This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. (November 2022)
People's Republic of Bangladesh
|Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)|
"My Golden Bengal"
|Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh|
and largest city
|Official language |
and national language
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic|
|Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury|
|Hasan Foez Siddique|
|Khandker Anwarul Islam|
|26 March 1971|
|16 December 1971|
|16 December 1972|
|148,460 km2 (57,320 sq mi) (92nd)|
• Water (%)
• Land area
• Water area
• 2022 census
|1,106/km2 (2,864.5/sq mi) (7th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2022 estimate|
|$1.36 trillion (25th)|
• Per capita
|$7,985  (129th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
|$461 billion  (35th)|
• Per capita
|$2,734  (137th)|
|Gini (2021)|| 32.4|
|HDI (2021)|| 0.661|
medium · 129th
|Currency||Taka (৳) (BDT)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (BST)|
|Date format||dd-mm-yyyy (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||BD|
Bangladesh (/ -/,; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ] (listen)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi). Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.
Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of India in 1947. The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural centre in the Indian subcontinent as the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. The Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra and Deva dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in 1204 when Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and invaded Tibet. Becoming part of the Delhi Sultanate, three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from Sonargaon. Sufi missionary leaders like Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal and Shah Makhdum Rupos helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary Bengal Sultanate. Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. The Bengali elite were among the richest people in the world due to strong trade networks like the muslin trade which supplied textiles, such as 40% of Dutch imports from Asia. Mughal Bengal became increasingly assertive and independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of Mir Jafar resulted in the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to the British East India Company and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The Bengal Presidency grew into the largest administrative unit in British India. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh. In 1940, the first Prime Minister of Bengal supported the Lahore Resolution with the hope of creating a state in the eastern subcontinent. Prior to the partition of Bengal, the Prime Minister of Bengal proposed a Bengali sovereign state. A referendum and the announcement of the Radcliffe Line established the present-day territorial boundary of Bangladesh.
In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the Six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, in which the Mukti Bahini aided by India waged a successful armed revolution. The conflict saw the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972. Islam was declared the state religion in 1988. In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.
A middle power in the Indo-Pacific, Bangladesh is the second largest economy in South Asia. It maintains the third-largest military in the region and is a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. The large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 99% of the total population of Bangladesh. The country consists of 8 divisions, 64 districts and 495 subdistricts. It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide. Bangladesh faces many challenges, particularly effects of climate change. Bangladesh has been a leader within the Climate Vulnerable Forum. It hosts the headquarters of BIMSTEC. It is a founding member of SAARC, as well as a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Nations.
The etymology of Bangladesh ("Bengali Country") can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term. The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe, the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god), and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom. The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records. The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342. The word Bangāl became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. 16th-century historian Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak mentions in his Ain-i-Akbari that the addition of the suffix "al" came from the fact that the ancient rajahs of the land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". This is also mentioned in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin. The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".
Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years,[page needed] and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years. Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration. Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. By the 11th century people lived in systemically aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery. The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade. The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, agriculture and irrigation. Major urban settlements formed during the late Iron Age, in the mid-first millennium BCE, when the Northern Black Polished Ware culture developed. In 1879, Alexander Cunningham identified Mahasthangarh as the capital of the Pundra Kingdom mentioned in the Rigveda. The oldest inscription in Bangladesh was found in Mahasthangarh and dates from the 3rd century BCE. It is written in the Brahmi script.
Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai Kingdom, which (according to legend) deterred the invasion of Alexander the Great, are linked to the fort city in Wari-Bateshwar. The site is also identified with the prosperous trading centre of Souanagoura listed on Ptolemy's world map. Roman geographers noted a large seaport in southeastern Bengal, corresponding to the present-day Chittagong region.
Ancient Buddhist and Hindu states which ruled Bangladesh included the Vanga, Samatata and Pundra kingdoms, the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, the Varman dynasty, Shashanka's kingdom, the Khadga and Candra dynasties, the Pala Empire, the Sena dynasty, the Harikela kingdom and the Deva dynasty. These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture, and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest monastery in ancient India), and Atisa travelled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism. The earliest form of the Bengali language emerged during the eighth century. Seafarers in the Bay of Bengal where modern Bangladesh is now located, have also been sailing and trading with Southeast Asia and exported Buddhist and Hindu cultures to the region since the early Christian era.
The early history of Islam in Bengal is divided into two phases. The first phase is the period of maritime trade with Arabia and Persia between the 8th and 12th centuries. The second phase covers centuries of Muslim dynastic rule after the Islamic conquest of Bengal. The writings of Al-Idrisi, Ibn Hawqal, Al-Masudi, Ibn Khordadbeh and Sulaiman record the maritime links between Arabia, Persia and Bengal. Muslim trade with Bengal flourished after the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the Arab takeover of Persian trade routes. Much of this trade occurred with southeastern Bengal in areas east of the Meghna River. There is speculation regarding the presence of a Muslim community in Bangladesh as early as 690 CE; this is based on the discovery of one of South Asia's oldest mosques in northern Bangladesh. Bengal was possibly used as a transit route to China by the earliest Muslims. Abbasid coins have been discovered in the archaeological ruins of Paharpur and Mainamati. A collection of Sasanian, Umayyad and Abbasid coins are preserved in the Bangladesh National Museum.
The Muslim conquest of Bengal began with the 1204 Ghurid expeditions led by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, who overran the Sena capital in Gauda and led the first Muslim army into Tibet. The conquest of Bengal was inscribed in gold coins of the Delhi Sultanate. Bengal was ruled by the Sultans of Delhi for a century under the Mamluk, Balban, and Tughluq dynasties. In the 14th century, three city-states emerged in Bengal, including Sonargaon led by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Satgaon led by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah and Lakhnauti led by Alauddin Ali Shah. These city-states were led by former governors who declared independence from Delhi. The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta visited eastern Bengal during the reign of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. Ibn Battuta also visited the Sufi leader Shah Jalal in Sylhet. Sufis played an important role in spreading Islam in Bengal through both peaceful conversion and militarily overthrowing pre-Islamic rulers. In 1352, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the three city-states into a single, unitary and independent Bengal Sultanate. The new Sultan of Bengal led the first Muslim army into Nepal and forced the Sultan of Delhi to retreat during an invasion. The army of Ilyas Shah reached as far as Varanasi in the northwest, Kathmandu in the north, Kamarupa in the east and Orissa in the south. Ilyas Shah raided many of these areas and returned to Bengal with treasures. During the reign of Sikandar Shah, Delhi recognised Bengal's independence. The Bengal Sultanate established a network of mint towns which acted as a provincial capitals where the Sultan's currency was minted. Bengal became the eastern frontier of the Islamic world, which stretched from Muslim Spain in the west to Bengal in the east. The Bengali language crystallized as an official court language during the Bengal Sultanate, with prominent writers like Nur Qutb Alam, Usman Serajuddin, Alaul Haq, Alaol, Shah Muhammad Sagir, Abdul Hakim and Syed Sultan; and the emergence of Dobhashi to write Muslim epics in Bengali literature.
The Bengal Sultanate was a melting pot of Muslim political, mercantile and military elites. Muslims from other parts of the world migrated to Bengal for military, bureaucratic and household services. Immigrants included Persians who were lawyers, teachers, clerics, and scholars; Turks from upper India who were originally recruited in Central Asia; and Abyssinians who came via East Africa and arrived in the Bengali port of Chittagong. A highly commercialized and monetized economy evolved.
The two most prominent dynasties of the Bengal Sultanate were the Ilyas Shahi and Hussain Shahi dynasties. The reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah saw the opening of diplomatic relations with Ming China. Ghiyasuddin was also a friend of the Persian poet Hafez. The reign of the Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah saw the development of Bengali architecture. During the early 15th century, the Restoration of Min Saw Mon in Arakan was aided by the army of the Bengal Sultanate. As a result, Arakan became a tributary state of Bengal. Even though Arakan later became independent, Bengali Muslim influence in Arakan persisted for 300 years due to the settlement of Bengali bureaucrats, poets, military personnel, farmers, artisans, and sailors. The kings of Arakan fashioned themselves after Bengali Sultans and adopted Muslim titles. During the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah, the Bengal Sultanate dispatched a naval flotilla and an army of 24,000 soldiers led by Shah Ismail Ghazi to conquer Assam. Bengali forces penetrated deep into the Brahmaputra Valley. Hussain Shah's forces also conquered Jajnagar in Orissa. In Tripura, Bengal helped Ratna Manikya I to assume the throne. The Jaunpur Sultanate, Pratapgarh Kingdom and the island of Chandradwip also came under Bengali control. By 1500, Gaur became the fifth-most populous city in the world with a population of 200,000. The river port of Sonargaon was used as a base by the Sultans of Bengal during campaigns against Assam, Tripura and Arakan. The Sultans launched many naval raids from Sonargaon. João de Barros described the seaport of Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal". Maritime trade linked Bengal with China, Malacca, Sumatra, Brunei, Portuguese India, East Africa, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, Yemen and the Maldives. Bengali ships were among the biggest vessels plying the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. A royal vessel from Bengal accommodated three embassies from Bengal, Brunei and Sumatra while en route to China and was the only vessel capable of transporting three embassies. Many wealthy Bengali shipowners and merchants lived in Malacca. The Sultans permitted the opening of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong. The disintegration of the Bengal Sultanate began with the intervention of the Suri Empire. Babur began invading Bengal after creating the Mughal Empire. The Bengal Sultanate collapsed with the overthrow of the Karrani dynasty during the reign of Akbar. However, the Bhati region of eastern Bengal continued to be ruled by aristocrats of the former Bengal Sultanate led by Isa Khan. They formed an independent federation called the Twelve Bhuiyans, with their capital in Sonargaon. They defeated the Mughals in several naval battles. The Bhuiyans ultimately succumbed to the Mughals after Musa Khan was defeated.
The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal by the 17th century. During the reign of Emperor Akbar, the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Bengal Subah for 75 years. In 1666, the Mughals expelled the Arakanese from Chittagong. Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community. A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north. Bengal accounted for 40% of overall Dutch imports from Asia; including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks. The Bengal Subah, described as the Paradise of the Nations, was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter, a notable centre of worldwide industries such as muslin, cotton textiles, silk, and shipbuilding. Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior living standards.
During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers. The ruler's title is popularly known as the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, given that the Bengali Nawab's realm encompassed much of the eastern subcontinent. The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, making the region relatively prosperous early in the century. Bengal accounted for 50% of the gross domestic product of the empire. The Bengali economy relied on textile manufacturing, shipbuilding, saltpetre production, craftsmanship, and agricultural produce. Bengal was a major hub for international trade – silk and cotton textiles from Bengal were worn in Europe, Japan, Indonesia, and Central Asia. Annual Bengali shipbuilding output was 223,250 tons, compared to an output of 23,061 tons in the nineteen colonies of North America. Bengali shipbuilding proved to be more advanced than European shipbuilding before the Industrial Revolution. The flush deck of Bengali rice ships was later replicated in European shipbuilding to replace the stepped deck design for ship hulls.
Eastern Bengal was a thriving melting pot with strong trade and cultural networks. It was a relatively prosperous part of the subcontinent and the center of the Muslim population in the eastern subcontinent. The Muslims of eastern Bengal included people of diverse origins from different parts of the world.
The Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution, and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. The construction of mosques, Islamic academies (madrasas) and Sufi monasteries (khanqahs) facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society. Scholars have theorised that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system. By the 15th century, Muslim poets were widely writing in the Bengali language. Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centres of Persian influence.
In 1756, nawab Siraj ud-Daulah sought to rein in the rising power of the British East India Company by revoking their free trade rights and demanding the dismantling of their fortification in Calcutta. A military conflict ensued which culminated in the Battle of Plassey on 22 June 1757. Robert Clive exploited rivalries within the nawab's family, bribing Mir Jafar, the nawab's uncle and commander in chief, to ensure Siraj-ud-Daula's defeat. Clive rewarded Mir Jafar by making him nawab in place of Siraj-ud-Daula, but henceforth the position was a figurehead appointed and controlled by the company. After Plassey, the Mughal emperor ruled Bengal in name only. Effective power rested with the company. Historians often describe the battle as "the beginning of British colonial rule in South Asia". Historian Willem van Schendel describes it as "The beginning of empire" for Britain.
The Company replaced Mir Jafar with his son-in-law, Mir Kasim, in 1760. Mir Kasim challenged British control by allying with Mughal emperor Shah Alam II and the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja ud-Daulah, but the company decisively defeated the three at the Battle of Buxar on 23 October 1764. The resulting treaty made the Mughal emperor a puppet of the British and gave the company the right to collect taxes (diwani) in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, giving them de facto control of the region. The Company used Bengal's tax revenue to conquer the rest of India. By 1857, the Company controlled over 60% of the subcontinent directly, and exercised indirect rule over the remainder.
Two decades after Vasco Da Gama's landing in Calicut, the Bengal Sultanate permitted the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong to be established in 1528. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U.
Portuguese ships from Goa and Malacca began frequenting the port city in the 16th century. The cartaz system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. Slave trade and piracy flourished. The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in 1602. In 1615, the Portuguese Navy defeated a joint Dutch East India Company and Arakanese fleet near the coast of Chittagong.
