Bangladeshi taka

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"Taka" redirects here. For other uses, see Taka (disambiguation).
For the Japanese given name, see Taka (given name). For the Filipino paper mache, see Taka (paper mache).
Bangladeshi taka
টাকা
1000 taka front.JPG
1000 note
ISO 4217 code BDT
Central bank Bangladesh Bank
 Website www.bb.org.bd
User(s)  Bangladesh
Inflation 6.17 %
 Source BBS, August 2015[1]
Subunit
 1/100 poisha
Symbol
Coins
 Freq. used 1, 2, 5
 Rarely used 1, 5, 10, 25 & 50 poisha
Banknotes
 Freq. used 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 & 1000
 Rarely used 1, 25, 40, 60
Printer The Security Printing Corporation Bangladesh Ltd.
 Website www.spcbl.org.bd
Mint The Security Printing Corporation Bangladesh Ltd.

The Bangladeshi taka (Bengali: টাকা, sign: or Tk, code: BDT) is the official currency of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Issuance of banknotes 5 and larger is controlled by Bangladesh Bank, and for the 1 and 2 banknotes, which are the responsibility of the Ministry of Finance of the government of Bangladesh. The most commonly used symbol for the taka is "" and "Tk", used on receipts while purchasing goods and services. 1 is subdivided into 100 poisha.

The word taka in Bangla is also commonly used generically to mean any money, currency, or notes. Thus, colloquially, a person speaking Bangla may use "taka" to refer to money regardless of what currency it is denominated in. This is common in the Indian state of West Bengal and Tripura, where the official name of the Indian rupees is "taka" as well.

History[edit]

The word taka is derived from the Sanskrit term tangka (ṭaṃka), which was an ancient denomination for silver coins. In the region of Bengal, the term has always been used to refer to currency. In the 14th century, Ibn Battuta noticed that people in the Bengal Sultanate referred to gold and silver coins as taka instead of dinar.

1947–71[edit]

After the Partition of Bengal in 1947, In East Bengal which later succeeded being the eastern wing of Pakistan union renamed to East Pakistan in 1956, the Pakistani rupee also bore the word taka on official notes and coins. Bangla was one of the two national languages of the Pakistan union between 1956 and 1971 (the other being Urdu in West Pakistan). The Bangladeshi taka came into existence since 1972, a year after the independence of the eastern wing of the union, as the independent nation of Bangladesh.

Prior to the Liberation war in 1971, banknotes of the State Bank of Pakistan circulated throughout Bangladesh, and continued to be used in Bangladesh even after independence for only about three months until the official introduction of the taka on 4 March 1972. During the war, it was an unofficial practice of some Bengali nationalists to protest Pakistani rule by stamping banknotes with "বাংলা দেশ" and "BANGLA DESH" as two words in either Bangla or English. These locally produced stamps are known to exist in several varieties, as are forgeries, so be suspicious of fresh stamps on old notes, bilingual stamps, or stamps on notes with Karachi or Lahore imprints instead of Dhaka. On 8 June 1971, the Pakistani government declared that all banknotes bearing such stamps ceased to be legal tender. Furthermore, to prevent looted high-denomination notes from disrupting the Pakistani economy, the government also withdrew the legal tender status of all 100- and 500-rupee notes.[2]

Some foreign publications mention that there were rubber stamp "BANGLA DESH" overprints on different denominations of Pakistani bank notes during the a.m. period. It may be mentioned that Pakistani postage stamps were rubber-stamped and used all over Bangladesh until 30 March 1973, but Bangladesh Bank or the Ministry of Finance never issued an order to overprint or rubber-stamp Pakistani currency.[3]It would be interesting to note here, that a counterfeiting gang is active, which uses a "washing system", whereby Tk100 notes are washed with a special kind of liquid, and the numbers are changed to give it the appearance of a Tk500 note.[4]

Since 1972[edit]

Treasury banknotes[edit]

  • The first treasury notes in 1972 for 1 and notes of the Bangladesh Bank for 5, 10 and 100.
  • In 1975, banknotes for 50 were introduced, followed by 500 in 1977 and 20 in 1980.
  • 1 treasury notes were issued until 1993, with 2 treasury notes introduced in 1989.

Banknotes and issues[edit]

In 2000, the government issued polymer 10 notes as an experiment (similar to the Australian dollar). They proved unpopular, however, and were withdrawn later. At present, the 1 and 5 notes are gradually being replaced with coins, and in 2008, the government issued 1,000 notes.

