1947|
|-||Declaration of Independence||26 March 1971|
|-||Liberation of Bangladesh||16 December 1971|
|-||Constitution||4 November 1972|
|-||Total||147,570 km2 (94th)
56,977 sq mi
|-||March 2013 estimate||156,594,962 (8th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$572.440 billion (34th)|
|-||Per capita||$3,581 (144th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$205.327 billion (44th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,284 (155th)|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.558
medium · 142nd
|Currency||Taka (৳) (BDT)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||BD|
Bangladesh (//; i//; বাংলাদেশ, pronounced: [ˈbaŋlad̪eʃ] ( listen), lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It is bordered by India to its west, north and east; Myanmar (Burma) to its southeast; and is separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Chicken’s Neck corridor. To its south, it faces the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most populous country, with over 160 million people. It is one of the most densely populated countries, and among countries with a population exceeding 10 million, it is the most densely populated. It forms part of the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal, along with the neighbouring Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura.
The present-day borders of Bangladesh took shape during the Partition of Bengal and the British India in 1947, when the region came to be known as East Pakistan, as a part of the newly formed state of Pakistan. It was separated from West Pakistan by 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) of Indian territory. Because of political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination and economic neglect by the politically dominant western wing, nationalism, popular agitation and civil disobedience led to the Bangladesh Liberation War and independence in 1971. After independence, the new state endured poverty, famine, political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative calm and economic progress. In 2014, the Bangladeshi general election was boycotted by major opposition parties, resulting in a parliament and government dominated by the Awami League and its smaller coalition partners.
Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. The native Bengalis form the country's largest ethnic group, along with indigenous peoples in northern and southeastern districts. Geographically, the country is dominated by the fertile Bengal delta, the world's largest delta. This also gives Bangladesh a unique name tag as "the land of rivers". Bangladesh has a rich heritage of ancient civilization. Bangladesh's documented history spans 4,000 years. Bangladesh human history has lasted for more than 20,000 years.
Bangladesh is a Next Eleven emerging economy. It has achieved significant strides in human and social development since independence, including progress in gender equity, universal primary education, food production, health, and population control. However, Bangladesh continues to face numerous political, economic, social and environmental challenges, including political instability, corruption, poverty, overpopulation, and global warming.
The country is a founding member of SAARC, the Developing 8 Countries and BIMSTEC. It contributes one of the largest peacekeeping forces to the United Nations. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Cited sources
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
While the word "Bengali" is generally used to refer to people of ethnic Bengali descent in Bangladesh including those living in India and other countries, the demonym "Bangladeshi" is used to describe all citizens of Bangladesh, including non-Bengalis. The origin of the name Bengal (known as Bangla and Bongo in Bengali language) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BC. The word might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga), which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. The Indo-Aryan suffix "(-desh)" is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha- ("region, province, country") (see Desi) means "land" or "country" in Bengali language, so Bangladesh means "The land of Bengal".
The earliest reference to "Vangala" (Bangla) has been traced in the Nesari plates (805 AD) of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa.
Neolithic fossils and tools discovered in Chittagong District indicate Stone Age settlements in the Bengal region during the third millennium BCE. Bengal was settled by Austroasiatic, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman people during antiquity. The Bengal delta was known to the Greek and Roman world as Gangaridai and was chronicled by the invasion army of Alexander the Great in 325 BCE. The Wari-Bateshwar ruins are the earliest urban archaeological site in Bangladesh and enjoyed trade links with the Roman Empire and Southeast Asia. The early history of Bengal featured a succession of city-states, maritime kingdoms and pan-Indian empires. The Buddhist Samatata kingdom emerged in east Bengal after 232 BCE. The Mauryan and Gupta empires ruled much of the region between 200BCE-550CE. The Pundravardhana region encompassed much of northwestern Bengal. The Harikela state ruled the northeast and coastal areas. The Hindu leader Shashanka founded the Gauda kingdom in the 7th century. The Buddhist Candra dynasty rose to power in the southeast. Bangladesh history can go back to 100,000 years as Bangladesh has highly rich history  After a period of civil war, the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire was established circa 750 CE. Its rulers were followers of the Mahayana school of Buddhism. The Palas ushered an age of stability and imperialism. They patronized many universities and temples. Pala sculpture and painting are considered among the most finest of ancient Asian art. The cultural and architectural influence of the empire traveled to Tibet and Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty ruled for four hundred years, reaching its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. The resurgence of Brahmanical Hinduism brought the Sena and Deva dynasties to power. The Senas consolidated the caste system in Bengal. They ruled for more than 150 years.
The excavation of Abbasid Caliphate coins in Bangladeshi archaeological sites indicate trade and political relations between the Pala Empire and the Islamic Middle East. Sufism played an instrumental role in the spread of Islam in Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in the early 13th century and was a turning point in Bengali history. The achievements of previous civilizations were, however, not lost, but to a great extent, absorbed into the new Islamic polity, culture and civilization. Bakhtiar Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate defeated Lakhsman Sena of the Sena dynasty in 1204. The Mamluks, Khiljis and Tughluqs ruled the region for more than a century. Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah founded the city of Sonargaon in 1328. The Sultanate of Bengal was proclaimed in 1342. The Ilyas Shahi dynasty ruled Bengal for 123 years. The sultanate was a regional power in Asia and enjoyed links with Ming China, Persia, Hejaz, Indonesia and the Ottoman Empire. The House of Raja Ganesha converted to Islam and reigned between 1415 and 1435. The second stint of Ilyas Shahi rule ended in a palace coup by Abyssinian generals in 1487. The Hussain Shahi dynasty gained power in 1494, when Alauddin Hussain Shah, the son of the Sharif of Mecca, became the Sultan of Bengal. Alauddin ushered an age of prosperity and cultural pluralism. His royal court and governors were major patrons of literature and the arts. The sultanate expanded its territory to include Arakan as a dominion. Bengal's trade links on the Indian Ocean were strengthened. Its royal court received numerous world explorers, including Ibn Battuta, Niccolo De Conti, Ralph Fitch and Admiral Zheng He.
From 1517 onwards, Portuguese traders from Malacca and Goa were traversing the sea routes to Bengal. In 1528 they were permitted to open factories and customs houses in Chittagong, which grew into the settlement of Porto Grande. Sher Shah Suri conquered Bengal in 1538. He developed the Grand Trunk Road from Kabul to Chittagong. The Sur dynasty was replaced by the Afghan Karranis in 1564. The decline of the Bengal Sultanate increased the power of the aristocracy, giving rise to the Baro-Bhuyan landlords. Led by Isa Khan, the Baro-Bhuyans controlled much of eastern Bengal in the late 16th-century. They put up stiff resistance to the expansion of the Mughals, the Ahom kingdom and the Koch dynasty. The Kingdom of Mrauk U was formed in 1530 and placed Chittagong under Arakanese rule. Mrauk U was a focal point for medieval Bengali literary activities, as the royal court of Arakan became a haven for Muslim writers and bureaucrats.