The Bengal Sultan after 1534 allowed the Portuguese to create several settlements at Chitagoong, Satgaon, Hughli, Bandel, and Dhaka. In 1535, the Portuguese allied with the Bengal sultan and held the Teliagarhi pass 280 kilometres (170 mi) from Patna helping to avoid the invasion by the Mughals. By then several of the products came from Patna and the Portuguese send in traders, establishing a factory there since 1580.
By the time the Portuguese assured military help against Sher Shah, the Mughals already had started to conquer the Sultanate of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud.
The region has been described as the "Paradise of Nations", and its inhabitants's living standards and real wages were among the highest in the world. It alone accounted for 40% of Dutch imports outside the European continent. The eastern part of Bengal was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, and it was a major exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce in the world. In 1666, the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. The Anglo-Mughal War was witnessed in 1686.
After the 1757 Battle of Plassey, Bengal was the first region of the Indian subcontinent conquered by the British East India Company. The company formed the Presidency of Fort William, which administered the region until 1858. A notable aspect of Company rule was the Permanent Settlement, which established the feudal zamindari system; in addition, Company policies led to the deindustrialisation of Bengal's textile industry. The capital amassed by the East India Company in Bengal was invested in the emerging Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, in industries such as textile manufacturing. Economic mismanagement, alongside drought and a smallpox epidemic, directly led to the Great Bengal famine of 1770, which is estimated to have caused the deaths of between 1 million and 10 million people. Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century (including one led by Titumir), as Company rule had displaced the Muslim ruling class from power. A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullah, sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism. Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who was later exiled to neighbouring Burma.
The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony. The British established several schools, colleges, and a university in Bangladesh. Syed Ahmed Khan and Ram Mohan Roy promoted modern and liberal education in the subcontinent, inspiring the Aligarh movement and the Bengal Renaissance. During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society. Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the 1890s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea. The British established tax-free river ports, such as the Port of Narayanganj, and large seaports like the Port of Chittagong.
Bengal had the highest gross domestic product in British India. Bengal was one of the first regions in Asia to have a railway. The first railway in what is now Bangladesh began operating in 1862. In comparison, Japan saw its first railway in 1872. The main railway companies in the region were the Eastern Bengal Railway and Assam Bengal Railway. Railways competed with waterborne transport to become one of the main mediums of transport.
Supported by the Muslim aristocracy, the British government created the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905; the new province received increased investment in education, transport, and industry. However, the first partition of Bengal created an uproar in Calcutta and the Indian National Congress. In response to growing Hindu nationalism, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dhaka during the 1906 All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The British government reorganised the provinces in 1912, reuniting East and West Bengal and making Assam a second province.
The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. It established the Bengal Legislative Council in 1862, and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century. The Bengal Provincial Muslim League was formed in 1913 to advocate civil rights for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework. During the 1920s, the league was divided into factions supporting the Khilafat movement and favouring co-operation with the British to achieve self-rule. Segments of the Bengali elite supported Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's secularist forces. In 1929, the All Bengal Tenants Association was formed in the Bengal Legislative Council to counter the influence of the Hindu landed gentry, and the Indian Independence and Pakistan Movements strengthened during the early 20th century. After the Morley-Minto Reforms and the diarchy era in the legislatures of British India, the British government promised limited provincial autonomy in 1935. The Bengal Legislative Assembly, British India's largest legislature, was established in 1937.
Although it won most seats in 1937, the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature. A. K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party was elected as the first Prime Minister of Bengal. In 1940 Huq supported the Lahore Resolution, which envisaged independent states in the subcontinent's northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions. The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until 1941; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the Hindu Mahasabha which lasted until 1943. Huq was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, who grappled with the effects of the Burma Campaign, the Bengal famine of 1943, which killed up to 3 million people, and the Quit India movement. In 1946, the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking 113 of the 250-seat assembly (the largest Muslim League mandate in British India). H. S. Suhrawardy, who made a final futile effort for a United Bengal in 1946, was the last premier of Bengal.
Partition of Bengal (1947)
On 3 June 1947, the Mountbatten Plan outlined the partition of British India. On 20 June, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide on the partition of Bengal. At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided (120 votes to 90) that if the province remained united, it should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. At a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal, it was decided (58 votes to 21) that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of India. At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided (106 votes to 35) that the province should not be partitioned and (107 votes to 34) that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned. On 6 July, the Sylhet region of Assam voted in a referendum to join East Bengal. Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh. The Radcliffe Line awarded two-thirds of Bengal as the eastern wing of Pakistan, although the medieval and early modern Bengali capitals of Gaur, Pandua and Murshidabad fell on the Indian side close to the border with Pakistan.
Union with Pakistan
The Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947. East Bengal, with Dhaka as its capital, was the most populous province of the 1947 Pakistani federation (led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state).
Khawaja Nazimuddin was East Bengal's first chief minister with Frederick Chalmers Bourne its governor. The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in 1949. In 1950, the East Bengal Legislative Assembly enacted land reform, abolishing the Permanent Settlement and the zamindari system. The 1952 Bengali Language Movement was the first sign of friction between the country's geographically separated wings. The Awami Muslim League was renamed the more-secular Awami League in 1953. The first constituent assembly was dissolved in 1954; this was challenged by its East Bengali speaker, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan. The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the 1954 East Bengali legislative election. The following year, East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan as part of the One Unit programme, and the province became a vital part of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956. Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until 1957: Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy. None of the three completed their terms and resigned from office. The Pakistan Army imposed military rule in 1958, and Ayub Khan was the country's strongman for 11 years. Political repression increased after the coup. Khan introduced a new constitution in 1962, replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system (based on electoral college selection) known as Basic Democracy. In 1962 Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan, a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism. The Pakistani government built the controversial Kaptai Dam, displacing the Chakma people from their indigenous homeland in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. During the 1965 presidential election, Fatima Jinnah lost to Ayub Khan despite support from the Combined Opposition alliance (which included the Awami League). The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 blocked cross-border transport links with neighbouring India in what is described as a second partition. In 1966, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced a six-point movement for a federal parliamentary democracy.
According to senior World Bank officials, the Pakistani government practised extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: greater government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West Pakistan, the use of East Pakistan's foreign-exchange surpluses to finance West Pakistani imports, and refusal by the central government to release funds allocated to East Pakistan because the previous spending had been under budget; though East Pakistan generated 70 percent of Pakistan's export revenue with its jute and tea. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested for treason in the Agartala Conspiracy Case and was released during the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan which resulted in Ayub Khan's resignation. General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law.
Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military. Cultural discrimination also prevailed, making East Pakistan forge a distinct political identity. Authorities banned Bengali literature and music in state media, including the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. A cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan in 1970, killing an estimated 500,000 people, and the central government was criticised for its poor response. After the December 1970 elections, calls for the independence of East Bengal became louder; the Bengali-nationalist Awami League won 167 of 169 East Pakistani seats in the National Assembly. The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party (led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto).
War of Independence
The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office. Civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence. Mujib addressed a pro-independence rally of nearly 2 million people in Dacca (as Dhaka used to be spelled in English) on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day. Later, on 25 March late evening, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched a sustained military assault on East Pakistan under the code name of Operation Searchlight. The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him to Karachi. However, before his arrest Mujib proclaimed the Independence of Bangladesh at midnight on 26 March which led the Bangladesh Liberation War to break out within hours. The Pakistan Army and its local supporters continued to massacre Bengalis, in particular students, intellectuals, political figures, and Hindus in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. The Mukti Bahini, a guerrilla resistance force, also violated human rights during the conflict. During the war, an estimated 0.3 to 3.0 million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighbouring India.
Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread; the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo and André Malraux. The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. The first major benefit concert in history, it was organised by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar.
During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh. The provisional government issued a proclamation that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity, and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Due to Mujib's detention, Syed Nazrul Islam took over the role of Acting President, while Tajuddin Ahmad was named Bangladesh's first Prime Minister. The Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces formed the Bangladesh Forces, which became the military wing of the provisional government. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the forces held the countryside during the war. They conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. As a result, almost the entire country except for the capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November.
This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighbouring India's western front on 2 December 1971. India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bangladeshi air contingent, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. During the last phase of the war, both the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. The nine month long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971.[failed verification][failed verification] Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dacca. Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended.
The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognised around the world. By August 1972, the new state was recognised by 86 countries. Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries.
First parliamentary era
The constituent assembly adopted the constitution of Bangladesh on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. The new constitution included references to socialism, and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalised major industries in 1972. A major reconstruction and rehabilitation programme was launched. The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the "Jatiyo Sangshad", the national parliament. Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the UN, the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement, and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and Jashod, he became increasingly authoritarian. Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). The Bangladesh famine of 1974 also worsened the political situation.
Presidential era (1975–1991)
In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced one-party socialist rule under BAKSAL. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August 1975. Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months. Ahmad is widely regarded as a traitor by Bangladeshis. Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years. In 1977, the army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Rahman reinstated multiparty politics, privatised industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in 1979. A semi-presidential system evolved, with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governing until 1982. Rahman was assassinated in 1981 and was succeeded by Vice-president Abdus Sattar. Sattar received 65.5 per cent of the vote in the 1981 presidential election.
After a year in office, Sattar was overthrown in the 1982 Bangladesh coup d'état. Chief Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was installed as president, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in 1983. Ershad lifted martial law in 1986. He governed with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed and Kazi Zafar Ahmed) and a parliament dominated by his Jatiyo Party. General elections were held in 1986 and 1988, although the opposition BNP and Awami League boycotted the latter. Ershad pursued administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in 1988. A 1990 mass uprising forced him to resign, and Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule.
Parliamentary era (1991–present)
After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female prime minister. Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. In 1991, her finance minister, Saifur Rahman, began a major programme to liberalise the Bangladeshi economy.
In February 1996, a general election was held, which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh. The Awami League won the seventh general election, marking its leader Sheikh Hasina's first term as Prime Minister. Hasina's first term was highlighted by the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord and a Ganges water-sharing treaty with India. The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice Latifur Rahman, oversaw the 2001 Bangladeshi general election which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power.
The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between 2004 and 2006. A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB, carried out a series of terror attacks. The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation. Hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai, who was executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the militant group to an end.
In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government. As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed, was installed. Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia. In 2008, the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory. In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker government system.
Citing the lack of caretaker government, the 2014 general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election, and 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested in the election. Despite the controversy, Hasina went on to form a government that saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. Due to strong domestic demand, Bangladesh emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. However, human rights abuses increased under the Hasina administration, particularly enforced disappearances. Between 2016 and 2017, an estimated 1 million Rohingya refugees took shelter in southeastern Bangladesh amid a military crackdown in neighbouring Rakhine State, Myanmar.
In 2018, the country saw major movements for government quota reforms and road-safety. The 2018 Bangladeshi general election was marred by allegations of widespread vote rigging. The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and the main opposition alliance Jatiya Oikya Front secured only 8 seats, with Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest-serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history. Pro-democracy leader Dr. Kamal Hossain called for an annulment of the election result and for a new election to be held in a free and fair manner. The election was also observed by European Union observers.
Bangladesh is a small, lush country in South Asia, located on the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded almost entirely by neighbouring India—and shares a small border with Myanmar to its southeast, though it lies very close to Nepal, Bhutan, and China. The country is divided into three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges Delta, the largest river delta in the world. The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges.
The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is called the "Land of Rivers"; as it is home to over 57 trans-boundary rivers. However, this resolves water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India.
Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Most of it is less than 12 m (39 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.3 ft). 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science. The highest point in Bangladesh is the Saka Haphong, located near the border with Myanmar, with an elevation of 1,064 m (3,491 ft). Previously, either Keokradong or Tazing Dong were considered the highest.
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (officially Barishal), Chittagong (officially Chattogram), Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet.
Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, further divided into mahallas.
There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.
|Barisal Division||Barisal||1 January 1993||13,225||9,713,000||734|
|Chittagong Division||Chittagong||1 January 1829||33,909||34,747,000||1,025|
|Dhaka Division||Dhaka||1 January 1829||20,594||42,607,000||2,069|
|Khulna Division||Khulna||1 October 1960||22,284||18,217,000||817|
|Mymensingh Division||Mymensingh||14 September 2015||10,584||13,457,000||1,271|
|Rajshahi Division||Rajshahi||1 January 1829||18,153||21,607,000||1,190|
|Rangpur Division||Rangpur||25 January 2010||16,185||18,868,000||1,166|
|Sylhet Division||Sylhet||1 August 1995||12,635||12,463,000||986|
Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical, with a mild winter from October to March and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below 0 °C (32 °F), with a record low of 1.1 °C (34.0 °F) in the northwest city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905. A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating, the latter killing approximately 140,000 people.
In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern history, after which two-thirds of the country went underwater, along with a death toll of 1,000. As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years. The 2007 South Asian floods ravaged areas across the country, leaving five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500.
Bangladesh is recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Bengal region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Bangladesh. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter. It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people. To address the sea level rise threat in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched.
Bangladesh is located in the Indomalayan realm, and lies within four terrestrial ecoregions: Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Mizoram–Manipur–Kachin rain forests, Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests, and Sundarbans mangroves. Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm. The country has up to 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants. Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.
Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, covering an area of 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries–the South, East and West zones. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest, and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi-evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along with the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.
Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills. The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 square kilometres (58,000 sq mi). The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans. Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill. The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest populations of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh. The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It also has 628 species of birds.
Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one-horned and two-horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Although many areas are protected under law, some Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests, and rivers. The Sundarbans tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation. It ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 3 May 1994. As of 2014[update], the country was set to revise its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.
