Bangladesh Police

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Bangladesh Police
বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ
Patch of Bangladesh Police
Patch of Bangladesh Police
Crest of Bangladesh Police
Crest of Bangladesh Police
Mottoশৃঙ্খলা নিরাপত্তা প্রগতি
Discipline Security Progress
Agency overview
Employees256,344 personnel[1][failed verification]
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyBangladesh
Operations jurisdictionBangladesh
Size148,460 km2 (57,320 sq mi)
Population162 million[2]
Governing bodyMinistry of Home Affairs
Constituting instrument
  • The Police Act, 1861
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters6, Phoenix Road, Fulbaria, Dhaka 1000
Sworn members11,000
Elected officer responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyGovernment of Bangladesh
Armored vehiclesOtokar Cobra
HelicoptersBell 407
  • Bangladesh Police Medal (Bravery) – (BPM)
  • Bangladesh Police Medal – Service (BPM-Seba)
  • President Police Medal (Bravery) – (PPM)
  • President Police Medal – Service (PPM-Seba)
Service uniform: Midnight Blue, Khaki
Combat uniform:
Metropolitan : Tiffany Blue, Midnight Blue
Range Police : Navy Blue, Midnight Blue
Bangladesh Police officials in 2015
Bangladesh police.

The Bangladesh Police (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ পুলিশ) is the national law enforcement agency of Bangladesh, operating under the Ministry of Home Affairs.[4] It plays a crucial role in maintaining peace, and enforcement of law and order within Bangladesh. Though the police are primarily concerned with the maintenance of law and order and security of persons and property of individuals, they also play a big role in the criminal justice system.[5][6] Bangladesh police played an important role during the Bangladesh Liberation War.


Medieval period[edit]

Details of policing activities during the middle age are challenging to find. However, during the periods of the great sultans, an official holding the position of Muhtasib used to perform the duties of policing. This person was the chief of police, in charge of public works, and the inspector of public ethics simultaneously. In urban areas, Kotwals were responsible for performing police duties. The policing system introduced by Sher Shah Suri was further organised during the period of Emperor Akbar: the Emperor organised his administrative structure introducing Fouzdari (the principal representative of the Emperor), Mir Adal and Kazi (the head of judicial department), and Kotwal (the chief police official of larger cities). This system was effective in maintaining the law and order in cities, and was implemented in Dhaka. Many district sadar police stations are still called Kotwali police stations. In the Mughal period, Kotwal emerged as an institution.

A Fouzdar was appointed to every administrative unit of the government (district), under whom there were some artillery and cavalry forces. There was a disciplined police system during the Mughal period, though there was no professional police force like that in the British period.

British period [1857 - 1947][edit]

In the early stage of the Industrial Revolution, when England was facing grave crisis due to socio-economic transformation, the necessity of an effective organised police service was keenly felt. Sir Robert Peel, then the Prime Minister, introduced a bill in the British Parliament in 1829 which created an organised civil police in London. The success of the London police in controlling social disorder and crime was admired by not only the people of England but also of European and American countries: New York city copied the London model with some modifications when it organised the first Municipal Police Force, in 1833.[7]

In 1858, full control of the Indian Territory was taken over from the East India Company by the British government. The success of the London police organised under Peel's Act of 1829 prompted the British government to reform the police system in the sub-continent in a similar way to British constabularies. With this end in view, a police commissioner was set up 1861, and on the recommendation of the commission of the Police Act (Act V of 1861), was passed by the British Parliament. Under this Act a police force was created in each province of British India, and placed under the control of the provincial government. The administration of the police force of a province was vested upon an officer styled as the Inspector-general of police. The administration of the police in a district was placed under the Superintendent of Police. The Act is still in force throughout the sub-continent, and regulates the function of police in Bangladesh, as well as the other countries of the sub-continent.[7]

Pakistan period [1947 - 1970][edit]

After partition of the sub-continent in 1947, the police force in Bangladesh was first named as the East Bengal Police, and then as the East Pakistan Police; however, it continued to function on the same lines as during the British rule.[8]