The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal at the end of the 16th century. Dhaka was renamed as Jahangir Nagar and became an important Mughal administrative centre. The Mughals promoted agrarian reform. During the reign of Akbar, the Bengali calendar was modified in line with the Islamic hijri. The region witnessed a boom in manufacturing and agriculture, as exports grew and integration into the world economy increased. Shaista Khan defeated the Arakanese and retook Chittagong in 1666. The decline of Mughal power in the 18th-century led to the formation of the Principality of Bengal. The Nawabs of Bengal presided over a period of increasing influence from European traders. Bengal was probably the wealthiest part of the subcontinent until the 18th century.
The British East India Company gained control of Bengal after defeating its last independent Nawab at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Company rule saw the formation of the Bengal Presidency. The company instituted the Permanent Settlement in 1793. At its peak, the presidency's jurisdiction included large parts of North India, Burma and the Malacca Straits. The mutiny of 1857 resulted in the transfer of authority directly to the British crown under a viceregal government. After the foundation of the British Indian Empire, Bengal was still under the heavy influence of British culture, including architecture, education and art. The region was a hotbed of revolutionary and anti-colonial movements to overthrow the British Empire. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive partition created the short lived province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.
The 1937 elections ushered the first democratically elected government in the region. A. K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party became the first elected Premier of British Bengal. The Lahore Resolution was adopted in 1942. It called for the creation of independent states in eastern and northwestern British India. The Muslim League formed a coalition government in 1943, with Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin as premier.
During the Second World War, the Japanese Air Force conducted air raids in Chittagong. Allied forces were stationed in bases across the region in support of the Burma Campaign. After the war, the British government began plans for a quick exit from the subcontinent. Negotiations between political parties, principally the Muslim League and the Congress, led to the partition plan of 1947, despite a proposal for a United Bengal, mooted by the liberal democratic Prime Minister of Bengal H. S. Suhrawardy. Famine struck Bengal several times during British rule, including in 1770 and 1943.
Following the exit of the British Empire in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines, with the western part going to newly created India and the eastern part (Muslim majority) joining Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan), with Dhaka as its capital.
In 1950, land reform was accomplished in East Bengal with the abolishment of the feudal zamindari system. Despite the economic and demographic weight of the east, Pakistan's government and military were largely dominated by the upper classes from the west. The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was the first sign of friction between the two wings of Pakistan. Dissatisfaction with the central government over economic and cultural issues continued to rise through the next decade, during which the Awami League emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population. It agitated for autonomy in the 1960s, and in 1966, its president, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Mujib), was jailed; he was released in 1969 after an unprecedented popular uprising. In 1970, a massive cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan, killing up to half a million people, and the central government's response was seen as poor. The anger of the Bengali population was compounded when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, whose Awami League had won a majority in Parliament in the 1970 elections, was blocked from taking office. After staging compromise talks with Mujibur Rahman, President Yahya Khan and military officials launched Operation Searchlight, a sustained military assault on East Pakistan, and arrested Mujibur Rahman in the early hours of 26 March 1971. Yahya's methods were extremely bloody, and the violence of the war resulted in many civilian deaths. Yahya's chief targets included intellectuals and Hindus, and about one million refugees fled to neighbouring India. Estimates of those massacred throughout the war range from thirty thousand to three million. Mujibur Rahman was ultimately released on 8 January 1972.
Awami League leaders set up a government-in-exile in Calcutta, India. The exile government formally took oath at Meherpur, in the Kustia district of East Pakistan, on 17 April 1971, with Tajuddin Ahmad as the first Prime Minister and Syed Nazrul Islam as the Acting President. The Bangladesh Liberation War lasted for nine months. A resistance force known as the Mukti Bahini was formed from the Bangladesh Forces (consisting of Bengali regular forces) in alliance with civilian fighters such as the Kader Bahini and the Hemayet Bahini. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani, the Bangladesh Forces were organized into eleven sectors and, as part of Mukti Bahini, conducted a massive guerrilla war against the Pakistan Forces. The war witnessed the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, in which the Pakistan Army and its allied religious militias carried out a wide-scale elimination of Bengali civilians, intellectuals, youth, students, politicians, activists and religious minorities. By winter, Bangladesh-India Allied Forces defeated the Pakistan Army, culminating in its surrender and the Liberation of Dhaka on 16 December 1971.
After independence, the Constitution of Bangladesh established a unitary secular multiparty parliamentary democratic system. The Awami League won the first general elections in 1973 with a massive mandate, gaining an absolute parliamentary majority. A nationwide famine occurred during 1973 and 1974, and in early 1975, Mujib initiated a one-party socialist rule with his newly formed BAKSAL. On 15 August 1975, Mujib and most of his family members were assassinated by mid-level military officers. Vice President Khandaker Mushtaq Ahmed was sworn in as President with most of Mujib's cabinet intact. Two Army uprisings on 3 and 7 November 1975 led to a reorganised structure of power. A state of emergency was declared to restore order and calm. Mushtaq resigned, and the country was placed under temporary martial law, with three service chiefs serving as deputies to the new president, Justice Abu Sayem, who also became the Chief Martial Law Administrator. Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman took over the presidency in 1977 when Justice Sayem resigned. President Zia reinstated multi-party politics, introduced free markets, and founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Zia's rule ended when he was assassinated by elements of the military in 1981. Bangladesh's next major ruler was Lieutenant General Hossain Mohammad Ershad, who gained power in a coup on 24 March 1982, and ruled until 6 December 1990, when he was forced to resign after a revolt of all major political parties and the public, along with pressure from Western donors (which was a major shift in international policy after the fall of the Soviet Union).
Since then, Bangladesh has reverted to a parliamentary democracy. Zia's widow, Khaleda Zia, led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party to parliamentary victory at the general election in 1991 and became the first female Prime Minister in Bangladeshi history. However, the Awami League, headed by Sheikh Hasina, one of Mujib's surviving daughters, won the next election in 1996. The Awami League lost again to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 2001. Widespread political unrest followed the resignation of the BNP in late October 2006, but the caretaker government worked to bring the parties to election within the required ninety days. At the last minute in early January, the Awami League withdrew from the election scheduled for later that month. On 11 January 2007, the military intervened to support both a state of emergency and a continuing but neutral caretaker government under a newly appointed Chief Advisor, who was not a politician. The country had suffered for decades from extensive corruption, disorder, and political violence. The caretaker government worked to root out corruption from all levels of government. It arrested on corruption charges more than 160 people, including politicians, civil servants, and businessmen, among whom were both major party leaders, some of their senior staff, and two sons of Khaleda Zia.
After working to clean up the system, the caretaker government held what was described by observers as a largely free and fair election on 29 December 2008. The Awami League's Sheikh Hasina won with a two-thirds landslide in the elections; she took the oath of Prime Minister on 6 January 2009.
The geography of Bangladesh is divided between three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges. The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by the rivers when they overflow their banks has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making water issues politically complicated to resolve – in most cases as the lower riparian state to India.
The country is predominated by rich fertile flat land. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.28 ft). 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significant importance to global environmental science.
In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been done since the 1960s to 'build with nature'. Construction of cross dams has induced a natural accretion of silt, creating new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began promoting the development of this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has become a multiagency endeavor, building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. By fall 2010, the program will have allotted some 27,000 acres (10,927 ha) to 21,000 families. With an elevation of 1,280 m (4,200 ft), the highest peak of Bangladesh is Tahjindong, also known as Bijoy located in Bandarban district.
Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below 0 °C, with a record low of 1.1 °C in the north west city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905. A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating. A cyclone that struck Bangladesh in 1991 killed some 140,000 people.
In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (6,000 mi) of road and 2,700 km (1,700 mi) of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless, with 135,000 cattle killed, 50 km2 (19 sq mi) of land destroyed and 11,000 km (6,800 mi) of roads damaged or destroyed. Two-thirds of the country was underwater. There were several reasons for the severity of the flooding. Firstly, there were unusually high monsoon rains. Secondly, the Himalayas shed off an equally unusually high amount of melt water that year. Thirdly, trees that usually would have intercepted rain water had been cut down for firewood or to make space for animals.
Bangladesh is now widely recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health and shelter. It is believed that in the coming decades the rising sea level alone will create more than 20 million climate refugees. Bangladeshi water is contaminated with arsenic frequently because of the high arsenic contents in the soil. Up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water. Bangladesh is among the countries most prone to natural floods, tornados and cyclones. Also, there is evidence that earthquakes pose a threat to the country. Evidence shows that tectonics have caused rivers to shift course suddenly and dramatically. It has been shown that rainy-season flooding in Bangladesh, on the world’s largest river delta, can push the underlying crust down by as much as 6 centimetres, and possibly perturb faults.
Bangladesh is located in the Indomalaya ecozone. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm. There are 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants. Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.
Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest. It covers an area of 6,000 km2 in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries- the South, East and West zones.The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.
Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 km2. The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans. Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest population of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh. The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It has 628 species of birds.
Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one horned and two horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, hence limiting deforestation to a certain extent. However, rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Though many areas are protected under law, a large portion of Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests and rivers. The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.
Bangladesh is a unitary multiparty parliamentary republic, based on the Westminister system of unicameral parliamentary government. The system was established after independence under the widely hailed 1972 Constitution. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the preeminent national leader in the early years of independence. Between 1975 and 1990, the country was governed under a presidential republic, initially established under BAKSAL, and adopted later by military-backed governments. President Ziaur Rahman reinstated multiparty politics in 1978. President Hussain Muhammad Ershad ruled the nation for seven years until his resignation in 1991, following a popular uprising for the restoration of parliamentary democracy.
Since 1991, Bangladesh has essentially been under a two party system, in which the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) have alternated in power. A caretaker government system was introduced in 1996 to oversee neutral elections under interim administrations. The Awami League has aligned itself with secular and leftist parties, while the BNP is aligned with right-wing and Islamist parties. The two alliances are respectively led by Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia. A political crisis in 2006 led to a two-year state of emergency, when the country was ruled by a military-backed caretaker government. Elections in 2008 saw the Awami League return to power with a landslide majority. The League repealed the caretaker government system in 2011. The Khaleda Zia-led BNP and other major opposition groups boycotted the next general election in 2014, amid concerns over vote rigging. This resulted in a clean sweep by the Awami League and its allies.
Bangladesh is ranked by Freedom House as "Partly Free" in its Freedom in the World report. The Economist Intelligence Unit classifies the country as a hybrid regime, which is the third best rank out of four in its Democracy Index. Bangladeshi politics is dominated by the bitter personal rivalry between Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia.
- Executive: The Prime Minister is the head of government and is appointed by the President with the confidence of the majority in parliament. The Prime Minister is traditionally the Leader of the House and the single largest party; he or she heads the Cabinet which holds Executive power. The President is the head of state with key ceremonial duties. The President is elected by the parliament for a five-year term. Sheikh Hasina has been the Prime Minister of Bangladesh since 2009. Abdul Hamid is the current President of Bangladesh.
- Legislative: There are 350 MPs in the Jatiyo Sangshad. It is headed by the Speaker, who is second in line to the presidency. The Leader of the Opposition heads the main opposition in the house. During elections, 300 lawmakers are elected on a first-past-the-post basis. The Speaker allocates an additional 50 reserved seats for women candidates. The Awami League currently holds control of the house with 273 seats. The Jatiyo Party is the chief opposition with 42 seats. The current Speaker of parliament is Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury.
- Judicial: The legal system of Bangladesh is primarily in accordance with English Common Law. The higher judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, which includes an Appellate Division and the Bangladesh High Court. The current Chief Justice is Surendra Kumar Sinha. The constitution has undergone fifteen amendments since 1972.
Bangladesh's foreign policy follows a principle of friendship to all and malice to none, which was first articulated by Bengali statesman H. S. Suhrawardy in 1957. Today, countries considered as Bangladesh's most important partners include India, China, Japan, Russia, the United States and the United Kingdom. During the Cold War, Bangladesh cultivated good relations with both the United States and the Soviet Union; but it remained nonaligned with either superpower. It asserted itself on many international issues, particularly those affecting decolonized and developing countries. It was elected twice to serve on the UN Security Council between 1978 and 2000.
During the Gulf War in 1991, Bangladesh contributed 2,300 troops to the US-led multinational coalition for the liberation of Kuwait. It has since become the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping operations, providing 113,000 personnel to 54 UN missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa and the Caribbean, as of 2014. Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries worldwide. A major example are the operations of BRAC in Afghanistan, which benefit 12 million people in that country.
Key to Bangladesh's self-assertiveness is its desire to project the soft power of Bengali culture and democratic politics. It also relies on its Islamic heritage, being the world's third largest Muslim-majority country, and enjoys fraternal relations with many nations in the Muslim world. It is a founding member of the Developing 8, along with Turkey, Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan and Indonesia. It has been a member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation since 1973.
As part of efforts to stimulate regional development plans, Bangladesh has been instrumental in organizing regional economic cooperation in South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was founded in Dhaka in 1985. Since then, three Bangladeshis have served as its Secretary-General. The Bangladeshi capital also hosts the headquarters of the Bay of Bengal Initiative (BIMSTEC). Located on the western doorstep of Southeast Asia, Bangladesh has prioritized on building economic, political and strategic relations with member states of ASEAN. Other regional groupings where it s a key member include the BCIM, BBIN, the ASEAN Regional Forum and the Indian Ocean Rim Association.
Bangladesh's most important which has been complex at time bilateral relationship is with neighboring India. Relations are bounded by shared culture, history and India's support for the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The two nations were initially very strong allies, but differences soon emerged over water sharing, border security and trade barriers. Bangladesh distanced itself from the Indo-Soviet Cold War axis in South Asia, and pursued stronger relations with Western countries. Any hint of Indian intimidation or enroachment on territorial rights elicited a strong nationalistic response from all levels of Bangladeshi society. Since 2009, relations have rapidly improved under the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina. The two countries have resolved long pending border disputes, and have forged joint initiatives in counter-terrorism, energy security and developing transport links. Bangladesh and India are today the largest trading partners in South Asia.
Japan and Bangladesh have strong relations with common strategic and political goals. Japan has been Bangladesh's largest development partner since independence, providing US$11 billion in assistance since 1972. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced a further US$6 billion aid package for the country in 2014.
Bangladesh enjoys very warm relations with the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Economic cooperation between Dhaka and the two major powers have rapidly increased. Bangladesh inked a civilian nuclear agreement with Russia in 2011, and also signed its largest-ever arms deal with Moscow. China is both a major trade partner and defense supplier to Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Armed Forces operate Russian and Chinese fighter jets, tanks, frigates and missiles.