Politics and government
Bangladesh is a de jure representative democracy under its constitution, with a Westminster-style unitary parliamentary republic that has universal suffrage. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years. The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister of the world's fifth-largest democracy. Bangladesh experienced a two party system between 1990 and 2014, when the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) alternated in power. During this period, elections were managed by a neutral caretaker government. But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in 2011.
One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the "spirit of the liberation war", which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War. The Proclamation of Independence enunciated the values of "equality, human dignity and social justice". In 1972, the constitution included a bill of rights and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularity" as the principles of government policy. Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments. Bangladesh has a market-based economy. To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance.
- Legislative: The Jatiya Sangshad (National Parliament) is the unicameral parliament. It has 350 Members of Parliament (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment. Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh forbids MPs from voting against their party. However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law. The parliament is presided over by the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, who is second in line to the president as per the constitution. There is also a Deputy Speaker. When a president is incapable of performing duties (i.e. due to illness), the Speaker steps in as Acting President and the Deputy Speaker becomes Acting Speaker. A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be an opposition member.
- Executive: The Government of Bangladesh is overseen by a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. The Bangladesh Civil Service assists the cabinet in running the government. Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy. The President of Bangladesh is the ceremonial head of state whose powers include signing bills passed by parliament into law. The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Under the constitution, the president acts on the prime minister's advice. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the chancellor of all universities.
- Judiciary: The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest court of the land, followed by the High Court and Appellate Divisions. The head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice of Bangladesh, who sits on the Supreme Court. The courts have wide latitude in judicial review, and judicial precedent is supported by Article 111 of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts divided into civil and criminal courts. Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is responsible for judicial appointments, salaries, and discipline.
The Bangladesh Armed Forces have inherited the institutional framework of the British military and the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1971 from the military regiments of East Pakistan. In 2022, the active personnel strength of the Bangladesh Army was around 250,000, excluding the Air Force and the Navy (24,000). In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has supported civil authorities in disaster relief and provided internal security during periods of political unrest. For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces. The military budget of Bangladesh accounts for 1.3% of GDP, amounting to US$4.3 billion in 2021.
The Bangladesh Navy, one of the largest in the Bay of Bengal, includes a fleet of frigates, submarines, corvettes and other vessels. The Bangladesh Air Force has a small fleet of multi-role combat aircraft, including the MiG-29 and Chengdu-F7. Most of Bangladesh's military equipment comes from China. In recent years, Bangladesh and India have increased joint military exercises, high level visits of military leaders, counter-terrorism cooperation and intelligence sharing. Bangladesh is vital to ensuring stability and security in northeast India.
Bangladesh's strategic importance in the eastern subcontinent hinges on its proximity to China, its frontier with Burma, the separation of mainland and northeast India, and its maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal. In 2002, Bangladesh and China signed a Defence Cooperation Agreement (DCA) which the governments of both countries said will "institutionalize the existing accords in defence sector and also to rationalize the existing piecemeal agreements to enhance cooperation in training, maintenance and in some areas of production". The United States has pursued negotiations with Bangladesh on a Status of Forces Agreement, an Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement and a General Security of Military Information Agreement. In 2019, Bangladesh ratified the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.
Bangladesh is considered a middle power in global politics. It plays an important role in the geopolitical affairs of the Indo-Pacific, due to its strategic location between South and Southeast Asia. Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972 and the United Nations in 1974. It relies on multilateral diplomacy on issues like climate change, nuclear nonproliferation, trade policy and non-traditional security issues. At the WTO, Bangladesh has used the dispute resolution mechanism to settle trade disputes with India and other countries. Bangladesh pioneered the creation of SAARC, which has been the preeminent forum for regional diplomacy among the countries of the Indian subcontinent. It joined the OIC, an intergovernmental organisation of the Muslim world in 1974, and is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries. In recent years, Bangladesh has focused on promoting regional trade and transport links with support from the World Bank. Dhaka hosts the headquarters of BIMSTEC, an organisation that brings together countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal.
Relations with neighbouring Myanmar have been severely strained since 2016–2017, after over 700,000 Rohingya refugees illegally entered Bangladesh fleeing persecution, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and other atrocities in their native state. The parliament, government, and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, and have demanded their right of return to Arakan. In 2021, Bangladesh provided a US$200 million loan to Sri Lanka and a US$7.7 million donation to Sudan as economic assistance.
Bangladesh shares an important bilateral and economic relationship with its largest neighbour India, which is often strained by water politics of the Ganges and the Teesta, and the border killings of Bangladeshi civilians. Post-independent Bangladesh has continued to have a problematic relationship with Pakistan, mainly due to its denial of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. It maintains a warm relationship with China, which is its largest trading partner, and the largest arms supplier. Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic aid provider, and the two maintain a strategic and economic partnership. Political relations with Middle Eastern countries are robust. Bangladesh receives 59% of its remittances from the Middle East, despite poor working conditions affecting over 4 million Bangladeshi workers. Bangladesh plays a major role in global climate diplomacy as a leader of the Climate Vulnerable Forum.
Since the colonial period, Bangladesh has had a prominent civil society. There are various special interest groups, including non-governmental organisations, human rights organisations, professional associations, chambers of commerce, employers' associations and trade unions. The National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh was set up in 2007. Notable human rights organisations and initiatives include the Centre for Law and Mediation, Odhikar, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, the Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association, the Bangladesh Hindu Buddhist Christian Unity Council and the War Crimes Fact Finding Committee. The world's largest international NGO BRAC is based in Bangladesh. There have been concerns regarding the shrinking space for independent civil society in recent years, with commentators labelling the civil society movement dead under the authoritarianism of the Awami League.
Torture is banned by Article 35 (5) of the Constitution of Bangladesh. Despite this constitutional ban, torture is rampantly used by Bangladesh's security forces. Bangladesh joined the Convention against Torture in 1998; but it enacted its first anti-torture law, the Torture and Custodial Death (Prevention) Act, in 2013. The first conviction under this law was announced in 2020. Amnesty International Prisoners of Conscience from Bangladesh have included Saber Hossain Chowdhury and Shahidul Alam. The Digital Security Act of 2018 has greatly reduced freedom of expression in Bangladesh, particularly on the internet. The Digital Security Act has been used to target critics of the government and bureaucracy. Newspaper editorials have been demanding the repeal of the Digital Security Act.
On International Human Rights Day in December 2021, the United States Department of Treasury announced sanctions on commanders of the Rapid Action Battalion for extrajudicial killings, torture and other human rights abuses. Freedom House has criticised the ruling party for human rights abuses, crackdown on opposition, mass media, and civil society through politicized enforcement. Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World report, but its press freedom has deteriorated from "free" to "not free" in recent years due to increasing pressure from the authoritarian government. According to the British Economist Intelligence Unit, the country has a hybrid regime: the third of four rankings in its Democracy Index. Bangladesh was ranked 96th among 163 countries in the 2022 Global Peace Index. According to National Human Rights Commission, 70% of alleged human-rights violations are committed by law-enforcement agencies.
LGBT rights are heavily suppressed by both government and society, as homosexuality is outlawed by section 377 of the criminal code (a legacy of the colonial period), and is punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment. However, Bangladesh recognises the third gender and accords limited rights for transgender people. According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,531,300 people are enslaved in Bangladesh, or roughly 1% of the population. A number of slaves in Bangladesh are forced to work in the fish and shrimp industries.
Like for many developing countries, institutional corruption is a serious concern for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was ranked 146th among 180 countries on Transparency International's 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index. According to a survey conducted by the Bangladesh chapter of TI, in 2015, the level of bribery was equivalent to 3.7 percent of the national budget. Land administration was the sector with the most bribery in 2015, followed by education, police and water supply. The Anti Corruption Commission was formed in 2004, and it was active during the 2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis, indicting many leading politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen for graft.
Bangladesh is the second largest economy in South Asia after India. The country has outpaced India (of which it was a part until 1947) and Pakistan (of which it was a part until 1971) in terms of per capita income. According to the World Bank, "When the newly independent country of Bangladesh was born on December 16, 1971, it was the second poorest country in the world—making the country's transformation over the next 50 years one of the great development stories. Since then, poverty has been cut in half at record speed. Enrolment in primary school is now nearly universal. Hundreds of thousands of women have entered the workforce. Steady progress has been made on maternal and child health. And the country is better buttressed against the destructive forces posed by climate change and natural disasters. Bangladesh's success comprises many moving parts—from investing in human capital to establishing macroeconomic stability. Building on this success, the country is now setting the stage for further economic growth and job creation by ramping up investments in energy, inland connectivity, urban projects, and transport infrastructure, as well as prioritizing climate change adaptation and disaster preparedness on its path toward sustainable growth".
Since 2009, Bangladesh has embarked on a series of megaprojects. The 6.15 km long Padma Bridge was built at a cost of US$3.86 billion. The bridge was the first self-financed megaproject in the country's history. Other megaprojects include the Dhaka Metro, Karnaphuli Tunnel, Dhaka Elevated Expressway and Chittagong Elevated Expressway; as well as the Bangladesh Delta Plan to mitigate the impact of climate change. Overseas remittances from expat Bangladeshis and export earnings from the Bangladesh textile industry have allowed the country to have the second largest foreign-exchange reserves in South Asia. The reserves have boosted the government's spending capacity in spite of tax revenues forming only 7.7% of government revenue. A big chunk of investments have gone into the power sector. In 2009, Bangladesh was experiencing daily blackouts several times a day. In 2022, the country achieved 100% electrification. One of the major anti-poverty schemes of the Bangladeshi government is the Ashrayan Project which aims to eradicate homelessness by providing free housing.
The private sector accounts for 80% of GDP in comparison to the dwindling role of state-owned companies. Bangladesh's economy is dominated by family-owned conglomerates and small and medium-sized businesses. Some of the largest publicly-traded companies in Bangladesh include Beximco, BRAC Bank, BSRM, GPH Ispat, Grameenphone, Summit Group, and Square Pharmaceuticals. Capital markets include the Dhaka Stock Exchange and the Chittagong Stock Exchange. Its telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest growing, with 171.854 million cellphone subscribers in January 2021. Over 80% of Bangladesh's export earnings come from the garments industry. Other major industries include shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, steel, electronics, and leather goods. Muhammad Aziz Khan became the first person from Bangladesh to be listed as a billionaire by Forbes.
The poverty rate has gone down from 80% in 1971, to 44.2% in 1991, to 12.9% in 2021. The literacy rate stood at 74.66% in 2022. Bangladesh has a labor force of roughly 70 million, which is the world's seventh-largest; with an unemployment rate of 5.2% as of 2021[update]. The government is setting up 100 special economic zones to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and generate 10 million jobs. The Bangladesh Investment Development Authority (BIDA) and the Bangladesh Economic Zones Authority (BEZA) have been established to help investors in setting up factories; and to complement the longstanding Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA).
The Bangladeshi taka is the national currency. The service sector accounts for about 51.3% of total GDP and employs 39% of the workforce. The industrial sector accounts for 35.1% of GDP and employs 20.4% of the workforce. The agriculture sector makes up 13.6% of the economy but is the biggest employment sector, with 40.6% of the workforce. In agriculture, the country is a major producer of rice, fish, tea, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and jute. Lobsters and shrimps are some of Bangladesh's well known exports.
Bangladesh is gradually transitioning to a green economy. Currently, it has the largest off-grid solar power programme in the world, benefiting 20 million people. An electric car called the Palki is being developed for production in the country. The government has reduced tariffs for the purchase of electric cars. Biogas is being used to produce organic fertilizer.
Bangladesh continues to have huge untapped reserves of natural gas, particularly in its maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal. The success ratio of finding gas wells in the country stands at 3:5:1, meaning one commercial deposit is found in every three explored zones. The success ratio is well above the global average. A lack of exploration and decreasing proven reserves have forced Bangladesh to import LNG from abroad, despite having substantially untapped gas reserves. Gas shortages were further exasperated by the Russia-Ukraine War.
The tourism industry is expanding, contributing some 3.02% of total GDP. Bangladesh's international tourism receipts in 2019 amounted to $391 million. The country has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Mosque City, the Buddhist Vihara and the Sundarbans) and five tentative-list sites. Activities for tourists include angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, and sea bathing. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) reported in 2019 that the travel and tourism industry in Bangladesh directly generated 1,180,500 jobs in 2018 or 1.9% of the country's total employment. According to the same report, Bangladesh experiences around 125,000 international tourist arrivals per year. Domestic spending generated 97.7 percent of direct travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012.
While government-owned companies in Bangladesh generate nearly half of Bangladesh's electricity, privately-owned companies like the Summit Group and Orion Group are playing an increasingly important role in both generating electricity, and supplying machinery, reactors, and equipment. Bangladesh increased electricity production from 5 gigawatts in 2009 to 25.5 gigawatts in 2022. It plans to produce 50 gigawatts by 2041. U.S. companies like Chevron and General Electric supply around 55% of Bangladesh's domestic natural gas production and are among the largest investors in power projects. 80% of Bangladesh's installed gas-fired power generation capacity comes from turbines manufactured in the United States.
