Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

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Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ
LeaderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
FounderSheikh Mujibur Rahman
Founded24 February 1975
Dissolved15 August 1975
Merger ofAwami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar), Bangladesh Jatiya League
HeadquartersDhaka, Bangladesh
IdeologyBengali nationalism
One Party State
Political positionLeft-wing to Far-left

Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

Following the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh, enacted on 25 January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman formed BaKSAL on 24 February.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BaKSAL.

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of the Second Revolution. BaKSAL was the decision-making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[3]

BaKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in August 1975.[4] With the end of BaKSAL, all the political parties who had merged with BaKSAL, including the Awami League, again became independent political parties.


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (aka Mujibur) and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 Bangladeshi general election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption.[5] In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujibur declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group.[6] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute one-party rule.[7][8][9]


On 24 February 1975, Mujibur formed a new party, the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[5][10] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[11] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[5] All other political organisations were banned.[11] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BaKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[5] The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party, and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BaKSAL. According to political science professor Talukder Maniruzzaman, BaKSAL was in practice "the Awami League under a different name".[12]

BaKSAL was scheduled to officially replace the nation's other political organisations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations, on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Mujibur Rahman, BaKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 120-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively).[12] All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BaKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country to make it people-oriented.

Executive Committee[edit]

Central Committee[edit]

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali
  4. Abdul Malik Ukil
  5. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  6. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  7. Kazi Linchon
  8. Mahmudullah
  9. Abdus Samad Azad
  10. M. Yousuf Ali
  11. Phani Bhushan Majumder
  12. Kamal Hossain
  13. Sohrab Husin
  14. Abdul Mannan
  15. Abdur Rab Serniabat
  16. Manaranjan Dhar
  17. Abdul Matin
  18. Asaduzzanan
  19. Md Korban Ali
  20. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  21. Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  22. Tofael Ahmed
  23. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  24. Abdul Momin Talukdar
  25. Dewan Farid Gazi
  26. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  27. Taheruddin Thakur
  28. Moslemuddin Khan
  29. Professor Abu Sayeed
  30. MD Nurul Islam Manju
  31. KM Obaidur Rahman
  32. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal
  33. Reazuddin Ahmad
  34. M. Baitullah
  35. Rahul Quddus (Secretary)
  36. Zillur Rahman
  37. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  38. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  39. Abdur Razzaq
  40. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  41. Anwar Choudhry
  42. Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury
  43. Taslima Abed
  44. Abdur Rahim
  45. Abdul Awal
  46. Lutfur Rahman
  47. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  48. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  49. Dr. Allauddin
  50. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  51. Raushan Ali
  52. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  53. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  54. Salahuddin Yusuf
  55. Michael Sushil Adhikari
  56. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  57. Mollah Jalaluddin
  58. Shamsuddin Mollah
  59. Gour Chandra Bala
  60. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  61. Shamsul Haq
  62. Shamsuzzoha
  63. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  64. Syed Ahmad
  65. Shamsur Rahman Khan Shahjahan
  66. Nurul Haq
  67. Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
  68. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  69. M.R. Siddiqui
  70. MA Wahab
  71. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  72. Sayeda Razia Banu
  73. Ataur Rahman Khan
  74. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  75. Mong Pru Saire
  76. Professor Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  77. Ataur Rahman
  78. Pir Habibur Rahman
  79. Syed Altaf Hossain
  80. Muhammad Farhad
  81. Matia Chowdhury
  82. Hazi Danesh
  83. Taufiq Inam (Secretary)
  84. Nurul Islam (Secretary)
  85. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  86. Mahbubur Rahman (Secretary)
  87. Abdul Khaleque
  88. Muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  89. Abdur Rahim (Secretary)
  90. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  91. Sayeeduzzaman (Secretary)
  92. Anisuzzaman (Secretary)
  93. Dr. A. Sattar (Secretary)
  94. M.A Samad (Secretary)
  95. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  96. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  97. Dr Tajul Hossain (Secretary)
  98. Motiur Rahman. Chairman. TCB
  99. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  100. Air Vice Marshal Abdul Karim Khandker
  101. Commodore M.H. Khan
  102. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  103. A.K. Naziruddin Ahmed
  104. Dr. Abdul Matin Chowdhury
  105. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  106. Dr. Sramul Haq
  107. Badal Ghosh
  108. ATM Syed Hossain
  109. Nurul Islam
  110. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  111. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  112. Obaidul Huq Editor Observer
  113. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  114. Mizanur Rahman BPI
  115. Manawarul Islam
  116. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  117. Brig. A. N. M. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini
  118. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  119. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri


Many restrictive regulations coming from BaKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on press freedom which allowed only the Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, The Daily Ittefaq, and Bangladesh Times to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.[13]


The party contested in 1986 general election using "Boat" symbol and later in 1991 general election using "Bicycle" symbol.The party carried out independently until 1990s, when almost all of its party leaders deserted the organisation to merge with the Bangladesh Awami League.[14]


Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis thought that "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" was "unprecedented".[15]

Relevant Books[edit]

  • হারুন-অর-রশীদ, বঙ্গবন্ধুর দ্বিতীয় বিপ্লবঃ কি ও কেন? (বাংলা একাডেমি, ২০২০)[16]


  1. ^ Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 984-779-027-2.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Moudud (1984) [First published 1983]. Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 245. ISBN 3-515-04266-0.
  3. ^ "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". Time. 10 February 1975. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Bangabandhu: a forbidden name for 16yrs". The Daily Star. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin (ed.). Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and many others from the other parties, decided to join the BaKSAL. Between Mujib's BaKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join.
  6. ^ "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  7. ^ "Sheikh Assumes Absolute Rule in Bangladesh". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. 26 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Bangladesh President Takes Over". The Daily Herald. Provo, Utah. United Press International. 24 February 1975. p. 8. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via open access
  10. ^ "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via open access
  11. ^ a b "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via
  12. ^ a b Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 16 (2): 119–129. doi:10.1525/as.1976.16.2.01p0153p. JSTOR 2643140.
  13. ^ Dowlah, Caf (2016). The Bangladesh Liberation War, the Sheikh Mujib Regime, and Contemporary Controversies. Lexington Books. p. 124. ISBN 9781498534192.
  14. ^ "Near East & South Asia: Bangladesh" (PDF). JPRS Report. 1: 10. 12 September 1991. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  15. ^ "Tread Warily to the Dream". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 6 February 2010.
  16. ^ Bhuiyan, Md Azhar Uddin. "Harun-or-Rashid, Bangabandhu's Second Revolution: What and Why. Bangla Academy Press, 2020 (hardback). Pp 126. BDT 200. ISBN: 978-984-07-5989-7".