In 2011, Bangladesh Bank began issuing a new series of banknotes denominated in 2, 5, 100, 500, and 1000. All are dated 2011 and feature a portrait and watermark of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, along the National Martyr's Monument in Savar at center front.[5]

From 2011, the Bangladesh Bank introduced new notes denominated in 10, 20, and 50 on March 7, 2012. The notes bear the portrait of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the National Martyr's Monument in Savar on the front. On the back of the notes, the 10 will picture the Baitul Mukarram mosque, the 20 pictures the Shat Gombuk mosque in Bagherat, and the 50 notes feature Shilpacharya Jainul Abedin's famous painting “Ploughing.”[6]

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

In 2011, Bangladesh Bank also introduced a 40 note to commemorate the "40th Victory Anniversary of Bangladesh". The commemorative note features a portrait of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the National Martyr's Monument in Savar on front, and six armed men on back. Curiously, this note has an electrotype 10 in the watermark, indicating it was likely printed on extra 10 banknote paper.[7]

On February 15, 2012, Bangladesh Bank has introduced a 60 note to commemorate "60 years of National Movement". The commemorative note measures 130 by 60 millimetres (5.1 in × 2.4 in) and features the Shaeed Minar (Martyrs' monument) in Dhaka and five men on the back. Like the 40 commemorative note, this note has an electrotype 50 in the watermark. It was likely printed on extra 50 banknote paper.[8]

On January 26, 2013, Bangladesh Bank issued a 25 note to commemorate the 25th anniversary (silver jubilee) of the Security Printing Corporation (Bangladesh) Ltd. On the front is the National Martyr's Monument in Savar, the designs of the previous series of the Bangladeshi taka notes and its postage stamps, three spotted deer and the magpie robin (doyel) bird. On the reverse is the headquarters of the Security Printing Corporation. Curiously, this note has an electrotype 10 in the watermark, indicating it was likely printed on extra 10 banknote paper.[9]

On July 8, 2013, Bangladesh Bank issued a 100 note to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Bangladesh National Museum. The commemorative note features an 18th-century terra-cotta plaque of a horseman on the front and the Bangladesh National Museum on the back.[10]

Coins[edit]

1 poisha (reverse)

In 1973, coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 25 and 50 poisha. 1 poisha coins followed in 1974, with 1 coins introduced in 1975. The 1, 5 and 10 poisha were struck in aluminium, with the 25 and 50 poisha struck in steel and the 1 in copper-nickel. The 5 poisha were square with rounded corners, whilst the 10 poisha were scalloped. Steel 5 were introduced in 1994, whilst a steel 2 coin followed in 2004.

1 and 5 poisha coins are rarely found in circulation. 10, 25, and 50 poisha coins do not circulate widely. Only the 1, 2 and 5 are regularly found in circulation.

1973 Series
Value Composition Description first mint
Reverse Obverse
5 poisha Aluminium National emblem 1973
10 poisha
25 poisha Steel Rohu
50 poisha
1974 Series (FAO)
1 poisha Aluminium National emblem Ornamental design, floral patterns 1974
5 poisha
10 poisha
25 poisha Steel
1 Various Four human figures, slogan "Planned family - Food for All" 1975
1977 Series (FAO)
5 poisha Aluminium National emblem Plough, Industrial wheel 1977
10 poisha A man and a woman seated on 2 back steeds facing each other
25 poisha Steel Royal Bengal tiger
50 poisha Hilsha fish, chicken, pineapple, banana
Newer Issues
50 poisha Steel National emblem Hilsha fish, chicken, pineapple, banana 2001
1 Four human figures, slogan "Planned family - Food for All" 1992
1 Four human figures, slogan "Planned family - Food for All"
(Golden Version)
1996
1 Four human figures, slogan "Planned family - Food for All" 2003
1 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 2010
2 Steel National emblem Education for All 2004
2 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 2010
5 Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge 1994
5 Steel Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Bangladesh Bank logo 2012

Banknotes[edit]

Rarely used banknotes are 1, 25, 40 and 60, and most frequently used banknotes in circulation are 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000.

Bangladesh Bank has withdrawn the new 50 note after a spelling mistake of Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin (জয়নুল আবেদীন) which was identified on the back of the note. The note had just been introduced on March 7, so it is likely that very few made it into circulation, even though 2.25 crore pieces were printed.[11]