On 4 October 2022, the national grid collapsed and plunged the whole country into a nationwide blackout. The grid resumed operations after eight hours. The government's investigation focused on technical failure, negligence, and possible sabotage. The investigation found that grid capacity has not kept up with the expansion of electricity generation and the opening of new power plants. Gas shortages were also to blame, including the lack of new gas sources and insufficient gas pipeline infrastructure. There was a shortage of natural gas because of the 2021–present global energy crisis as 77 natural gas power plants had insufficient fuel to meet demand. The electricity sector in Bangladesh is heavily reliant on natural gas. Gas shortages forced the government to import LNG from abroad. As a result, Texas-based Excelerate Energy opened Bangladesh's first floating LNG terminal in 2018 off the coast of Maheshkhali Island. The Summit LNG Terminal was opened in 2019. The Government of Bangladesh has subsidized LNG imports worth several billion dollars. Since October 2021, Bangladesh imported LNG for US$30-37 per million Btu which is 10 times the price it paid in May 2020. The government stopped buying spot price LNG in June 2022. The country's forex reserves declined due to surging fuel imports. Bangladesh imported 30% of its LNG on the spot price market in 2022, down from 40% in 2021. Bangladesh continues to trade in LNG on the futures exchange markets.
|Source: OECD/World Bank|
According to the 2022 Census, Bangladesh has a population of 165.1 million, and is the eighth-most-populous country in the world, the fifth-most populous country in Asia, and the most densely populated large country in the world, with a headline population density of 1,265 people/km2 as of 2020[update]. Its total fertility rate (TFR), once among the highest in the world, has experienced a dramatic decline, from 5.5 in 1985, to 3.7 in 1995, all the way down to 2.0 in 2020, which is below the sub-replacement fertility of 2.1; due to the government promoting birth control since the 1980s and increased education attainment of females. The vast majority of Bangladeshis live in rural areas, with only 39% of the population living in urban areas as of 2021[update]. It has a median age of roughly 28 years, and its population is relatively young, with 26% of the total population aged 14 or younger, and merely 5% aged 65 and above.
Bangladesh is an ethnically and culturally homogeneous society, as Bengalis form 99% of the population. The Adivasi population includes the Chakmas, Marmas, Santhals, Mros, Tanchangyas, Bawms, Tripuris, Khasis, Khumis, Kukis, Garos, and Bisnupriya Manipuris. The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Although a peace accord was signed in 1997, the region remains militarised. Urdu-speaking stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in 2008. Bangladesh also hosts over 700,000 Rohingya refugees since 2017, giving it one of the largest refugee populations in the world.
Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city. There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Comilla, Khulna, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Gazipur and Narayanganj. Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are 506 urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than 100,000.
Largest cities or towns in Bangladesh
"National Volume-3: Urban Area Report" (PDF), Population and Housing Census 2011, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, pp. 24–25, August 2014
The official and predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali, which is spoken by more than 98% of the population as their native language. It is among the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family, and is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries. Bengali is described as a dialect continuum where there are various dialects spoken throughout the country. There is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, such as Chittagonian, Sylheti and Noakhailla, which some linguists consider as separate languages; noted for their Arab-Persian influences.
English plays an important role in Bangladesh's judicial and educational affairs, due to the country's history as part of the British Empire. It is widely spoken and commonly understood, and is taught as a compulsory subject in all schools, colleges and universities; while the English-medium educational system is widely attended. Tribal languages, although increasingly endangered, include the Chakma language, another native Eastern Indo-Aryan language, spoken by the Chakma people. Others include Garo, Meitei, Kokborok and Rakhine. Among the Austroasiatic languages, the most spoken is the Santali language, native to the Santal people. The stranded Pakistanis and some sections of the Old Dhakaites often use Urdu as their native tongue, although the usage of the latter remains highly reproached.
Bangladesh was constitutionally proclaimed as the first secular state of South Asia in 1972. It grants freedom of religion and claims to be "secular in practise", while establishing Islam as the state religion. The constitution bans religion-based politics and discrimination, and proclaims equal recognition of people adhering to all faiths. Islam is the largest religion across the country, being followed by about 91% of the population. The vast majority of Bangladeshi citizens are Bengali Muslims, adhering to Sunni Islam. The country is the third-most populous Muslim-majority state in the world, and has the fourth-largest overall Muslim population.
Hinduism is followed by 7.95% of the population, mainly by the Bengali Hindus, who form the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community globally; after those in India and Nepal. Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.61% of the population. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among the tribal ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. At the same time, coastal Chittagong is home to many Bengali Buddhists. Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.3%, followed mainly by a small Bengali Christian minority.
Article (17) of the constitution states that all children shall receive free and compulsory education. Education in Bangladesh is overseen by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Primary and Mass Education is responsible for implementing policy for primary education and state-funded schools at a local level. Primary and secondary education is compulsory, and is financed by the state and free of charge in public schools. Bangladesh has a literacy rate of 74.7% percent as of 2019: 77.4% for males and 71.9% for females. The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher secondary levels and subsidising many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities through the University Grants Commission (UGC), created by Presidential Order 10 in 1973.
The education system is divided into five levels: primary (first to fifth grade), junior secondary (sixth to eighth grade), secondary (ninth and tenth grade), higher secondary (11th and 12th grade), and tertiary. Five years of secondary education (including junior secondary) ends with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination. Since 2009, the Primary Education Closing (PEC) examination has also been introduced. Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to three years of junior secondary education, culminating in the Junior School Certificate (JSC) examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) examination.
Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public (government-owned and subsidised), private (privately owned universities) and international (operated and funded by international organisations). The country has 47 public, 105 private and two international universities; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrolment, and the University of Dhaka (established in 1921) is the oldest. University of Chittagong, established in 1966, has the largest campus among all universities in Bangladesh. Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
Bangladesh, by constitution, guarantees healthcare services as a fundamental right to all of its citizens. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the largest institutional healthcare provider in Bangladesh, and contains two divisions: Health Service Division and Medical Education And Family Welfare Division. However, healthcare facilities in Bangladesh are considered less than adequate, although they have improved as the economy has grown and poverty levels have decreased significantly. Bangladesh faces a severe health workforce crisis, as formally-trained providers make up a short percentage the total health workforce. Significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors persist, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing. Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged.
Bangladesh's poor healthcare system suffers from severe underfunding from the government. As of 2019[update], some 2.48% of total GDP was attributed to healthcare, and domestic general government spending on healthcare was 18.63% of the total budget, while out-of-pocket expenditures made up the vast majority of total budget, totalling 72.68%. Domestic private health expenditure was about 75% of the total healthcare expenditure. As of 2020[update], there are only 5.3 doctors per 10,000 people, and about 6 physicians and 3 nurses per 10,000 people, while the number of hospital beds is 8 per 10,000. The overall life expectancy in Bangladesh at birth was 73 years (71 years for males and 75 years for females) as of 2020[update], and it has a comparably high infant mortality rate (24 per 1,000 live births) and child mortality rate (29 per 1,000 live births). Maternal mortality remains high, clocking at 173 per 100,000 live births. Bangladesh is a key source market for medical tourism for various countries, mainly India, due to its citizens dissatisfaction and distrust over their own healthcare system.
The main causes of death are coronary artery disease, stroke, and chronic respiratory disease; comprising 62% and 60% of all adult male and female deaths, respectively. Malnutrition is a major and persistent problem in Bangladesh, mainly affecting the rural regions, more than half of the population suffers from it. Severe acute malnutrition affects 450,000 children, while close to 2 million children have moderate acute malnutrition. For children under the age of five, 52% are affected by anaemia, 41% are stunted, 16% are wasted, and 36% are underweight. A quarter of women are underweight and around 15% have short stature, while over half also suffer from anaemia.
The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty. Islamic art has evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets. Mughal Bengal's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art (buta motifs) and Western textile art (paisley). The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage. Ivory and brass were also widely used in Mughal art. Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture.
The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the 1950s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin. East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important centre for visual art in the region. Its annual Bengali New Year parade was enlisted as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2016.
Modern Bangladesh has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir, among others. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.
The oldest evidence of writing in Bangladesh is the Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE. In the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature thrived in the region. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. During the Bengal Sultanate, medieval Bengali writers were influenced by Arabic and Persian works. Sultans of Bengal patronized Bengali literature. Examples include the writings of Maladhar Basu, Bipradas Pipilai, Vijay Gupta and Yasoraj Khan. The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. Syed Alaol was the bard of middle Bengali literature. The Bengal Renaissance shaped modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction. Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature and is described as the Bengali Shakespeare. Kazi Nazrul Islam was a revolutionary poet who espoused political rebellion against colonialism and fascism. Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh. Other renaissance icons included Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview. Jasimuddin was a renowned pastoral poet. Shamsur Rahman and Al Mahmud are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Farrukh Ahmad, Sufia Kamal, Syed Ali Ahsan, Ahsan Habib, Abul Hussain, Shahid Qadri, Fazal Shahabuddin, Abu Zafar Obaidullah, Omar Ali, Al Mujahidi, Syed Shamsul Huq, Nirmalendu Goon, Abid Azad, Hasan Hafizur Rahman and Abdul Hye Sikder are important figures of modern Bangladeshi poetry. Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction. Notable writers of Bangladeshi fictions include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Alauddin Al Azad, Shahidul Zahir, Rashid Karim, Mahmudul Haque, Syed Waliullah, Shahidullah Kaiser, Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Shahed Ali, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, and Abdul Mannan Syed.
Although as of 2015[update], several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh. Its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common. Whereas in India and Pakistan women participate less in the workforce as their education increases, the reverse is the case in Bangladesh.
Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah, before the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education. Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. The first women's magazine, Begum, was published in 1948.
In 2008, Bangladeshi female workforce participation stood at 26%. Women dominate blue collar jobs in the Bangladeshi garment industry. Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.
The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,500-year-old heritage. Terracotta architecture is a distinct feature of Bengal. Pre-Islamic Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle in the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established grand structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.
The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture. The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced urban housing development. The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. The zamindar gentry in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country mansions, such as the Ahsan Manzil, Tajhat Palace, Dighapatia Palace, Puthia Rajbari and Natore Rajbari.
Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud, straw, wood and bamboo. In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin.
Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Islam brought leading global architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis, to work in erstwhile East Pakistan. Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.
Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE. It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performances with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and processional forms. The Jatra is the most popular form of Bengali folk theatre. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances, including the Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri dances.
The music of Bangladesh features the Baul mystical tradition, listed by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Fakir Lalon Shah popularised Baul music in the country in the 18th century and it has since been one of the most popular music genera in the country since then. Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah. Numerous lyric-based musical traditions, varying from one region to the next, exist, including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music, which uses instruments like the sitar, tabla, sarod and santoor. Sabina Yasmin and Runa Laila are considered the leading playback singers in the modern time, while musicians such as Ayub Bachchu and James are credited with popularising rock music in Bangladesh.
The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts, said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal (i.e. Bangladesh). The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, as well as the famed Dhakai and Jamdani, the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage. Bangladesh also produces the Rajshahi silk. The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas, some women can be seen in western clothing. The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings. Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.
The handloom industry supplies 60–65% of the country's clothing demand. The Bengali ethnic fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. The retailer Aarong is one of South Asia's most successful ethnic wear brands. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the local production and retail of modern Western attire. The country now has a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh is the world's second-largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.
Bangladeshi cuisine, formed by its geographic location and climate, is rich and varied; sharing its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal.: 14 White rice is the staple, and along with fish, forms the culinary base. Varieties of leaf vegetables, potatoes, gourds and lentils (dal) also play an important role. Curries of beef, mutton, chicken and duck are commonly consumed, along with multiple types of bhortas, bhajis and torkaris.: 8 Mughal-influenced dishes include kormas, kalias, biryanis, pulaos, teharis and khichuris. Among the various spices, turmeric, fenugreek, nigella, coriander, anise, cardamom and chili powder are widely used; a famous spice mix is the panch phoron. Among the condiments and herbs used, red onions, green chillies, garlic, ginger, cilantro, and mint stand out.: 12 Coconut milk, mustard paste, mustard seeds, mustard oil, ghee, achars and chutneys are also widely used in the cuisine.: 13–14
Fish is the main source of protein, often enjoyed with its roe. The hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular, a famous dish is shorshe ilish. Rohu, pangas, and tilapia are also highly consumed. Lobsters, shrimps and dried fish (shutki) are also widely consumed, with the chingri malai curry being a famous shrimp dish.: 8 In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition, featuring the serving of mezbani gosht, a hot and spicy beef curry.: 10 Other famous dishes from the region include kala bhuna. In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes, a notable one is beef hatkora. Among the tribal communities in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, cooking with bamboo shoots is popular. Khulna is renowned for using chui jhal (piper chaba) in its dishes.
Bangladesh has a vast spread of desserts, including distinctive sweets such as the rôshogolla, roshmalai, chomchom, sondesh, mishti doi and kalojaam, and jilapi. Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Halwa is served during religious festivities. Ruti, naan, paratha, luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Hot milk tea is the most commonly consumed beverage in the country, being the centre of addas. Kebabs are widely popular, particularly seekh kebab, chapli kebab, shami kebab, chicken tikka and shashlik, along with various types of chaaps. Popular street foods include chotpoti, jhal muri and fuchka. The large Bangladeshi diaspora dominate the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom.
Pahela Baishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.) and has become an occasion for celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno and Poush Parbon, Bengali harvest festivals.
The Muslim festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad un Nabi, Muharram, Chand Raat, Shab-e-Barat; the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja, Janmashtami and Rath Yatra; the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and the Christian festival of Christmas are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country. The two Eids are celebrated with a long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside the city.