Bangladesh is an important strategic ally of the United States in South Asia. The two countries enjoy robust strategic cooperation in defense, maritime security, and counter-terrorism. The U.S. is also Bangladesh's largest trade partner and foreign investor. According to a Pew research poll in 2014, 76% of Bangladeshis express a favorable view of America. Bangladesh is an imporant member of the Commonwealth of Nations and has growing economic ties with Latin American countries.
As of 2012[update], the current strength of the army is around 300,000 including reservists, the air force 22,000, and navy 24,000. In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has been called on to provide support to civil authorities for disaster relief and internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh has consistently been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces for many years. In February 2015, Bangladesh had major deployments in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Darfur, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti, South Sudan, Lebanon, Cyprus and the Golan Heights.
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh,Rajshahi, Sylhet and Rangpur.
Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held for each union (or ward), electing a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.
|Administrative Divisions of Bangladesh|
|Sylhet||Sylhet||1 August 1995||
Bangladesh is a Next Eleven developing nation with a US$209 billion economy and a per capita income of US$1,190. The Taka is the currency of Bangladesh. The central bank is the Bangladesh Bank. The service sector accounts for 51% of GDP, the industrial sector 30% and agriculture 18%. Bangladesh is a major agricultural producer, particularly in the global production of rice (4th), fisheries (5th), jute (2nd), tea (10th) and tropical fruits (5th). Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, telecommunications, energy, fertilizer, cement, leather, food processing and ceramics. The country is the seventh-largest natural gas producer in Asia. Its exports amounted to US$30 billion in the fiscal year 2013–14. 70% of export earnings came from the textile industry, which is the world's fourth largest textile exporter (after China, India, Germany and Italy). Remittances from the Bangladeshi diaspora and overseas workers provide vital foreign exchange earnings, accounting for US$14 billion in FY2013-14.
Bangladesh has a large, often inefficient, public sector, including state owned utilities, banks and industries. The government provides heavy subsidies for fuel prices and irrigation. In the British Raj, jute and tea were the backbones of the economy. East Bengal once accounted for 80% of the world jute trade, which peaked during the Second World War. The country's tea industry includes many of the world's largest tea plantations.
After independence, the international community poured substantial foreign aid into Bangladesh to help develop its infrastructure, education, healthcare and demographic prospects. Today, the country has decreased its dependency on foreign aid from 85% (in 1988) to 2% (in 2010), for the annual development budget. Since 2004, the economy has grown at an average rate of 6%. Bangladesh has seen rising foreign direct investment, particularly in energy, telecoms and export processing zones. Bangladesh has one of the largest financial industries in South Asia. Its twin stock markets are the Dhaka Stock Exchange and the Chittagong Stock Exchange.
The telecoms industry in Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing markets in the world, with 114 million cellphone subscribers in December 2013. The pharmaceutical industry meets 97% of domestic demand and exports to 52 countries. The shipbuilding industry has seen rapid growth in recent years. The steel industry in Bangladesh is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong. It is buoyed by the boom in shipbuilding, construction and real estate. Bangladesh is increasing its export of ceramics, particularly bone china and porcelain. It is a major exporter of fish, seafood, frozen and processed food. It has a fast growing solar power industry and ranks as the country with the fifth-largest number of green jobs.
A significant contributor to the economy is the microfinance sector. Pioneered by Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank in the late 1970s, it has grown to include more than thirty million borrowers and has lent billions of dollars in microcredit loans. The industry stimulates a dynamic rural economy, supporting entrepreneurship in agriculture, cottage industries and small businesses. Microcredit organizations such as BRAC and Grameen Bank have diversified into education, housing and renewable energy.
Transport is a major sector in the Bangladesh economy. The country has a 2,706 km rail network operated by the Bangladesh Railway. It has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world, with 8,046 km of navigable waterways. The Port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over US$60 billion in annual trade. More than 80% of the country's export-import trade passes through Chittagong. The second largest seaport is the Port of Mongla. The insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to growth. According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are major challenges for Bangladesh's development. In April 2010, Standard & Poor's awarded Bangladesh a BB- long term credit rating, which is below India and above Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
The population of Bangladesh as of 15 March 2011 is 142.3 million (census 2011 result), much less than recent (2007–2010) estimates of Bangladesh's population ranging from 150 to 170 million and it is the 8th most populous nation in the world. In 1951, the population was 44 million. It is also the most densely populated large country in the world, and it ranks 11th in population density, when very small countries and city-states are included.
|Historical populations in millions|
|Source: OECD/World Bank|
Bangladesh's population growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate began to slow. The fertility rate now stands at 2.55, lower than India (2.58) and Pakistan (3.07) The population is relatively young, with 34% aged 15 or younger and 5% 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 70 years for both males and females in 2012. Despite the rapid economic growth, about 26% of the country still lives below the international poverty line which means living on less than $1.25 per day. Bengalis constitute 98% of the population.
Minorities include indigenous people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and other parts of northern Bangladesh. The Hill Tracts are home to 11 ethnic tribal groups, notably the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki and Bawm. The Sylhet region is home to the Manipuri tribe. The Mymensingh region has a substantial Garo population. The North Bengal region is home to aboriginal Santals. Bangladesh is also home to a significant Ismaili community.
The southeastern region has received an influx of Rohingya refugees from Burma, particularly during Burmese military crackdowns in 1978 and 1991. During renewed sectarian unrest in Rakhine State in 2012, Bangladesh closed its borders amid fears of a third major exodus from Burma. Stranded Pakistanis are a contentious dispute between Bangladesh and Pakistan. In 2008, the Bangladesh High Court granted full citizenship to all second generation Stranded Pakistanis born after 1971. The Hill Tracts region suffered unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 due to a movement by indigenous people for autonomy. A peace accord was signed in 1997; however, the region remains heavily militarized.
Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. The cities with a city corporation, having mayoral elections, include Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Comilla and Gazipur. Other major cities, these and other municipalities electing a chairperson, include Mymensingh, Gopalganj, Jessore, Bogra, Dinajpur, Saidapur, Narayanganj and Rangamati. Both the municipal heads are elected for a span of five years.
Largest cities or towns in Bangladesh
More than 98% of Bangladeshis speak Bengali as their native language, which is also the official language. English is also used as a second language among the middle and upper classes and is also widely used in higher education and the legal system. Historically, laws were written in English and were not translated into Bengali until 1987, when the procedure was reversed. Bangladesh's Constitution and all laws are now in both English and Bengali. There are also several indigenous minority languages.
Islam is the largest religion of Bangladesh, making up 89.5 of the population. Hinduism makes up 8.5% of the population, Buddhism 0.6% and Christianity 0.3%. The majority of Muslims are Sunni, roughly 4% are non-denominational Muslims and a small number are Shia, and about 100,000 Ahmadi Muslims. Bangladesh has the fourth largest Muslim population after Indonesia, Pakistan and India. Hindus are the second biggest religious group in Bangladesh, and the third largest in the world after India and Nepal. Buddhists are concentrated in the southeast while Christians in urban areas.