Role in Liberation War [1971][edit]

In the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali-speaking police officers participated with the citizens, leading to deaths from most ranks, fighting with .303 rifles against the Pakistani. The resistance by the Bengali members of police at Rajarbagh is considered the first chapter of armed struggles during the Bangladesh Liberation war.[9][10] Bangladesh Police founded a Liberation War Museum at the Rajarbagh police line in January 2017.[11]

Bangladesh period [1971 - present][edit]

After the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country on 16 December 1971, the police force was recognised and assumed the role of a national police force.[7] In January 2004, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party led government removed the boat from the police force badge because the boat is also the symbol of the then opposition party, Bangladesh Awami League. The police had been using the boat in its symbol since the independence of Bangladesh.[12]


Bangladesh Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police (IGP), under whose command, Bangladesh Police is divided into several units.

Bangladesh Police headquarter building


Subnational units

Specialized units

Specialized Battalions

Specialized Team



Investigation Unit[edit]


Superior officers[edit]

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Bangladesh Police
Inspector general of police Additional inspector
general of police
[note 1]
Deputy inspector
general of police
Additional deputy
inspector general of police
Superintendent of police[note 2] Additional superintendent
of police
Senior assistant
superintendent of police
superintendent of police
Metropolitan Branch Commissioner of Police[note 3] Commissioner of Police
Additional Police Commissioner[note 4]
Additional Police Commissioner
Joint Commissioner of Police[note 5]
Deputy Commissioner of Police Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police Assistant Commissioner of Police
Industrial Police Director General Additional Director General Director Deputy Director Senior Assistant Director Assistant Director

Subordinate officers[edit]

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Bangladesh Police
Inspector of police Sub-inspector Sergeant Assistant sub-inspector Nayek Constable
Armed Branch Armed Inspector of Police Armed Sub-Inspector Armed Assistant Sub-Inspector Naik Constable
Industrial Police Deputy Assistant Director Circle Commander Assistant Sub-Inspector Naik Constable
Traffic Division Traffic Inspector Town Sub-Inspector Sergeant Assistant Town Sub-Inspector Traffic Constable


Police medals are awarded every year in the annual Police Week Parade. They are awarded both for bravery and service.

Bangladesh Police Medal (BPM)

Selection and training[edit]

The recruitment process differs according to the level of position being recruited to, and direct entry (where an applicant does not have to start at the lowest level) is possible. The educational requirements increase with rank. A minimum bachelor's degree is required for Assistant Superintendent of Police, Sub-Inspector, and Sergeant, and for Constable, a Secondary School Certificate is required. Recruitment is conducted in the following three tiers:

  • In the rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)
  • In the rank of Sub-Inspector (SI) or Sergeant
  • In the rank of Constable

Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP)[edit]

The Assistant Superintendent of Police (ASP) are recruited by the Bangladesh Public Service Commission (BPSC) through the competitive Bangladesh Civil Service the Bangladesh Police Academy as Probationary ASPs. After passing from the academy, they undergo an orientation training for six months in the district level as a probationer. After that they have been appointed as a full-fledged ASPs in different units.

Sub-Inspector (SI)[edit]

Sub-Inspectors are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. They undergo a one-year-long training in the Bangladesh Police Academy as Outside Cadet Sub-Inspectors. After that they have partake in two years probationary period in different police units. After that they have been appointed as a full-fledged SIs in different units.


Sergeants are recruited by Police Headquarters centrally. After appointment they undergo a one-year-long training course in the Bangladesh Police Academy, at the rank of Probationary Sergeant. After passing from the academy, they also undergo an orientation training of one year in the rank of probationer.


Constables are recruited in the district level. They undergo a six-month-long training in the Police Training Centre as a Trainee Recruit Constable career (TRC).

Training institutions[edit]

The main training institution of the Bangladesh Police is the Bangladesh Police Academy, established in 1912 in Sardah.[citation needed] The Police Staff College, which trains officers from ASP to DIG in-service, was established in 2000 in Dhaka.[14] Bangladesh Police also maintains Police Training Centre (PTC) in Tangail, Rangpur, Khulna and Noakhali. The Detective Training School was established in 1962 in Dhaka.