Alongside are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (declared as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO in 1999), Independence Day and Victory Day. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement. Similar gatherings are observed at the National Martyrs' Memorial on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programmes and patriotic songs. Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.
In rural Bangladesh, several traditional indigenous sports such as Kabaddi, Boli Khela, Lathi Khela and Nouka Baich remain fairly popular. While Kabaddi is the national sport, cricket is the most popular sport in the country. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999 and the following year was granted Test cricket status. Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the 2015 Cricket World Cup, the semi-final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy and they reached the final of the Asia Cup 3 times – in 2012, 2016 and 2018. In February 2020, the Bangladesh youth national cricket team won the men's Under-19 Cricket World Cup, held in South Africa. This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory. Women's sports saw significant progress in the 2010s decade in Bangladesh. In 2018, the Bangladesh women's national cricket team won the 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final.
Football is a popular sport in Bangladesh, and is governed by the Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF). Although football was seen as the most popular sport in the country before the 21st century, success in cricket has overshadowed its past popularity. The first instance of a Bangladesh national football team was the emergence of the Shadhin Bangla Football Team during the 1971 liberation war. After independence, the national team also participated in the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, becoming only the second South Asian team to do so. The national team's most notable achievements include the 2003 SAFF Championship and 1999 South Asian Games. The Bangladesh women's national football team has also registered some success at regional level, especially the Under-15 and Under-18 teams. In 2022, the women's team created history by winning the 2022 SAFF Women's Championship.
Bangladesh archers Ety Khatun and Roman Sana won several gold medals winning all the 10 archery events (both individual, and team events) in the 2019 South Asian Games. The National Sports Council regulates 42 sporting federations. Athletics, swimming, archery, boxing, volleyball, weight-lifting and wrestling and different forms of martial arts remain popular. Chess is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia. In 2010, mountain climber Musa Ibrahim became the first Bangladeshi climber to conquer Mount Everest. Wasfia Nazreen is the first Bangladeshi climber to climb the Seven Summits.
Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments. Bangabandhu Cup is an international football tournament hosted in the country. Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times. In 2011, Bangladesh co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh solely hosted the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 championship. Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup Cricket Tournament in 2000, 2012, 2014 and 2016.
Media and cinema
The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned. Over 200 newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service. The British Broadcasting Corporation operates the popular BBC Bangla news and current affairs service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular. Bangladesh Television (BTV) is a state-owned television network. More than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels. Freedom of the media remains a major concern due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists.
The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to 1898 when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka. The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the 1920s and 30s. In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, titled the Last Kiss. The first feature film in East Pakistan, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released in 1956. During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year. While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers. Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker assassinated in 1971. The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues. Masud was honoured by FIPRESCI at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for his film The Clay Bird. Tanvir Mokammel, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Humayun Ahmed, Alamgir Kabir, and Chashi Nazrul Islam are some of the prominent directors of Bangladeshi cinema. Bangladesh has a very active film society culture. It started in 1963 in Dhaka. Now around 40 Film Societies are active all over Bangladesh. Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh. Active film societies include the Rainbow Film Society, Children's Film Society, Moviyana Film Society and Dhaka University Film Society.
Museums and libraries
The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley civilisation, and Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. It was the site of the founding conference of the All India Muslim League and hosted many British Viceroys in Dhaka.
The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts. The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh National Museum is located in Ramna, Dhaka and has a rich collection of antiquities. The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the 1971 genocide.
In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas. The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. In 1854, four major public libraries were opened, including the Bogra Woodburn Library, the Rangpur Public Library, the Jessore Institute Public Library and the Barisal Public Library.
The Northbrook Hall Public Library was established in Dhaka in 1882 in honour of Lord Northbrook, the Governor-General. Other libraries established in the British period included the Victoria Public Library, Natore (1901), the Sirajganj Public Library (1882), the Rajshahi Public Library (1884), the Comilla Birchandra Library (1885), the Shah Makhdum Institute Public Library, Rajshahi (1891), the Noakhali Town Hall Public Library (1896), the Prize Memorial Library, Sylhet (1897), the Chittagong Municipality Public Library (1904) and the Varendra Research Library (1910). The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in 1925. The Central Public Library of Dhaka was established in 1959. The National Library of Bangladesh was established in 1972. The World Literature Centre, founded by Ramon Magsaysay Award winner Abdullah Abu Sayeed, is noted for operating numerous mobile libraries across Bangladesh and was awarded the UNESCO Jon, Amos Comenius Medal.
- "National Symbols→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.
- "'Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC". Daily Prothom Alo. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- "HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months". bdnews24.com. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Ethnic population in 2022 census: Real picture not reflected". The Daily Star. 9 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
- "Census 2022: Bangladesh population now 165 million". 27 July 2022.
- "Bangladesh". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
- "জনসংখ্যা সাড়ে ১৬ কোটি, অধিকাংশ নারী, কমেছে হিন্দু জনগোষ্ঠীর হার". BBC News বাংলা.
- "Download World Economic Outlook database: October 2022". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
- "Gini Coefficient by Country 2022". World Population Review.
- "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh". Collins English Dictionary (13th ed.). HarperCollins. 2018. ISBN 978-0-008-28437-4.
- Frank E. Eyetsemitan; James T. Gire (2003). Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-89789-925-3.
- Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference US, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017
- Lailufar Yasmin. "Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh | Institute for Global Change". Institute.global. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- "Bangladesh profile – Timeline". BBC News. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- Alam, Shah (1991). "The State-Religion Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh: A Critique". Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 24 (2): 209–225. JSTOR 43110030 – via JSTOR.
- "Writ challenging Islam as state religion rejected". The Daily Star. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- "Bangladesh" (PDF). U.S. State Department. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "A rising Bangladesh starts to exert its regional power | The Interpreter". Lowyinstitute.org. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- Roy, Pinaki; Deshwara, Mintu (9 August 2022). "Ethnic population in 2022 census: Real picture not reflected". The Daily Star. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- Mahmud, Faisal. "Four years on, Rohingya stuck in Bangladesh camps yearn for home | Rohingya News". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- Maxwell, David. "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds | National Geographic (blogs)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
- "Notation of song aaji bangladesher hridoy". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. September 1988. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.
- SenGupta, Amitabh (2012). Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village. AuthorHouse UK. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4678-9663-4.
- Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Atlantic Monthly Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-87113-800-2.
In C1020 ... launched Rajendra's great northern escapade ... peoples he defeated have been tentatively identified ... 'Vangala-desa where the rain water never stopped' sounds like a fair description of Bengal in the monsoon.
- Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [First published 1988]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 281. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
- Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "But the most important development of this period was that the country for the first time received a name, ie Bangalah." Banglapedia: Islam, Bengal Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Sircar, D.C. (1971) [First published 1960]. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India (2nd ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. p. 135. ISBN 978-81-208-0690-0. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Land of Two Rivers, Nitish Sengupta
- RIYAZU-S-SALĀTĪN: A History of Bengal Archived 15 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ghulam Husain Salim, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1902.
- Majumdar, RC, ed. (2003). History of Bengal. B.R. Publishing Corp. ISBN 93-86223-46-5.
- Blood, Peter R. (1989). "Early History, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202". In Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert (eds.). Bangladesh: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 4. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- Eaton, R.M. (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Pieris, Sita; Raven, Ellen (2010). ABIA: South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index. Vol. 3. Brill. p. 116. ISBN 978-90-04-19148-8. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Alam, Shafiqul (2012). "Mahasthan". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Ghosh, Suchandra (2012). "Pundravardhana". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription". Banglapedia.
- Diodorus Siculus (1940). The Library of History of Diodorus Siculus. Loeb Classical Library. Vol. II. Translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Harvard University Press. OCLC 875854910.
- Hossain, Emran (19 March 2008). "Wari-Bateshwar one of earliest kingdoms". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Olivelle, Patrick (2006). Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE. Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-977507-1. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon (1994). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Ghosh, Suchandra (2 September 2019). "Crossings and contacts across the Bay of Bengal: a connected history of ports in early South and Southeast Asia". Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. 15 (3): 281–296. doi:10.1080/19480881.2019.1640577. S2CID 202332142 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
- "Seafaring in the Bay of Bengal in the Early Centuries AD By Himanshu Prabha Ray". Studies in History. 6 (1). doi:10.1177/025764309000600101. S2CID 220673640.
- "A trip to Darasbari mosque in Chapai Nawabganj". 22 September 2022.
- "Arabs, The – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- "Remains of ancient mosque found in Bangladesh" – via YouTube.
- "Harano Masjid". Harano Masjid | theindependentbd.com.
- "Coins – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- "Microsoft Word - 4_H_942 Revised_ Monir m.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
- "Mint Towns – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- "Bengal". Encyclopaedia Iranica.
- "Iranians, The – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- Mohammed Ali Chowdhury (2004). Bengal-Arakan Relations, 1430–1666 A.D. Firma K.L.M. ISBN 9788171021185.
- Jacques Leider (2002). Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia. Silkworm Books. ISBN 9789747551686.
- Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.215–20
- "Kamata-Kamatapura – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- "Husain Shah – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org.
- Richard M. Eaton (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.
- Rila Mukherjee (2011). Pelagic Passageways: The Northern Bay of Bengal Before Colonialism. Primus Books. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-93-80607-20-7.
The Sri Rajmala indicates that the periodic invasions of Tripura by the Bengal sultans were part of the same strategy [to control the sub-Himalayan routes from the south-eastern delta]. Mines of coarse gold were found in Tripura.
- Perween Hasan (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0.
[Husayn Shah] reduced the kingdoms of ... Tripura in the east to vassalage.
- Perween Hasan (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0.
[Husayn Shah pushed] its western frontier past Bihar up to Saran in Jaunpur ... when Sultan Husayn Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur fled to Bengal after being defeated in battle by Sultan Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi, the latter attacked Bengal in pursuit of the Jaunpur ruler. Unable to make any gains, Sikandar Lodhi returned home after concluding a peace treaty with the Bengal sultan.
- Choudhury, Achyut Charan (1917). Srihattar Itibritta: Uttarrangsho শ্রীহট্রের ইতিবৃত্ত: উত্তরাংশ (in Bengali). Calcutta: Katha. p. 484 – via Wikisource.
- Bangladesh Itihas Samiti, Sylhet: History and Heritage, (1999), p. 715
- Sayed Mahmudul Hasan (1987). Muslim monuments of Bangladesh. Islamic Foundation Bangladesh.
- Population Census of Bangladesh, 1974: District census report. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. 1979.
- "Bar chart race: the most populous cities through time". Archived from the original on 21 December 2021 – via YouTube.
- Kapadia, Aparna. "Gujarat's medieval cities were once the biggest in the world – as a viral video reminds us". Scroll.in.
- "Goaldi Mosque in Sonargaon". Dhaka Tribune. 22 December 2019.
- "Chittagong | History, Population, & Facts | Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Tapan Raychaudhuri; Irfan Habib, eds. (1982). The Cambridge Economic History of India. Vol. I. Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-22692-9.
- "Dhaka – national capital, Bangladesh". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017
- "The paradise of nations". Dhaka Tribune. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 202, Cambridge University Press
- Giorgio Riello, Tirthankar Roy (2009). How India Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850. Brill Publishers. p. 174. ISBN 978-90-474-2997-5.
- Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- Lawrence E. Harrison, Peter L. Berger (2006). Developing cultures: case studies. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-415-95279-8.
- M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
- John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, p. 202, Cambridge University Press
- Khandker, Hissam (31 July 2015). "Which India is claiming to have been colonised?". The Daily Star (Op-ed).
- Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, ISBN 92-64-10414-3, pages 259–261
- Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- "Technological Dynamism in a Stagnant Sector: Safety at Sea during the Early Industrial Revolution" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. p. 366. ISBN 9788131732021. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "A Tale of Two Languages: How the Persian language seeped into Bengali". The Daily Star. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
- Samaren Roy (1999). The Bengalees: Glimpses of History and Culture. Allied Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-81-7023-981-9. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- "Bengal". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Persian". Banglapedia. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economics, and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-88612-3.
- Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economics, and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–48. ISBN 978-0-521-88612-3.
- Avari, Burjor (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-203-09522-5.
- Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2012) [First published 2001]. A Concise History of Modern India (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-139-53705-6.
- Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economics, and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-521-88612-3.
- van Schendel, Willem (2009). A History of Bangladesh (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-521-86174-8.
- van Schendel, Willem (2009). A History of Bangladesh (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-521-86174-8.
- Avari, Burjor (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. Routledge. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-203-09522-5.
- Taniya Gupta; Antonia Navarro-Tejero, eds. (2014). India in Canada: Canada in India. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-1-4438-5571-6.
- Thakur, Baleshwar (1980). Urban Settlements in Eastern India. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. pp. 117–. OCLC 729123405.
- "Portuguese, The". Banglapedia.
- Steel, Tim (19 December 2014). "The paradise of nations". Op-ed. Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- M. Shahid Alam (2016). Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-333-98564-9.
- Indrajit Ray (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. pp. 57, 90, 174. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- Hasan, Farhat (1991). "Conflict and Cooperation in Anglo-Mughal Trade Relations during the Reign of Aurangzeb". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 34 (4): 351–360. doi:10.1163/156852091X00058. JSTOR 3632456.
- Vaugn, James (September 2017). "John Company Armed: The English East India Company, the Anglo-Mughal War and Absolutist Imperialism, c. 1675–1690". Britain and the World. 11 (1).
- "Cornwallis Code". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. pp. 7–10. ISBN 978-1-136-82552-1.