After gaining independence from Pakistan, Bangladesh became the first country in South Asia to constitutionally proclaim secularism in 1972. It was followed by India in 1976. However, the military junta led by Ziaur Rahman removed secularist principles enshrined in the document through a martial law ordinance in 1977. In 1988, President H. M. Ershad, another de facto military ruler, promoted a parliamentary amendment that made Islam the state religion. In 2010, the High Court ruled that Zia's changes under martial law were illegal and void, and upheld the secular principles of the 1972 constitution. But it allowed to keep Islam as the state religion. The Constitution calls for a secular government and bans religion-based politics. Bangladesh combines secular state laws with individual personal religious codes.
Many people in Bangladesh practice Sufism, as historically Islam was brought to the region by Sufi saints. Sufi influences in the region go back many centuries. The largest gathering of Muslims in the country is the Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the Tablighi Jamaat. The Ijtema is the second largest Muslim congregation in the world after the Hajj.
Bangladesh has a low literacy rate, estimated at 61.3% for males and 52.2% for females in 2010. The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and highly subsidized. The government of Bangladesh operates many schools in the primary, secondary, and higher secondary levels. It also subsidises parts of the funding for many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the government also funds more than 15 state universities through the University Grants Commission.
The education system is divided into 5 levels: Primary (from grades 1 to 5), Junior Secondary (from grades 6 to 8), Secondary (from grades 9 to 10), Higher Secondary (from grades 11 to 12) and tertiary. The five years of lower secondary education concludes with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, but since 2009 it concludes with a Primary Education Closing (PEC) Examination. Also earlier Students who pass this examination proceed to four years Secondary or matriculation training, which culminate in a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination, but since 2010 the Primary Education Closing (PEC) passed examinees proceed to three years Junior Secondary, which culminate in a Junior School Certificate (JSC) Examination. Then students who pass this examination proceed to two years Secondary or matriculation training, which culminate in a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of Higher Secondary or intermediate training, which culminate in a Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) Examination.
Education is mainly offered in Bengali, but English is also commonly taught and used. A large number of Muslim families send their children to attend part-time courses or even to pursue full-time religious education, which is imparted in Bengali and Arabic in madrasahs.
Bangladesh conforms fully to the Education For All (EFA) objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of six and ten years receive a basic education free of charge.
Universities in Bangladesh are mainly categorized into three different types: public university (government owned and subsidized), private university (private sector owned universities) and international university (operated and funded by international organizations). Bangladesh has some thirty-four public, sixty-four private and two international universities. National University has the largest enrollment among them and University of Dhaka (established 1921) is the oldest university of the country. Islamic University of Technology, commonly known as IUT is a subsidiary organ of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), representing fifty seven member countries from Asia, Africa, Europe and South America. Asian University for Women located in Chittagong is the preeminent liberal arts university for women in South Asia, representing 14 countries from Asia. The faculty members are from many well-known academic institutions of North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Middle East. BUET, CUET, BUTex, DUET are among the 6 public Engineering Universities in the country. There are also some Science and technology universities including SUST, MIST, PUST etc. Bangladeshi universities are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), a commission created according to the Presidential Order (P.O. No 10 of 1973) of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Medical education in the country is provided by 29 government and some other private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
Health and education levels remain relatively low, although they have improved recently as poverty (26% at 2012) levels have decreased. In the rural areas, village doctors with little or no formal training constitute 62% of the healthcare providers practicing modern medicine and the formally trained providers are occupying a mere 4% of the total health workforce. A survey conducted by Future Health Systems revealed significant deficiencies in treatment practices of village doctors, with a wide prevalence of harmful and inappropriate drug prescriptions. There are market incentives for accessing health care through informal providers and it is important to understand these markets in order to facilitate collaboration across actors and institutions in order to provide incentives for better performance.
A 2007 study of 1000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct costs (payment to formal and informal health care providers) and indirect costs (loss of earnings associated with workdays lost because of illness) associated with illness were important deterrents to accessing health care from qualified healthcare providers. A community survey with 6183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a clear gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment compared to men. The use of skilled birth attendants, however, has risen between 2005 and 2007 by women in all wealth quintiles except the highest quintile. A pilot community empowerment tool, called a health watch, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh in order to improve uptake and monitoring of public health services.
The poor health conditions in Bangladesh is attributed by the lack of healthcare and services provision by the government. The total expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of their GDP was only 3.35% in 2009, according to a World Bank report published in 2010. The number of hospital beds per 10,000 population is 4. The General government expenditure on healthcare as a percentage of total government expenditure was only 7.9% as of 2009 and the citizens pay most of their health care bills as the out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of private expenditure on health is 96.5%.
Malnutrition has been a persistent problem for the poverty-stricken country. The World Bank estimates that Bangladesh is ranked 1st in the world of the number of children suffering from malnutrition. In Bangladesh, 26% of the population are undernourished and 46% of the children suffers from moderate to severe underweight problem. 43% of children under 5 years old are stunted. One in five preschool age children are vitamin A deficient and one in two are anemic. Child malnutrition in Bangladesh is amongst the highest in the world. Two-thirds of the children, under the age of five, are under-nourished and about 60% of them, who are under six, are stunted. More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric intake level.
Reflecting the long history of the region, Bangladesh has a culture that encompasses elements both old and new.
Bengali has a rich literary heritage, which Bangladesh shares with the Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest literary text in Bengali is the 8th century Charyapada. Medieval Bengali literature was often either religious (for example, Chandidas), or adapted from other languages (for example, Alaol). Bengali literature reached its full expression in the 19th century, with its greatest icons being poets, the national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarat Chandra, Jasim Uddin, Jibanananda Das, Shamsur Rahman, Al Mahmud, Sukanta Bhattacharya, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and present day Humayun Ahmed, Muhammed Zafar Iqbal. Bangladesh also has a long tradition in folk literature, for example Maimansingha Gitika, Thakurmar Jhuli and stories related to Gopal Bhar, Birbal and Molla Nasiruddin.
Music and the arts
The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based (Baniprodhan), with minimal instrumental accompaniment. Numerous musical traditions exist including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya, varying from one region to the next. Folk music is accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bangladesh also has an active heritage in North Indian classical music. Similarly, Bangladeshi dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance tradition. The Baul tradition was included in the list of "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.
The Bangladeshi film industry has been based in Bangladesh's capital, Dhaka, since 1956. As of 2004, it produced approximately 100 movies a year, with an average movie budget of about 20,000,000 Bangladeshi taka. The film industry is known as Dhallywood, a portmanteau of the words Dhaka and Hollywood. Bangladesh produces about 80 films a year.
Around 200 daily newspapers are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 500 periodicals. However, regular readership is low at just under 15% of the population. Bangladeshis listen to a variety of local and national radio programs like Bangladesh Betar. Several private FM radio stations (Radio Foorti, ABC Radio, Radio Today, Radio Amar etc.) are popular among urban youths. International Bengali-language broadcasts include BBC Bangla and Voice of America. The dominant television channel is the state-owned Bangladesh Television, but in the last few years, privately owned channels have developed considerably. Some popular privately owned TV channels are ATN Bangla, Channel i, NTV, Ekushey Television, Desh TV, RTV, Banglavision, Islamic TV, Boishakhi TV, Mohona TV, ATN News, Somoy TV, Independent TV, Channel 9 Bangladesh etc.