List of training institutions[edit]

Moreover, there are in-service training centres in different districts.

Community policing[edit]

In Bangladesh police, community policing is an organisation with the aims of promoting community, government and police partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagement to address the causes of crime, fear of crime and community issues. Bangladesh Police have been trying to implement this philosophy nationwide. The Police Reform Program (PRP), a UNDP funded project, has been providing Bangladesh Police with technical assistance to implement community-policing nationwide.[15]

Strategic partnership[edit]

Under the strategic partnership there are:

  1. a National Community Policing Advisory Committee, chaired by the Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. a National Community Policing Co-ordination Committee headed by the IGP or an additional Inspector General of Police at the Police Headquarters
  3. a Crime Prevention Centre, set up in the police Headquarters having the Detective Inspector General (Crime) at the focal point

Implementation partnership[edit]

The implementation partnership starts at the district level: There is a district community-policing cell in every district under the Superintendent of Police. The Additional SP or an ASP looks after the district community-policing cell. Secondly, in the police station level, there is a community policing cell with a full-time community policing officer (CPO), who coordinates the community policing activities in the police station jurisdiction.

Beat policing[edit]

In 2016 Dhaka Metropolitan Police under DMP Commissioner Asaduzzaman Mia implemented the beat policing Dhaka city. In this regard, each Police Station is divided into some police beats, and for each beat there is an assigned Beat Policing Officer for a tenure of 2 years.[16]

Women in Bangladesh Police[edit]

UN peace-keeping operations[edit]

Since its first mission in Namibia in 1989, the Bangladesh Police has contributed to numerous UN peace-keeping missions.[17]

List of completed and present UNPOL and FPU Peacekeeping missions participated by Bangladesh Police:[18]

Sl. No Name of mission Country Period
1 UNTAG Namibia 1989–1990
2 UNTAC Cambodia 1992–1994
3 UNPROFOR Yugoslavia 1992–1996
4 ONUMOZ Mozambique 1993–1994
5 UNAMIR Rwanda 1993–1995
6 UNMIH Haiti 1994–1995
7 UNAVEM III Angola 1995–1999
8 UNTAES East Slovenia 1996–1998
9 UNMIBH Bosnia 1996–2002
10 UNAMET & UNTAET East Timor 1999–2002[citation needed]
11 UNMIK Kosovo 1999–2009
12 UNAMSIL Sierra Leone 2000
13 UNMIL Liberia 2003–present
14 UNOCI Ivory Coast 2004–present
15 UNMIS Sudan 2005–2011
16 MONUSCO DR Congo 2005–present
17 UNMIT East Timor 2006–2012
18 UNAMID Darfur 2007–present
19 UNAMA Afghanistan 2008–2010
20 UNMISS South Sudan 2011–present[citation needed]

Corruption and controversies[edit]

Bangladesh Police has been criticized for having political influence in all levels, and the major decisions are taken under political conditions. Corruption is widespread among the law enforcement, with custody deaths and torture being prevalent.

In 2016 January, Dhaka South City Corporation official was tortured by Dhaka Metropolitan Police members.[19] In the same month a sub-inspector at DMP was accused of torturing and attempting to extort money from a Bangladesh Bank official.[20][21] Bangladesh Police have been accused of being involved in crime including rape and murder.[22] Bangladesh opposition party has accused the police of being used to suppress the opposition parities.[23] The accountability of the police has been question by the media.[24] 230 Police officers in Barisal Metropolitan Police created a collective bribe fund for promotions.[25] Bangladesh Police had faced criticism after telling secular bloggers to self-censure after the Attacks on secularists in Bangladesh.[26] Wife of Avijit Roy had accused Bangladesh Police of Inactivity during the attack on her husband.[27] British Government has faced criticism for its aid to Bangladesh Police which could be used to suppress dissidents.[28]