- Shombit Sengupta, Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution, The Financial Express, 8 February 2010
- Roy, Tirthankar (2019), How British Rule Changed India's Economy: The Paradox of the Raj, Springer, pp. 117–, ISBN 978-3-030-17708-9,
The 1769-1770 famine in Bengal followed two years of erratic rainfall worsened by a smallpox epidemic.
- Datta, Rajat (2000). Society, economy, and the market : commercialization in rural Bengal, c. 1760–1800. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors. pp. 262, 266. ISBN 81-7304-341-8. OCLC 44927255.
- Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-828463-5.
- Fredrik Albritton Jonsson (18 June 2013). Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism. Yale University Press. pp. 167–170. ISBN 978-0-300-16374-2.
- Khan, Moin-Ud-Din. "Haji Shari’at-Allah". Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, vol. 11, no. 2 p. 106 (1 April 1963).
- "Revisiting the Great Rebellion of 1857". The Daily Star. 13 July 2014.
- "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement". YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Nitish Sengupta (2001). History of the Bengali-speaking People. UBS Publishers' Distributors. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-7476-355-6.
The Bengal Renaissance can be said to have started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775-1833) and ended with Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), although there were many other stalwarts thereafter embodying particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative ferment.
- "Reimagining the Colonial Bengal Presidency Template (Part I)". Daily Sun.
- "Railway". Banglapedia. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Railways in colonial Bengal". The Daily Star. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Eastern Bengal and Assam – Encyclopedia". Theodora.com. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Kennedy, Bernard (December 2005). "Ambassador Rezaqul Haider: Mediating for commerce". Diplomat. Ankara, Turkey. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
After the First World War when the great leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his war of independence, the people of Bengal were very spontaneous in giving all sorts of support. To the extent that there is evidence that the womenfolk donated their own bangles and gold ornaments, and the funds were used for the establishment of a bank, the construction of the parliament building and the purchase of armaments and ammunition to help the war of liberation. As you know, our national poet, Nazrul Islam, was the first foreigner to write an epic poem about Mustafa Kemal.
- "Churchill's policies contributed to 1943 Bengal famine – study". The Guardian. 29 March 2019.
- Soumyendra Nath Mukherjee (1987). Sir William Jones: A Study in Eighteenth-century British Attitudes to India. Cambridge University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-86131-581-9. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- Farahnaz Ispahani (2017). Purifying the Land of the Pure: A History of Pakistan's Religious Minorities. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-062165-0. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Yasmin Saikia (2011). Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971. Duke University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8223-5038-5.
- Baxter, p. 72
- David S. Lewis; Darren J. Sagar (1992). Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific: A Reference Guide. Longman. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-582-09811-4. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2017."ts present name in December 1953"
- Vale, Lawrence (2014). Architecture, Power and National Identity. Routledge. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-134-72921-0. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- Terminski, Bogumil (2014). Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement. Columbia University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-3-8382-6723-4. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Salahuddin Ahmed (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 157. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Zafar Sobhan (17 August 2007). "Tragedy of errors". The Daily Star (Editorial). Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Muscat, Robert J. (2015). Investing in Peace: How Development Aid Can Prevent or Promote Conflict. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-46729-8. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Bangladesh – The "Revolution" of Ayub Khan, 1958–66". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Raic, D (2002). Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 336. ISBN 978-90-411-1890-5. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Thomas, Raju G.C. (2003). Yugoslavia Unraveled. Lexington Books. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-7391-0757-7.
- Ahsan, Syed Badrul (2 June 2010). "The sky, the mind, the ban culture". The Daily Star (Editorial). Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Bangladesh cyclone of 1991 Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
- "Bangladesh – Emerging Discontent, 1966–70". Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Baxter, pp. 78–79
- Ray, Jayanta Kumar (2010). India's Foreign Relations, 1947–2007. Routledge. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-0-415-59742-5.
- "The Historic 7th March Speech". YouTube. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- Thorpe, Edgar (2012). The Pearson General Knowledge Manual. Pearson Education India. p. A.125. ISBN 978-81-317-6190-8.
- Bass, Gary Jonathan (2014). The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-307-70020-9.
That night [25 March] ... The Pakistani military had launched a devastating assault on the Bengalis.
- Siegfried O. Wolf; Jivanta Schöttli; Dominik Frommherz; Kai Fürstenberg; Marian Gallenkamp; Lion König; Markus Pauli (2014). Politics in South Asia: Culture, Rationality and Conceptual Flow. Springer. p. 111. ISBN 978-3-319-09087-0. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Bates, Crispin (2013). Subalterns and Raj: South Asia Since 1600. Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-134-51375-8. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Pervez Musharraf (2008). In the Line of Fire. Simon and Schuster. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-84739-596-2.
- Johnston, Faith (2013). Four Miles to Freedom. Random House India. ISBN 978-81-8400-507-3. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "ABC News, March 26, 1971". YouTube. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- "Bangabandhur Shadhinota Ghoshonar Telegraphic Barta". BDNews24. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
- Debnath, Angela (2012) [First published 2009]. "The Bangladesh Genocide: The Plight of Women". In Totten, Samuel (ed.). Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4128-4759-9. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Bangladesh sets up war crimes court". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- Benvenisti, Eyal (2012) [First published 1992]. The International Law of Occupation (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-19-163957-9. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
The genuine and widely recognized claim for Bangladeshi self-determination as an entity independent of West Pakistan, coupled with the repulsion caused by the Pakistani measures to suppress that claim convinced global public opinion ... By the time its admission for membership in the United Nations came before the Security Council, in August 1972, Bangladesh had already been recognized by eighty-six countries.
- "In Bangladesh, Ted Kennedy revered". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- Nelson, Dean (19 October 2012). "Bangladesh to honour Bob Dylan and George Harrison". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
- "Joan Baez: Singing heroine of 1971 left out of Shommyanona list". bdnes24.com (Opinion). 10 April 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- Womack, Kenneth (2014). Beatles Encyclopedia, The: Everything Fab Four. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-313-39172-9. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- LaPorte, R (1972). "Pakistan in 1971: The Disintegration of a Nation". Asian Survey. 12 (2): 97–108. doi:10.2307/2643071. JSTOR 2643071.
- Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997) "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900" Archived 21 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. ISBN 3-8258-4010-7, Chapter 8, Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Srinath Raghavan (2013). 1971. Harvard University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-674-73127-1. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Sheikh Mujib's Return to Bangladesh – January 10, 1972 Monday. NBC. 23 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2015 – via Centre for Bangladesh Genocide Research.
- Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2.
12 March India's armed forces withdraw from Bangladesh at a ceremonial parade in Dacca.
- Syed Muazzem Ali (19 February 2006). "Bangladesh and the OIC". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Umar, Badruddin (1972). "Bangladesh nationalisation: What does it all mean?". Journal of Contemporary Asia. 2 (3): 328–30. doi:10.1080/00472337285390641.
- David Lewis (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- "Mushtaq was the worst traitor: attorney general". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- B.Z. Khasru. The Bangladesh Military Coup and the CIA Link. Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-291-3416-5.
- "Bangladesh profile". BBC News. 13 August 2017. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Six JMB militants hanged". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- "Former Bangladeshi PM arrested: reports". ABC News. 16 July 2007. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Ex-PM sued on corruption charges in Bangladesh". International Herald Tribune. 12 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
- "Economic Reforms Can Make Bangladesh Grow Faster". Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- Safi, Michael; Ahmed, Redwan (31 December 2018). "Bangladesh PM Hasina wins thumping victory in elections opposition reject as 'farcical'". The Guardian.
- "Hasina's win makes her the longest serving PM of Bangladesh". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 31 December 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Bangladesh election: Opposition demands new vote". BBC News. 30 December 2018. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Statement by the Spokesperson on parliamentary elections in Bangladesh". EEAS – European External Action Service – European Commission. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Aditi Rajagopal (8 February 2020). "How the World's Largest Delta Might Slowly Go Under Water". Discovery.
- "No Place Like Home – BANGLADESH: LAND OF RIVERS". Environmental Justice Foundation. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- Suvedī, Sūryaprasāda (2005). International watercourses law for the 21st century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 154–66. ISBN 978-0-7546-4527-6.
- Ali, A. (1996). "Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 92 (1–2): 171–79. Bibcode:1996WASP...92..171A. doi:10.1007/BF00175563. S2CID 93611792.
- "Bangladesh". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 May 2007. (Archived 2007 edition)
- "National Web Portal of Bangladesh". Bangladesh Government. 15 September 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Rangpur becomes a divivion". bdnews24.com. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Bangladesh changes English spellings of five districts". bdnews24.com. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- Local Government Act, No. 20, 1997
- "Health Bulletin 2016" (PDF). Directorate General of Health Services. p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
- "Population Projection of Bangladesh: Dynamics and Trends, 2011–2061" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. November 2015. pp. 25–28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
- "Map of Dinajpur". kantaji.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
- Alexander, David E. (1999) . "The Third World". Natural Disasters. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 532. ISBN 978-0-412-04751-0.
- "Beset by Bay's Killer Storms, Bangladesh Prepares and Hopes Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine". Los Angeles Times. 27 February 2005
- Haggett, Peter (2002) . "The Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of World Geography. New York: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2, 634. ISBN 978-0-7614-7308-4. OCLC 46578454.
- Raju, M. N. A. (10 March 2018). "Disaster Preparedness for Sustainable Development in Bangladesh". Daily Sun. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- "Bangladesh flood death toll nears 500, thousands ill". Reuters. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- Kulp, Scott A.; Strauss, Benjamin H. (29 October 2019). "New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 4844. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.4844K. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12808-z. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 6820795. PMID 31664024.
- "Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood". climatecentral.org. 29 October 2019. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
- Chaturvedi, Sanjay (29 April 2016). Climate Change and the Bay of Bengal. Flipside Digital Content Company Inc. ISBN 978-981-4762-01-4.
- Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2008 (PDF). Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. 2008. ISBN 978-984-8574-25-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009.
- Glennon, Robert. "The Unfolding Tragedy of Climate Change in Bangladesh". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100". The Dutch water sector. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- "Bangladesh Delta Plan (BDP) 2100" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt; Locke, Harvey; Ellis, Erle C; Jones, Benjamin; Barber, Charles Victor; Hayes, Randy; Kormos, Cyril; Martin, Vance; Crist, Eileen; Sechrest, Wes; Price, Lori; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Weeden, Don; Suckling, Kierán; Davis, Crystal; Sizer, Nigel; Moore, Rebecca; Thau, David; Birch, Tanya; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; de Souza, Nadia; Pintea, Lilian; Brito, José C.; Llewellyn, Othman A.; Miller, Anthony G.; Patzelt, Annette; Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Timberlake, Jonathan; Klöser, Heinz; Shennan-Farpón, Yara; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars; Voge, Maianna; Al-Shammari, Khalaf F.; Saleem, Muhammad (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- Bangladesh | history – geography :: Plant and animal life Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Flora and Fauna – Bangladesh high commission in India". Bangladesh High Commission, New Delhi. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013.
- Soraya Auer; Anika Hossain (7 July 2012). "Lost Wards of the State". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Peter Haggett (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Marshall Cavendish. p. 2620. ISBN 978-0-7614-7289-6. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Bears in Bangladesh". Bangladesh Bear Project. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "6,000 Rare, Large River Dolphins Found in Bangladesh". National Geographic. March 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Hossain, Muhammad Selim (23 May 2009). "Conserving biodiversity must for survival". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Bangladesh – Country Profile". cbd.int. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Is Bangladesh becoming an autocracy?". Deutsche Welle. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "Spirit of Liberation War". The Daily Star. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Sobhan, Rehman (31 December 2011). "The Spirit of the Liberation War". The Daily Star. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "Amendment to anti-torture law to hinder HR protection, says ASK". New Age. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Shahid, S. A. (18 January 2019). "Deputy speaker from opposition, no chance for war criminals". The Daily Star. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Kabir, A. (12 August 2013). "No Meritocracy: Bangladesh's Civil Service". The Diplomat. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- "President". The Nexus Commonwealth Network. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "The Military and Democracy in Bangladesh". press-files.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- *International Institute for Strategic Studies (14 February 2018). The Military Balance 2018. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-955-7.
- Including service and civilian personnel. See Bangladesh Navy. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- "Military expenditure (% of GDP) – Bangladesh". World Bank.
- Alif, Abdullah (11 June 2020). "Budget FY21: Military spending increases by Tk2,327 crore". Dhaka Trbiune.
- Balachandran, P.K. (12 April 2017). "Rivals India and China woo Bangladesh with aid totalling $46 b". Daily FT. Colombo.
- Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta (May 2020). "Migration, river management, radicalisation: What does the future hold for India-Bangladesh relations?". Observer Research Foundation.
- "Bangladesh and India's Northeast: A security perspective". The Daily Star. 15 October 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
- Anu Anwar, Michael Kugelman (1 December 2021). "The U.S. Should Deepen Ties With Bangladesh". Foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
- Kinne, Brandon J. (15 August 2018). "Defense Cooperation Agreements and the Emergence of a Global Security Network". International Organization. 72 (4): 799–837. doi:10.1017/S0020818318000218. S2CID 158722872. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
- Paul, Bimal Kanti (2005). "Bangladeshi American Response to the 1998 Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): An Assessment". The Professional Geographer. 57 (4): 495–505. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9272.2005.00494.x. S2CID 129498633.