The culinary tradition of Bangladesh has close relations to surrounding Bengali and North-East Indian cuisine as well as having its own unique traits. Rice and fish are traditional favourites. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice as a staple diet. Biryani is a favourite dish of Bangladesh and this includes egg biryani, mutton biryani and beef biryani. Bengaladeshi cuisine is known for its subtle (yet sometimes fiery) flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. Bangladeshis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, some common ones being Rôshogolla, Rasmalai, Rôshomalai, chômchôm and kalojam. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.
Textiles and craftsmanship
The Sari (শাড়ি shaŗi) is by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi womem which is also a traditional dress. A guild of weavers in Dhaka is renowned for producing saris from exquisite Jamdani muslin. The salwar kameez (shaloar kamiz) is also quite popular, especially among the younger females, and in urban areas some women wear western attire. Among men, western attire is more widely adopted. Men also wear the Panjabi and paejama combination, often on special occasions, and the lungi, a kind of long skirt for men.
The Muslim holidays of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, the Bengali New Year, Independence day, Victory Day, the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja and Krishna Janmashtami, the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christmas, called Borodin (" the Great day"), are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country.
Pohela Boishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pohela Boishakh comes without any preexisting expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.). Unlike holidays like Eid al-Fitr, where dressing up in lavish clothes has become a norm, or Christmas where exchanging gifts has become an integral part of the holiday, Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one's class, religion, or financial capacity. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno, and Poush porbon (festival of Poush), both Bengali harvest festivals.
Alongside these are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (International Mother Language Day), Independence Day and Victory Day. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement, and at the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs. And many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts in which citizens from all levels of society can participate.
Bangladesh has appealing architecture from historic treasures to contemporary landmarks. The architecture of Bangladesh has a long history and is rooted in Bangladesh's culture, religion and history.  It has evolved over centuries and assimilated influences from social, religious and exotic communities. The architecture of Bangladesh bears a remarkable impact on the lifestyle, tradition and cultural life of Bangladeshi people. Bangladesh has many architectural relics and monuments dating back thousands of years.
Bangladesh has a strong tradition of regional modernism and combining the cultural and environmental heritage of the Bengal delta with contemporary modern architecture. Many prominent international architects have worked in Bangladesh, including Louis Kahn, Konstantinos Doxiadis, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph and Robert Boughey. Leading Bangladeshi architects include Fazlur Rahman Khan, Muzharul Islam, Rafiq Azam, Kashef Mahboob Chowdhury, Bashirul Haq, Ehsan Khan and others.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh, followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999, and the following year was granted elite Test cricket status. But they have struggled to date, recording only ten Test match victories: eight against Zimbabwe with five in 2005 and three in 2014, the other two came in a 2-0 series victory over the West Indies in 2009. The team has been more successful in One Day International cricket. In July 2010, they celebrated their first ever win over England in any form of match. Later in 2010, they beat New Zealand for the first time. In late 2012, they won a five-match home ODI series 3-2 against a full-strength West Indies National team. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. In 2012, the country hosted the Asia Cup. The team beat India and Sri Lanka but failed to keep the reputation in the final game against Pakistan. However, it was the first time Bangladesh had advanced to the final of any major cricket tournament.
They participated at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, defeating Afghanistan to claim their Gold Medal in the first ever cricket tournament held in the Asian Games. Bangladeshi cricketer Sakib Al Hasan is no.1 on the ICC's all-rounder rankings in all three formats of the cricket.
Kabaddi is a very popular game in Bangladesh, considered the national game. Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting, angling. The National Sports Council regulates 42 different sporting federations.
Bangladesh have 5 grand masters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grand master in South Asia. In another achievement, Margarita Mamun, a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi origin, became world's champion in 2013 and 2014.
- Outline of Bangladesh
- Index of Bangladesh-related articles
- Commonwealth of Nations
- Foreign relations of Bangladesh
- Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh
- Shipbuilding in Bangladesh
- Bangladeshi RMG Sector
- The constitution spells Bangla to refer Bengali Language
- Bengali is the sole official language and also the de jure national language. Alongside Bengali, English is often used for official purposes, specially in judiciary systems.
- Islam is the State religion, but the constitution ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and other religions.
- "NATIONAL SYMBOLS→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism.
In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country’s independence.
- "3. The state language". Laws of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "বাংলাদেশকে জানুন" [Discover Bangladesh] (in Bengali). National Web Portal of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "2A. The state religion". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014.
- "Population, Total". World Bank. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- "Bangladesh". World Economic Outlook Database. IMF.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2014 Summary" (PDF). United Nations. 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Ban lauds Bangladesh’s progress on women’s and children’s health". UN News Center (United Nations). 15 November 2011. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Meeting Millennium Development Goals". BBC News. 10 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- "Bangladesh continues to be a role model in MDG achievement". UNDP Bangladesh. 7 September 2014. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. September 1988. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.
- SenGupta, Amitabh (14 June 2012). Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village. AuthorHouse UK. p. 14. ISBN 978-1467896634.
- Keay, John (2011) India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0802145582. p. 220
- Allan, John Andrew (2013) The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Literary Licensing. p. 145
- Sen, Sailendra Nath Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 8122411983. p. 281
- Mantraṇālaẏa, Tathya and Anubibhāga, Bahiḥ Pracāra (1994). Bangladesh towards 21st century. External Publicity Wing, Ministry of Information, Govt. of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.
- James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden, ed. (1989). "Early History, 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Library of Congress. ISBN 82-90584-08-3. OCLC 15653912.
- Bharadwaj, G (2003). "The Ancient Period". In Majumdar, RC. History of Bengal. B.R. Publishing Corp.
- Whyte, Mariam; Yong, Jui Lin (2009). Bangladesh. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-7614-4475-6.
- Gangaridai, the wellspring of Bangladesh. Dhaka Tribune (19 July 2014). Retrieved on 2015-04-27.
- Olivelle, Austin Patrick, ed. (2006). Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-19-977507-1.
- Bagchi, Jhunu (1993). The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-81-7017-301-4.
- Buddhist Art and Architecture in Southeast Asia After 1200. Art History Teaching Resources. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- Sena dynasty. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- Baaquie, Belal E (7 December 2012) Bangladesh: A pivot of the south-eastern Silk Road?. New Age
- Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.
- Hussain, Syed Ejaz (2003) The Bengal Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205–1576
- History and Legend of Sino-Bangla Contacts. Bd.china-embassy.org. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- Bengal. Encyclopaedia Iranica.
- Chowdhury, AM and Shah, Husain. "Asiatic Society of Bangladesh". Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
- Richard, Arthus (2002). History of Rakhine. Boston, MD: Lexington Books. p. 23. ISBN 0-7391-0356-3. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Kratoska, Paul H. (2001). South East Asia, Colonial History: Imperialism before 1800. Taylor & Francis. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-415-21540-4.
- Raychaudhuri, Tapan; Habib, Irfan; Kumar, Dharma (1983). The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 2, C.1751-c.1970. CUP Archive. pp. 296–. ISBN 978-0-521-22802-2.
- Dunn, Ross E (1986). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century. pg 254–256
- Conti, Nicolo de. BANGLAPEDIA.
- Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2.