Mohammad Harun-Ur-Rashid, Superintendent of Police, is the head of Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) Tejgaon division. He has faced a number of controversies.[29] On 3 November 2019, he kidnapped the wife and minor son of Showkat Aziz Russell, Chairperson of Amber group, for the purpose of extortion from Gulshan and shifted them to Narayanganj. He was removed from his post in Narayanganj after the incident came to light.[30] He continued working at the post four days after his transfer came through.[31] The Business Standard, a Bangladeshi newspaper, described him as a "case of police impunity".[32] He made the news first on 6 July 2011 for assaulting Zainul Abdin Farroque, Bangladesh Nationalist Party politician, opposition whip, and member of parliament. He was awarded and promoted for the assault on Zainul.[30][33] In November 2019, a video of him went viral, where he and other police officers were seen attacking a referee in a friendly football match.[33]


  1. ^ Split into Grades 1 and 2
  2. ^ Assistant inspector general if in police HQ. Special superintendent if in special branch or Criminal Investigation Department. Superintendent of railway police if in railway police.
  3. ^ In Dhaka Metropolitan Police
  4. ^ In Dhaka Metropolitan Police
  5. ^ Only in Dhaka Metropolitan Police


  1. ^ "Bangladeshi police peacekeepers need more skills: UN official". The Daily Star. 28 June 2018.
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (PDF) (Report). 2008 revision. United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  3. ^ "Chowdhury Abdullah Al-Mamun named new IGP". The Daily Star. 2022-09-22.
  4. ^ "Demands for Grants and Appropriations 2012-13" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-24. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  5. ^ "Bangladesh Police official website". Bangladesh Police. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  6. ^ "Innocent must not face torture, harassment". The Daily Star. 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  7. ^ a b c "Police administration, interrogation of offenders". The New Nation. 8 August 2009. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  8. ^ "History of Bangladesh Police". Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  9. ^ "Valour of Rajarbagh goes on display". The Daily Star. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  10. ^ "A glimpse into police history". Dhaka Tribune. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  11. ^ "Police war museum". Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  12. ^ "Boat dropped from police emblem". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 2019-08-09. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  13. ^ Khan, Mohammad Jamil (2020-03-05). "Metro rail to get special police unit". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2022-09-29.
  14. ^ "History". Police Staff College Bangladesh. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  15. ^ "Community Policing in Bangladesh". The Independent. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-23.
  16. ^ "Community and bit policing to remove people's fear". Dhaka Tribune. Dhaka Tribune. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  17. ^ "Bangladesh Police in UN Missions". Bangladesh Police. Archived from the original on 2018-01-21. Retrieved 2017-06-29.
  18. ^ "List of Mission Completed UNPOL and FPU Peacekeepers". Bangladesh Police. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  19. ^ "Police brutality continues". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  20. ^ "Police officer 'tried to blackmail Bangladesh Bank official' threatening Yaba taint". Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  21. ^ "BB official assault: SI Masud did not behave like police, says Home Minister". Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  22. ^ "Policemen's involvement in crimes rising". Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  23. ^ "Police going overboard on government indulgence, says BNP". Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  24. ^ Huq Zahid, Shamsul. "Are police unaccountable?". The Financial Express. Dhaka. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  25. ^ "10 cops disciplined". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  26. ^ "Petition calls for Bangladeshi police chief to resign after he warned secularists not to insult religion". National Secular Society. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  27. ^ "Wife of murdered US blogger Avijit Roy says Bangladesh police 'did not act' during attack". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  28. ^ Holehouse, Matthew. "Did British aid help Bangladeshi police lock up dissidents?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2016-01-18.
  29. ^ "Decision on SP Harun after IGP returns home: Police Headquarters". The Business Standard. 2019-11-04. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  30. ^ a b "SP Harun appointed DMP Tejgaon division chief". Dhaka Tribune. 2020-06-09. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  31. ^ "SP Harun still in N'ganj 4 days after withdrawal". The Daily Observer. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  32. ^ "SP Harun: A case of impunity for police excess". The Business Standard (Opinion). 2019-11-05. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  33. ^ a b "SP Harun finally returns to DMP". New Age. Retrieved 2020-07-26.

Further reading[edit]