- Ashraf, Nazmul (11 May 2002). "U.S. keen on military ties with Dhaka | Uae – Gulf News". Gulfnews.com. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
- "US wants 2 defence deals with Bangladesh". The Daily Star. 18 October 2019.
- "Bangladesh ratifies nuclear weapons prohibition treaty". Dhaka Tribune. 28 September 2020.
- Hassan, Asif Muztaba (16 December 2021). "Bangladesh at 50: On the Path to Becoming a Middle Power". The Diplomat. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- Karim, Tariq A. (21 May 2022). "Understanding the Importance of Bangladesh in the Bay of Bengal and the Indo-Pacific". Washington, D.C.: National Bureau of Asian Research. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- Rahman, Mustafizur; Moazzem, Khondaker Golam; Chowdhury, Mehruna Islam; Sehrin, Farzana (September 2014). "Connecting South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Bangladesh Country Study" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- Sajen, Shamsuddoza (18 April 2020). "Bangladesh enters Commonwealth". The Daily Star. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (26 September 2014). "Bangladesh marks 40 years as Member State of the UN". United Nations. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- "Roundtable on 'Non Traditional Security Threats in the Indo-Pacific Region' – NTS-Asia".
- "WTO | dispute settlement - the disputes - DS306".
- De, Prabir; Bhattacharyay, Biswa N. (September 2007). "Prospects of India–Bangladesh Economic Cooperation: Implications for South Asian Regional Cooperation" (PDF). Asian Development Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh an example of religious harmony: OIC". The Daily Star. 21 March 2021. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh receives "International Peace Award" as D-8 founding member". The Daily Star. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "Regional Trade and Connectivity in South Asia Gets More Than $1 Billion Boost from World Bank".
- "Bangladesh Is Not My Country". Human Rights Watch. 5 August 2018. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh and Myanmar Resume Talks on Rohingya Repatriation".
- "Bangladesh tells UN that Rohingya refugees must return to Myanmar". Al Jazeera. 17 August 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh helps out cash-strapped Sri Lanka with $200m loan".
- "Sudan's Debt Relief: Bangladesh donates $7.7m". 17 June 2021.
- "A rising Bangladesh starts to exert its regional power | Lowy Institute".
- "India-Bangladesh Bilateral Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs (India). March 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "India and Bangladesh Conflict over the Ganges River | Climate-Diplomacy".
- Karim, Sajid (November 2020). Transboundary Water Cooperation between Bangladesh and India in the Ganges River Basin: Exploring a Benefit-sharing Approach (PDF) (Master's). Uppsala University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Banerji, Anuttama (9 April 2021). "India Must Settle the Teesta River Dispute With Bangladesh for Lasting Gains". The Diplomat. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Kamruzzaman, Md. (11 February 2021). "'Unlawful killings' along India border: Bangladeshi families seek justice". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Anik, Syed Samiul Basher (22 December 2020). "Bangladesh sees highest border deaths in 10 years". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Janjua, Haroon (30 March 2021). "Should Pakistan apologize to Bangladesh for the 1971 war?". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta (27 June 2018). "Decoding China-Bangladesh relationship". New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- Shazzad, Hussain (10 February 2022). "50 Years of Japan-Bangladesh Ties: From Economic to Strategic Partnership". The Diplomat. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia have extremely cordial relations — Rizvi". 27 March 2013.
- "Middle East dual shock spillover on Bangladesh's remittance". 19 July 2020.
- "Experts: Middle East remains key to Bangladesh's fortunes in a changing world". Dhaka Tribune. 29 June 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
- "COP26 and Bangladesh: Time to Consolidate Climate Diplomacy". 11 October 2021.
- "Detail". bti-project.org. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- "The rise and fade of NGOs?". 26 October 2021.
- "Bangladesh's NGOs at 50: a conversation between David Lewis and Naomi Hossain". 25 October 2021.
- "Is our civil society dead?". Dhaka Tribune.
- "The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh | 35. Protection in respect of trial and punishment". bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd.
- Mashraf, Ali (29 September 2020). "Jonny's custodial death case: Lessons learned from the verdict". The Daily Star.
- "Bangladesh: Prisoner of conscience faces prolonged detention: Shahidul Alam". Amnesty International.
- "Bangladesh: Senior Awami League politician in danger of torture" (PDF). Amnesty International (Press release). 9 January 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
- "How is Bangladesh's Digital Security Act muzzling free speech?". Deutsche Welle. 3 March 2021.
- Riaz, Ali. "How Bangladesh's Digital Security Act Is Creating a Culture of Fear". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- "Bangladesh: Repeal the digital security act and end crackdown on freedom of expression online". Amnesty International.
- Anam, Mahfuz (1 October 2021). "Column by Mahfuz Anam: Why is individual freedom such a plaything in our legal system?". The Daily Star.
- "Treasury Sanctions Perpetrators of Serious Human Rights Abuse on International Human Rights Day". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- "Bangladesh: Country Profile". Freedom House.
- Bangladesh. Freedom House. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "Bangladesh – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2016". freedomhouse.org. 27 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- "Democracy Index 2014: Democracy and its discontents" (PDF). The Economist. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022 – via Sudestada.com.uy.
- "Global Peace Index 2022" (PDF). Institute for Economics & Peace. June 2022. pp. 10–11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
- Ridwanul Hoque. "Clashing ideologies". D+C, development and cooperation. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- Knight, Kyle (18 January 2019). "LGBT Activists Are Using Visual Arts to Change Hearts and Minds in Bangladesh". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
- Ashif Islam Shaon (27 April 2016). "Where does Bangladesh stand on homosexuality issue?". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Bangladesh authorities arrest 27 men on suspicion of being gay". The Independent. 19 May 2017.
- Shakil Bin Mushtaq. "Bangladesh Adds Third Gender Option to Voter Forms". The Diplomat. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
- Kevin Bales; et al. "Bangladesh". The Global Slavery Index 2016. The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- Bales, Kevin (2016). Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World (First ed.). New York: Spiegel & Grau. pp. 71–97. ISBN 978-0-8129-9576-3.
- Siddharth, Kara (2012). Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 104–22.
- McGoogan, Cara; Rashid, Muktadir (23 October 2016). "Satellites reveal 'child slave camps' in Unesco-protected park in Bangladesh". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 – Transparency International". Transparency International. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 1
- Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 12
- Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015, Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 21
- The Business of Bribes: Bangladesh: The Blowback of Corruption, Public Broadcasting Services, Arlington, Virginia, 2009
- "Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Bangladesh". U4. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "ACC largely ineffective". The Daily Star. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Anti Corruption Commission and Political Government: An Evaluation of Awami League Regime (2009–2012) | Government and Politics, JU". govpoliju.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Economic impact of Padma Bridge". 11 August 2022.
- "Bangladesh ranked 41st largest economy in 2019 all over the world". Thedailystar.net. 8 January 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Sayeed Iftekhar Ahmed (18 March 2022). "Where do Bangladesh and Pakistan stand after 50 years of separation?". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Sharma, Mihir (31 May 2021). "South Asia Should Pay Attention to Its Standout Star" (Opinion). Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 7 February 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Country on a Mission: The Remarkable Story of Bangladesh's Development Journey". World Bank.
- "Bangladesh Unveils Padma River Bridge". Voanews.com. 25 June 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Padma Bridge collects over Tk52 crore tolls in 20 days". The Business Standard. 16 July 2022.
- "Bangladesh - Market Overview". Trade.gov. 20 July 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "How 100% electrification changed the rural game". The Business Standard. 14 March 2022.
- "Bangladesh attains full electricity coverage with inauguration of China-funded power plant-Xinhua". English.news.cn. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Electricity now in every house". The Daily Star. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "PM Hasina: 1 million families get free homes under Ashrayan project". www.dhakatribune.com. 28 September 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
- "Public sector needs to keep pace with private sector". The Business Standard. 20 January 2022.
- "Mobile Phone Subscribers in Bangladesh January, 2021 | BTRC". www.btrc.gov.bd. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
- Ahaduzzaman; Sarkar, Prottasha; Anjum, Aniqa; Khan, Easir A. (7 December 2017). "Overview of Major Industries in Bangladesh". Journal of Chemical Engineering. 30 (1): 51–58. doi:10.3329/jce.v30i1.34798.
- "Muhammed Aziz Khan". Forbes. Retrieved 23 November 2022.
- "What milestones have Bangladesh crossed in 50 years". 26 March 2021.
- "Bangladesh: Reducing Poverty and Sharing Prosperity". World Bank.
- "Pre-Pandemic Level: Poverty set to drop further". The Daily Star. 8 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Population census 2022: Bangladesh's literacy rate now 74.66%". Thedailystar.net. 27 July 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Labor force, total - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- "Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (modeled ILO estimate) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- Razzaque, Mohammad A.; Khondker, Bazlul H.; Eusuf, Abu. "Promoting inclusive growth in Bangladesh through special economic zones" (PDF). asiafoundation.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- "Floriculture: A lucrative sector in Bangladesh". The Business Standard. 12 September 2020.
- Kabir, S. Humayun. "Sea Food Export from Bangladesh and Current Status of Traceability" (PDF). unescap.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- "Bangladesh Solar Home Systems Provide Clean Energy for 20 million People". World Bank.
- "Palki: An affordable locally assembled Electric Vehicle on its way". The Daily Star. 26 August 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Govt readies rules to pave way for electric vehicles". The Daily Star. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Mang, Heinz-Peter. "Situation Analysis of Agro-Industrial Biogas Plants in Bangladesh" (PDF). sreeda.gov.bd. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- "Natural Gas – Underexplored in Bangladesh?". GEO ExPro. 15 December 2021.
- "Bangladesh: Asia's New Energy Superpower?".
- Imam, Badrul (20 August 2022). "Our own resources can help us get over the energy crisis". The Daily Star.
- "Imported LNG to be 24 times more expensive than local gas: CPD". The Business Standard. 13 February 2022.
- "Bangladesh halts expensive spot LNG imports despite load-shedding". 20 July 2022 – via www.reuters.com.
- Imam, Badrul (26 December 2021). "Let us not become dependent on LNG import". The Daily Star.
- "Bangladesh is being 'killed by economic conditions elsewhere in the world'". 24 August 2022.
- Byron, Rejaul Karim; Hasan, Mahmudul (28 November 2021). "Tourism's share 3.02% in GDP". The Daily Star. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- "International tourism, receipts (current US$) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
- "Tentative Lists". Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Lonely Planet's Best in Travel. Lonely Planet. 2011. ISBN 978-1-74220-090-3. Archived from the original on 24 February 1999. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Top 10 best value destinations for 2011". Lonely Planet. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2019 edition: Bangladesh" (PDF). World Travel and Tourism Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- "Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Bangladesh" (PDF). World Travel and Tourism Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2013.
- "Bangladesh - Power and Energy".
- Paul, Ruma; Varadhan, Sudarshan (4 October 2022). "Bangladesh plunged into darkness by national grid failure". Reuters.
- "Global LNG outlooks point to rough waters ahead for Bangladesh".
- Devnath, Arun (7 August 2022). "Bangladesh Plans Staggered Factory Holidays to Ease Power Crunch". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2009 IEA (pdf. pp. 87–89)
- "Population density (people per sq. km of land area) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Saikia, Nandita; Kebede, Endale Birhanu; Lutz, Wolfgang (21 January 2022). "Revisiting the causes of fertility decline in Bangladesh: the relative importance of female education and family planning programs". Asian Population Studies. Routledge: 1–24. doi:10.1080/17441730.2022.2028253. S2CID 246183181.
- "Urban population (% of total population) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- "Population ages 0-14 (% of total population) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- "Population ages 65 and above (% of total population) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- Rashiduzzaman, M (1998). "Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord: Institutional Features and Strategic Concerns". Asian Survey. 38 (7): 653–70. doi:10.2307/2645754. JSTOR 2645754.
- Note on the nationality status of the Urdu-speaking community in Bangladesh Archived 22 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency.
- Population and Housing Census 2011 – Volume 3: Urban Area Report (PDF), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, August 2014, archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2019, retrieved 29 September 2018
- Heitzman, James; Worden, Robert, eds. (1989). "Ethnicity and Linguistic Diversity". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
- Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003). "The historical context and development of Indo-Aryan". The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge Language Family Series. London: Routledge. pp. 46–66. ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.
- Khan, Sameer Ud Dowla (21 February 2018). "Amago Basha". The Daily Star. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
- Rahman, Mohammad Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Shaiful; Karim, Abdul; Chowdhury, Takad Ahmed; Rahman, Muhammad Mushfiqur; Ibna Seraj, Prodhan Mahbub; Mehar Singh, Manjet Kaur (5 June 2019). "English language teaching in Bangladesh today: Issues, outcomes and implications". Language Testing in Asia. 9 (9). doi:10.1186/s40468-019-0085-8. S2CID 189801612.
- Seung, Kim; Kim, Amy (2010). "The Santali cluster in Bangladesh: a sociolinguistic survey" (PDF). Survey Report. SIL International. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
- Ashrafi, Shah Tazrian (19 January 2021). "How the Urdu language and literature slipped into darkness in Bangladesh". TRT World. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
- "The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (part II)". Laws of Bangladesh.
- The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
Article 2A. – The state religion and Article 12. – Secularism and freedom of religion
- "Bangladesh's Constitution of 1972, Reinstated in 1986, with Amendments through 2014" (PDF). constituteproject.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Bergman, David (28 March 2016). "Bangladesh court upholds Islam as religion of the state". Al Jazeera.