- Baxter, pp. 30–32
- Baxter, pp. 39–40
- Nippon Bombers Raid Chittagong. The Miami News. 9 May 1942
- "14 Dec 1942 – JAPANESE RAID CHITTAGONG Stung By Allied Bombing". Trove.nla.gov.au. 14 December 1942. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Christophe Jaffrelot (2004). A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. Anthem Press. p. 42. ISBN 9781843311492.
- Sen, Amartya (1973). Poverty and Famines. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828463-2. OCLC 10362534 177334002 191827132 31051320 40394309 53621338 63294006.
- Collins, L; D Lapierre (1986). Freedom at Midnight, Ed. 18. Vikas Publishers, New Delhi. ISBN 0-7069-2770-2.
- Baxter, p. 72
- Baxter, pp. 62–63
- Bangladesh cyclone of 1991. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
- Baxter, pp. 78–79
- Salik, Siddiq (1978). Witness to Surrender. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577264-4.
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997) "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900". Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, table 8.1. Rummel comments that, In East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) [General Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan and his top generals] planned to indiscriminately murder hundreds of thousands of its Hindus and drive the rest into India. And they planned to destroy its economic base to ensure that it would be subordinate to West Pakistan for at least a generation to come. This despicable and cutthroat plan was outright genocide.
- LaPorte, R (1972). "Pakistan in 1971: The Disintegration of a Nation". Asian Survey 12 (2): 97–108. doi:10.1525/as.1972.12.2.01p0190a.
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997) "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900". Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations.
- Sheikh Mujibur Rehman release and events on 8 January 1972. Pakblog.net (2012-01). Retrieved on 26 June 2012.
- Mascarenhas, A (1986). Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. Hodder & Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-39420-X. OCLC 13004864 16583315 242251870.
- Rahman, Waliur (18 October 2005). "Bangladesh tops most corrupt list". BBC News. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- "Bangladesh election seen as fair, though loser disputes result". The New York Times. 30 November 2008.
- "Hasina takes oath as new Bangladesh prime minister". Reuters. 6 January 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- Suvedī, Sūryaprasāda (2005). International watercourses law for the 21st century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 154–166. ISBN 0-7546-4527-4.
- Ali, A (1996). "Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 92 (1–2): 171–179. doi:10.1007/BF00175563.
- ""Bangladesh fights for survival against climate change", by William Wheeler and Anna-Katarina Gravgaard, The Washington Times". Pulitzercenter.org. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- "LGED BANDARBAN , About BANDARBAN". Local Government Engineering Department of Bangladesh. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Map Of Dinajpur, kantaji.com. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Alexander, David E. (1999) . "The Third World". Natural Disasters. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 532. ISBN 0-412-04751-9. OCLC 27974924 43782866. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
- "Beset by Bay's Killer Storms, Bangladesh Prepares and Hopes". Los Angeles Times. 27 February 2005
- Haggett, Peter (2002) . "The Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of World Geography. New York: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2, 634. ISBN 0-7614-7308-4. OCLC 46578454. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
- Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008. Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, September 2008. ISBN 984-8574-25-5
- The Climate refugee Challenge, ReliefWeb, 14 April 2009
- "Another Major Cyclone, Bangladesh Worries About Climate Change", PBS News Hour, 2008
- Walker, Brian (21 June 2010). "Study: Millions in Bangladesh exposed to arsenic in drinking water". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- "Bangladesh: 77 m poisoned by arsenic in drinking water". BBC News. 19 June 2010. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- cyclone relief effort hampered updated 17 November 2007 associated press
- Country Emergency Situation Profile: Bangladesh prone areas
- Beneath Bangladesh: The Next Great Earthquake?. earth.columbia.edu (12 July 2011)
- "Bangladesh - Country Profile". cbd.int.
- Bangladesh | history – geography :: Plant and animal life. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- "Flora and Fauna – Bangladesh high commission in India". bdhcdelhi.org.
- "::: Star Weekend Magazine :::". thedailystar.net.
- "Encyclopedia of World Geography". google.com.bd.
- "Bangladesh Sunderbans Wildlife Survey Finds New Species of Leopard". International Business Times UK.
- "Bears in Bangladesh". Bangladesh Bear Project.
- "6,000 Rare, Large River Dolphins Found in Bangladesh". National Geographic. March 2009.
- Hossain, Muhammad Selim. "Conserving biodiversity must for survival". dailystar.net. The Daily Star. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Dhaka Discourse". Institute of Peace & Conflict Studies – Bangladesh: Domestic Politics and External Actors.
- Bangladesh. Freedom House. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- BANGLADESH (Jatiya Sangsad), Full text. IPU PARLINE database.
- Jahan, Rounaq and Amundsen, Inge (2012) THE PARLIAMENT OF BANGLADESH – Representation and Accountability. CPDCMI Working Paper 2.
- GlobaLex – A Research Guide to the Legal System of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. Nyulawglobal.org. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- Armed Forces Division. "Bangladesh in UN Mission". afd.gov.bd.
- "Bangladesh". U.S. Central Command.
- "Bangladesh now India’s largest trading partner in subcontinent". http://www.livemint.com/. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Hasib, Nurul Islam (1 February 2015) First Bangladesh-Japan foreign secretary-level talks on Feb 5. bdnews24.com. Retrieved on 2015-04-27.
- "How Asians View Each Other – Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project". Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Bangladesh troops lead global peacekeeping. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Bangladesh Military Forces[dead link]. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
- Including service and civilian personnel. See Bangladesh Navy. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- Armed Forces Division. "Ongoing Operations". afd.gov.bd.
- "National Web Portal of Bangladesh". Bangladesh Government. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Central Intelligence Agency (2012). "Bangladesh". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency.
- "Rangpur becomes a divivion". bdnews24.com. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- Local Government Act, No. 20, 1997
- "2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Willis, Ben (5 July 2013) Friday Focus: How Bangladesh became the world’s biggest off-grid solar user. PV-Tech. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- "Bangladesh's per capita income $1,190". bdnews24.com.
- "FAOSTAT 2008 by Production". faostat.fao.org. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- Golub, Stephen and Varma, Abir (February 2014) Fishing Exports and Economic Development of Least Developed Countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Comoros, Sierra Leone and Uganda. Swarthmore College. Paper Prepared for UNCTAD.
- Bangladesh. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (30 May 2013). Retrieved on 2015-04-27.
- "Bangladesh targets $34.5bn export". bdnews24.com.
- "India overtakes Germany and Italy, is new world No. 2 in textile exports". The Times of India.
- "Bangladesh among top remittance recipients – Dhaka Tribune". dhakatribune.com.
- Wood, Geoffrey D. (1994). Bangladesh: Whose ideas, whose interests?. Intermediate Technology Publications. p. 111. ISBN 1-85339-246-4.
- "Tea Gardens in Bangladesh – Bangladesh Blog – By Bangladesh Channel". bangladesh.com.
- "Development Budget". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 3 April 2007.
- "Internet growth hinges on local content, cheap phones". thedailystar.net.
- Woody, Todd (12 May 2014). "Why Green Jobs Are Booming in Bangladesh". The Atlantic.
- Rahman, Atiur (22 June 2012). "Micro-credit operations in Bangladesh: An effective way of reducing poverty". thefinancialexpress-bd.com.
- "Bangladesh and development: The path through the fields – The Economist". The Economist.
- Transport – Bangladesh Transport Sector. Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved on 27 April 2015.
- "BBC News – Bangladesh pins hope on Chittagong port". BBC News.
- Bangladesh – Country Overview 2006, World Bank
- "Bangladesh Gets first Credit Rating". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- "Bangladesh's Population to Exceed 160 Mln after Final Census Report". English.cri.cn. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Bangladesh – population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
- "Population density – Persons per sq km 2010 Country Ranks". Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2009 IEA (pdf. pp. 87–89)
- "Bangladesh: Human Development Indicators". undp.org. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013.
- "Background Note: Bangladesh". Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- "New Dhaka Jamatkhana seen as a symbol of confidence in Bangladesh – The Ismaili". theismaili.org.
- "REPATRIATION OF ROHINGYA REFUGEES". burmalibrary.org.
- Elettra. "Country Fact Sheet – Bangladesh". Asia Pacific Refugee Rights Network.
- Note on the nationality status of the Urdu-speaking community in Bangladesh. UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency.
- Rashiduzzaman, M (1998). "Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord: Institutional Features and Strategic Concerns". Asian Survey 38 (7): 653–670. doi:10.1525/as.1998.38.7.01p0370e.
- Bangladesh, citypopulation.de
- "Condition of English in Bangladesh". ESL Teachers Board. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Constitution of Bangladesh (As modified up to 17 May 2004), Part I, Article 5.
- S. M. Mehdi Hasan, Condition of English in Bangladesh: Second Language or Foreign Language. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- "Bangladesh's Constitution in Bengali". Bangladesh Government Website.
- Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
- Syedur Rahman (2010). Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh. Scarecrow Press. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6766-6.
- "Bangladesh: Researched and compiled by the Refugee Documentation Centre of Ireland on 12 January 2010" (PDF). US Department of Justice. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Muslim Population by Country". Pew Research. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "[Analysis] Are there any takeaways for Muslims from the Narendra Modi government?". DNA. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh. Tony Blair Faith Foundation (5 December 2014). Retrieved on 2015-04-27.
- Chopra, V. D. (2006). India's Foreign Policy in the 21st Century. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 254–. ISBN 978-81-7835-500-9.
- Human Rights, Democracy and Governance. Pearson Education India. 2010. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-81-317-2942-7.
- Gould, William (2011). Religion and Conflict in Modern South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 265–. ISBN 978-1-139-49869-2.
- Secularism back. Archive.thedailystar.net (5 October 2010). Retrieved on 2015-04-27.
- "Brutal Murder in Bangladesh Highlights Growing Religious Intolerance".
- Alam, Julhas (21 June 2011). "Bangladesh moves to retain Islam as state religion". Associated Press via Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "Community: Sufism in Bangladesh". Sufism Journal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- T. Neville Postlethwaite (1988). The Encyclopedia of Comparative Education and National Systems of Education. Pergamon Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-08-030853-8.
- "IUT is categorized as International University by UGC". UGC, Bangladesh. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "University Grant Commission (UGC)". Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- "দারিদ্র্য কমেছে, আয় বেড়েছে". prothom-alo.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Bhuiya, Abbas (June 2009). "Costs of utilizing healthcare services in Chakaria, a rural area in Bangladesh". FHS Research Brief (2).
- Bloom, G; et al. (2011). "Making Health Markets Work Better for Poor People: The Case of Informal Providers". Health Policy and Planning 26 (Suppl 1): i45 – i52. doi:10.1093/heapol/czr025. PMID 21729917. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Bhuiya, Abbas (September 2008). "Health Seeking Behaviour In Chakaria". FHS Research Brief (1).
- Bhuiya, Abbas; et al. (2009). "Three methods to monitor utilization of healthcare services by the poor". Int J for Equity in Health 8: 29. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-8-29. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Aziz, Rumesa (November 2009). "A community health watch to establish accountability and improve performance of the health system". FHS Research Brief (3).
- "Bangladesh statistics summary (2002 – present)". Global Health Observatory Data Repository, WHO. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Hospital Beds (Per 10,000 Population) 2005–2011". Globalhealthfacts.org. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
- "Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh" (PDF). UNICEF.
- "Bangladesh has world’s highest malnutrition rate". oneworld.net. 24 November 2008.
- "The state of food insecurity in the food 2011" (PDF). fao.org.
- "The State of the World's Children 2011" (PDF). UNICEF.
- "High Malnutrition in Bangladesh prevents children from becoming "Tigers"". Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition. 15 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014.
- "Bangladesh Healthcare Crisis". BBC News. 28 February 2000. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Bangladesh – HEALTH". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- London, Ellen (2004). Bangladesh. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 29. ISBN 0-8368-3107-1.
- Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. UNESCO. 25 September 2005.
- Logan, Stephen (2008). Asian communication handbook 2008. AMIC. p. 115. ISBN 981-4136-10-7.
- Islam, Roumeen (2002). The right to tell: the role of mass media in economic development. World Bank Publications. p. 268. ISBN 0-8213-5203-2.
- A. F. Imam Ali (1992) Hindu-Muslim Community in Bangladesh
- Arabinda Biswas, India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Publications Division (1985) Indian Costumes 
- Mahbubur Rahman (2012). "Architecture". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Kazi K. Ashraf. "Muzharul Islam, Kahn And Architecture In Bangladesh". WorldView: Perspectives on Architecture and Urbanism from Around the Globe. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Rafiq Azam’s Architecture in Bangladesh". theculturetrip.com.
- "Bangladesh secure series victory". BBC News. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- Polkinghorne, David (15 February 2015). "World's best all-rounder Shakib Al Hasan to kick-start Bangladesh's Cricket World Cup campaign at Manuka". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Kabadi". Banglapedia. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- "All Affiliated National Federation/Association". National Sports Council. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- Baxter, C (1997). Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3632-5. OCLC 47885632.
- Iftekhar Iqbal (2010) The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840–1943, Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, Pages: 288, ISBN 0230231837
- M. Mufakharul Islam (edited) (2004) Socio-Economic History of Bangladesh: essays in memory of Professor Shafiqur Rahman, 1st Edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, OCLC 156800811
- M. Mufakharul Islam (2007), Bengal Agriculture 1920–1946: A Quantitative Study, Cambridge South Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, Pages: 300, ISBN 0521049857
- Meghna Guhathakurta & Willem van Schendel (Edited) (2013) The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics (The World Readers), Duke University Press Books, Pages: 568, ISBN 0822353040
- Sirajul Islam (edited) (1997) History of Bangladesh 1704–1971(Three Volumes: Vol 1: Political History, Vol 2: Economic History Vol 3: Social and Cultural History), 2nd Edition (Revised New Edition), The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Pages: 1846, ISBN 9845123376
- Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor) (2003) Banglapedia: A National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh.(10 Vols. Set), (written by 1300 scholars & 22 editors) The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Pages: 4840, ISBN 9843205855
- Srinath Raghavan (2013) ‘1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh’, Harvard University Press, Pages: 368, ISBN 0674728645
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Data from Wikidata|
- Official website
- Bangladesh travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Bangladesh entry at The World Factbook
- Bangladesh at DMOZ
- Wikimedia Atlas of Bangladesh
- Banglapedia Regional Map Data
- World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Bangladesh, 2007