- "Report on International Religious Freedom". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- "Religions in Bangladesh | PEW-GRF".
- "Know Bangladesh". Government of Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- "Muslim Population by Country". Pew Research. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- ১০ বছরে ৯ লাখ হিন্দু কমেছে. Prothom Alo (in Bengali). Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh: Article 17 (Free and compulsory education)". Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division, Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- "State minister: Literacy rate now 74.7%". Dhaka Tribune. BSS. 8 September 2020.
- "Bangladesh". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- firstname.lastname@example.org, University Grants Commission of Bangladesh. "List of Public Universities | University Grants Commission of Bangladesh". List of Public Universities | University Grants Commission of Bangladesh.
- "University Grant Commission (UGC)". Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2008.
- T. Neville Postlethwaite (1988). The Encyclopedia of Comparative Education and National Systems of Education. Pergamon Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-08-030853-1.
- email@example.com, University Grants Commission of Bangladesh. "List of Private Universities | University Grants Commission of Bangladesh". List of Private Universities | University Grants Commission of Bangladesh.
- Mahmud, Tarek (19 October 2017). "Chittagong University: A model of campus tourism". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- Byron, Rejaul Karim; Alamgir, Mohiuddin (1 July 2020). "Life expectancy rises". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Chapter-5 | Health Services Division" (PDF). Ministry of Finance (Bangladesh). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Ahmed, Syed Masud; Alam, Bushra Binte; Anwar, Iqbal; Begum, Tahmina; Huque, Rumana; AM Khan, Jahangir; Nababan, Herfina; Osman, Ferdaus Arfina (2015). Naheed, Aliya; Hort, Krishna (eds.). Bangladesh Health System Review (PDF). Vol. 5. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-92-9061-705-1. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Health Ministry split into 2 divisions". New Age. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
The government has now split the Health and Family Welfare Ministry into two divisions. The new divisions under the ministry are — Health Services Division, and Medical Education and Family Welfare Division.
- Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Md Awlad; Chowdhury, Ahmed Mushtaque Raja; Bhuiya, Abbas Uddin (22 January 2011). "The health workforce crisis in Bangladesh: shortage, inappropriate skill-mix and inequitable distribution". Human Resources for Health. BioMed Central. 9 (3): 3. doi:10.1186/1478-4491-9-3. PMC 3037300. PMID 21255446.
- Mahmood, Shehrin S.; Iqbal, Mohammad; Hanifi, S M A; Wahed, Tania; Bhuiya, Abbas (6 July 2010). "Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?". BMC International Health and Human Rights. BioMed Central. 10 (18): 18. doi:10.1186/1472-698X-10-18. PMC 2910021. PMID 20602805.
- Bloom, Gerald; Standing, Hilary; Lucas, Henry; Bhuiya, Abbas; Oladepo, Olademeji; Peters, David H. (4 July 2011). "Making Health Markets Work Better for Poor People: The Case of Informal Providers". Health Policy and Planning. Oxford University Press. 26 (Suppl 1): i45–i52. doi:10.1093/heapol/czr025. PMID 21729917.
- "Current health expenditure (% of GDP) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Domestic general government health expenditure (% of current health expenditure) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Out-of-pocket expenditure (% of current health expenditure) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Domestic private health expenditure (% of current health expenditure) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- "Physicians (per 1,000 people) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Islam, Md. Taimur; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Siddiqui, Md. Nurealam; Islam, Tofazzal (14 October 2020). "Tackling the COVID-19 pandemic: The Bangladesh perspective". Journal of Public Health Research. 9 (4): jphr.2020.1794. doi:10.4081/jphr.2020.1794. PMC 7582102. PMID 33117758.
- "Hospital beds (per 1,000 people) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births) - Bangladesh". World Bank. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "Bangladesh a key source market for medical tourism". The Daily Star. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
- Andaleeb, Syed Saad; Siddiqui, Nazlee; Khandakar, Shahjahan (July 2007). "Patient satisfaction with health services in Bangladesh". Health Policy and Planning. Oxford University Press. 22 (4): 263–273. doi:10.1093/heapol/czm017. PMID 17545252.
- Shawon, Md. Toufiq Hassan; Ashrafi, Shah Ali Akbar; Azad, Abul Kalam; Firth, Sonja M.; Chowdhury, Hafizur; Mswia, Robert G.; Adair, Tim; Riley, Ian; Abouzahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D. (12 March 2021). "Routine mortality surveillance to identify the cause of death pattern for out-of-hospital adult (aged 12+ years) deaths in Bangladesh: introduction of automated verbal autopsy". BMC Public Health. BioMed Central. 21 (491): 491. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-10468-7. PMC 7952220. PMID 33706739.
- "Malnutrition". International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- "In Search of Bangladeshi Islamic Art". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- "Chobi Mela kicks off next month". The Daily Observer. Dhaka. 19 December 2014.
- "Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription". Banglapedia. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Junaidul Haque (7 May 2011). "Rabindranath: He belonged to the world". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Rubaiyat, Hossain. "Begum Rokeya : The Pioneer Feminist of Bangladesh". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Syed Mujtaba Ali". The Daily Star. 18 September 2009. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Whispers to Voices: Gender and Social Transformation in Bangladesh Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine World Bank.org 2008
- "World Bank Document" (PDF). World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
- Rahman, Mahbubur (2012). "Architecture". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Ahmed, Syed Jamil (2000). Achinpakhi Infinity: Indigenous Theatre of Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Ltd. p. 396. ISBN 978-984-05-1462-5.
- "UNESCO – The Samba of Roda and the Ramlila proclaimed Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'". BBC News. 14 April 2004.
- London, Ellen (2004). Bangladesh. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 29. ISBN 0-8368-3107-1.
- "Rock's leading light goes out". The Daily Star. 18 October 2018. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- Shahnewaz, Sadi Mohammad (23 December 2017). "An Ode to the Guru of Rock". The Daily Star. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
- "Traditional art of Jamdani weaving – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Ahmad, Shamsuddin (2012). "Textiles". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "more Bibi Russell". Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
- Osman, Shawkat (16 February 2009). খুনতি কড়াই : Bangladeshi Cuisine. Mapin Publishing. ISBN 978-1-890-20602-4.
- Yesmin, Shaheda (6 December 2016). "Bangladesh cuisine part I - delectable and diverse". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Huda, Shahana (2 April 2019). "MASHED". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
Bhorta is just another staple for Bengalis...
- Rahman, Md. Naimur; Islam, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul (28 December 2020). "Consumer fish consumption preferences and contributing factors: empirical evidence from Rangpur city corporation, Bangladesh". Heliyon. Cell Press. 6 (12): e05864. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05864. PMC 7779775. PMID 33426347.
- "Shatkora meat at the Dining Room". Dhaka Tribune. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Bamboo shoots now a popular delicacy for tourists". The Business Standard. 16 August 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Karim, Elita (24 June 2016). "The Concept of Desserts in Bangladesh". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- "Winter Pitha". The Daily Star. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Khondokar, Faiza (15 March 2022). "Shab-e-Barat: The night of fortune and forgiveness". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Tariq, Jahanara (24 April 2018). "Bread 1010". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Amatya, Suki; Mahin, Tamanna; Sadaaf, Bushra Humaira; Sarkar, Supriti (12 December 2017). "Coffee: a lifestyle or just another alternative to tea?". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- Haider, M. H. (9 March 2010). "street food 101". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
- Akbar, Ahsan (21 March 2021). "From kala bhuna to shatkora curry – let's all get a taste for Bangladesh". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
Nevertheless, Indian restaurants are a thriving business, and around 90% of the Indian restaurants in Britain today are owned and run by Bangladeshis.
- "The General Conference proclaim"International Mother Language Day" to be observed on 21 February". UNESCO. 16 November 1999. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "Pahela Baisakh". Banglapedia. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- Faroqi, Gofran (2012). "Kabadi". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- "U19s Cricket World Cup: Bangladesh beat India in final to win first title". BBC Sport. 9 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Minhaz Uddin Khan (9 February 2020). "Young Tigers become World Champions". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "Champions of Asia T20 Cup 2018: Bangladesh Women's Cricket Team". The Daily Star. 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Melik, James (28 April 2011). "Bangladesh football vies with cricket for sponsorship". BBC News. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- ইকবাল, নাইর. "যে ম্যাচগুলো 'আফসোস' বাংলাদেশের ফুটবলে". Prothomalo.
- "Bangladesh's U19 Saff Women's Championship victory to serve as a harbinger of success in football". The Business Standard. 23 December 2021.
- "President, PM lauds Bangladesh team for winning SAFF Women's Championship 2022". Dhaka Tribune. 19 September 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
- "Bangladesh women create history, clinch Saff Championship for first time". Dhaka Tribune. 19 September 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
- "Ety, Sana complete Bangladesh's clean sweep in archery". The Daily Star. 9 December 2019.
- "All Affiliated National Federation/Association". National Sports Council. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- "Bangladesh Chess Federation". bdchessfed.com.
- "Musa conquers Everest". The Daily Star. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017.
- Mary Anne Potts (27 May 2016). "Bangladeshi Climber Shares Her Spiritual Journey for the Women of Her Country". National Geographic.
- "Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra's Rashidul Hossain passes away". bdnews24.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Tareque Masud, filmmaker extraordinaire". The Daily Star. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
- "Tareque Masud's 63rd birth anniversary observed". UNB. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
- Rahman, Md Zillur (2012). "Library". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-469-5.
- Baxter, Craig (1997). Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3632-9. OCLC 47885632.
- Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3.
- Ahmed, Nizam. The Parliament of Bangladesh (Routledge, 2018).
- Ali, S. Mahmud (2010). Understanding Bangladesh. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70143-3.
- Ghosh, Manash (2021). Bangladesh War: Report from Ground Zero. Niyogi Books. ISBN 9789391125370.
- Baxter, Craig. Bangladesh: From a nation to a state (Routledge, 2018).
- Bose, Sarmila (2012). Dead Reckoning Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War. Hachette UK. ISBN 978-93-5009-426-6.
- Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2004). The Partition of Bengal and Assam, 1932-1947: Contour of Freedom. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-33274-8.
- Grover, Verinder (2000). Bangladesh: Government and Politics. Deep and Deep Publications. ISBN 978-81-7100-928-2.
- Guhathakurta, Meghna; van Schendel, Willem, eds. (2013). The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5304-1.
- Hasnat, GN Tanjina, Md Alamgir Kabir, and Md Akhter Hossain. "Major environmental issues and problems of South Asia, particularly Bangladesh." Handbook of environmental materials management (2018): 1-40. online
- Iftekhar Iqbal (2010) The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840–1943 (Palgrave Macmillan) ISBN 0-230-23183-7
- Islam, Saiful, and Md Ziaur Rahman Khan. "A review of the energy sector of Bangladesh." Energy Procedia 110 (2017): 611–618. online
- Jannuzi, F. Tomasson, and James T. Peach. The agrarian structure of Bangladesh: An impediment to development (Routledge, 2019).
- Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal. Kube Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84774-052-6.
- Mookherjee, Nayanika (2015). The Spectral Wound: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-5949-4.
- M. Mufakharul Islam (edited) (2004) Socio-Economic History of Bangladesh: essays in memory of Professor Shafiqur Rahman, 1st Edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, OCLC 156800811
- M. Mufakharul Islam (2007) Bengal Agriculture 1920–1946: A Quantitative Study (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-04985-7
- Prodhan, Mohit. "The educational system in Bangladesh and scope for improvement." Journal of International Social Issues 4.1 (2016): 11–23. online
- Raghavan, Srinath (2013). 1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-72864-6.
- Rashid, Haroun Er (1977). Geography of Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Ltd. OCLC 4638928.
- Riaz, Ali. Bangladesh: A political history since independence (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016).
- Riaz, Ali (2010). Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-92624-2.
- Riaz, Ali; Rahman, Mohammad Sajjadur (2016). Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Bangladesh. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-30877-5.
- Schendel, Willem van (2009). A History of Bangladesh. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86174-8.
- Shelley, Israt J., et al. "Rice cultivation in Bangladesh: present scenario, problems, and prospects." Journal of International Cooperation for Agricultural Development 14.4 (2016): 20–29. online
- Sirajul Islam (edited) (1997) History of Bangladesh 1704–1971(Three Volumes: Vol 1: Political History, Vol 2: Economic History Vol 3: Social and Cultural History), 2nd Edition (Revised New Edition), The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, ISBN 984-512-337-6
- Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor) (2003) Banglapedia: A National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh.(10 Vols. Set), (written by 1300 scholars & 22 editors) The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, ISBN 984-32-0585-5
- Sisson, Richard; Rose, Leo E (1991). War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07665-5.
- Sogra, Khair Jahan (2014). The Impact of Gender Differences on the Conflict Management Styles of Managers in Bangladesh: An Analysis. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-6854-9.
- Umar, Badruddin (2006). The Emergence of Bangladesh: Rise of Bengali nationalism, 1958–1971. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-597908-4.
- Van Schendel, Willem. A history of Bangladesh (Cambridge University Press, 2020).
- Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-7733-3.
- Wahid, Abu N.M..; Weis, Charles E (1996). The Economy of Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95347-8.
- Bangladesh. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Bangladesh at Curlie
- Bangladesh from the BBC News
- Bangladesh from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Geographic data related to Bangladesh at OpenStreetMap
- Wikimedia Atlas of Bangladesh
- Key Development Forecasts for Bangladesh from International Futures