Currently circulating notes
Image Value Dimensions Main colors Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse issue Status
2 100 × 60 mm Orange and green Shahid Minar National bird, the doyel 29 December 1988 Current To be replaced by 2 taka coins.
5 119 × 64 mm Cream Mehrab Industrial landscape 8 October 2006 Current first issued on 2 May 1978
10 122 × 59 mm Pink Baitul Mukarram Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Present version 21 September 2006 Current first issued on 2 June 1972
20 130 × 60 mm Green Choto Sona Mosque 4 men washing jute Present version 13 July 2002 Current first issued on 20 August 1979
50 130 × 60 mm Cream, lime green Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban Bagha Mosque Present version 30 July 2005 Current first issued on 1 March 1976
100 140 × 62 mm Blue National Monument Jamuna Bridge Present version 16 July 2006 Current first issued on 1 September 1972
500 153 × 69 mm Purple National Monument The Supreme Court, Dhaka Present version 24 October 2004 Current first issued on 15 December 1976
৳1000 1000 160 x 72 mm Reddish pink Shahid Minar Curzon Hall Present version 27 October 2008 Current first issued on 27 October 2008
৳10 ৳10 taka polymer note 152 x 64 mm Pink Bangabandhu Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban 14 December 2000 Withdrawn First and Only Polymer note in Bangladesh
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Source: Bangladesh Bank website
Commemorative notes
Image Value Dimensions Main colors Description Date of issue Date of first issue Watermark
Obverse Reverse
৳40 40 122 x 60 mm Dark red, orange, and green Bangabandhu; National monument (Savar) Soldiers 2011 December 21, 2011 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, electrotype 10 denomination and bank logo
60 130 x 60 mm Yellow, brown, violet, orange, and blue Shaheed Minar monument Veterans of the "Language Movement", first Shaheed Minar monument (1952) 2012 February 15, 2012 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on pixelated background, electrotype bank logo and 50
25 123 x 60 mm Blue, purple and red National Martyr's Monument in Savar, Bangladeshi taka banknotes and postage stamps, three spotted deer, magpie robin (doyel) bird Headquarters of the Security Printing Corporation 2013 January 26, 2013 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, electrotype 10 denomination and bank logo
100 140 x 62 mm Blue and red 18th-century terra-cotta plaque of a horseman Bangladesh National Museum 2013 July 9, 2013 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on a pixelated background, electrotype 100 denomination and bank logo
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Exchange rates[edit]

Historic exchange rates[edit]

Upon Bangladesh's independence, the value of the Bangladeshi taka was set between ৳7.5 and ৳8.0 to US$1. Except for fiscal year 1978, the taka's value relative to the U.S. dollar declined every year from 1971 through the end of 1987. To help offset this phenomenon, Bangladesh first used the compensatory financing facility of the International Monetary Fund in fiscal year 1974. Despite the increasing need for assistance, the Mujib government was initially unwilling to meet the IMF's conditions on monetary and fiscal policy. By fiscal year 1975, however, the government revised its stance, declaring a devaluation of the taka by 56 percent and agreeing to establishing the Bangladesh Aid Group by the World Bank.[12]

Between 1980 and 1983, the taka sustained a decline of some 50 percent because of a deterioration in Bangladesh's balance of payments.[12] Between 1985 and 1987, the taka was adjusted in frequent incremental steps, stabilizing again around 12 percent lower in real terms against the U.S. dollar, but at the same time narrowing the difference between the official rate and the preferential secondary rate from 15 percent to 7.5 percent.[12] Accompanying this structural adjustment was an expansion in trade conducted at the secondary rate, to 53 percent of total exports and 28 percent of total imports.[12] In mid-1987, the official rate was relatively stable, approaching less than ৳31 to US$1.[12] In January 2011, USD$1 was equivalent to approximately ৳72,[13] as of 21 April 2012, US$1 was worth close to ৳82, and as of 9 September 2015 US$1 valued ৳77.

Bangladeshi taka per currency unit averaged over the year (January of every year)
Currency ISO code 1971 1981 1991 1996 2000 2001 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
U.S. dollar USD 7.86 18.31 36.75 40.8 50.82 53.84 58.11 67.29 67.34 67.40 68.11 69.84 81.64 78.31 76.45 78.85
Japanese yen JPY 0.02 0.09 0.27 0.38 0.48 0.46 0.56 0.55 0.62 0.74 0.74 0.84 1.06 0.88 0.73 0.64
Soviet ruble (till 1993)
Russian ruble (1993 - present)
SUR
RUB
14.93 29.00 55.12 8.16 1.85 1.91 2.17 2.62 2.79 2.14 2.31 2.35 2.66 2.63 2.29 1.20
Euro EUR - - - - 51.48 50.57 76.37 87.45 98.99 90.01 97.28 93.26 105.26 103.98 104.22 89.26
Pound sterling GBP 18.92 44.02 71.01 62.48 83.23 79.59 109.35 131.74 132.6 97.66 110.01 110.04 126.57 125.19 125.90 116.13
Swiss franc CHF 1.8 10.08 28.89 34.63 31.97 33.07 49.38 53.73 60.99 60.23 65.87 73.1 86.91 84.7 84.66 81.26
Hong Kong dollar HKD 1.31 3.53 4.68 5.28 6.53 6.9 7.45 8.62 8.62 8.69 8.77 8.97 10.51 10.1 9.85 9.86
Malaysian ringgit MYR 2.55 8.23 13.54 15.97 13.37 14.16 15.25 19.12 20.54 18.86 20.06 22.71 26.14 25.68 23.14 21.41
Kuwaiti dinar KWD 22.09 64.51 128.73 136.25 167.01 176.05 197.82 231.69 245.83 235.31 236.52 247.62 292.46 277.6 270.16 259.66
Saudi riyal SAR 1.75 5.5 9.79 10.88 13.55 14.35 15.49 17.93 17.92 17.95 18.14 18.6 21.76 20.87 20.38 20.36
Emirate dirham AED 1.65 4.89 9.96 11.11 13.84 14.65 15.82 18.31 18.33 18.34 18.54 19.01 22.22 21.31 20.81 20.82
Indian rupee INR 1.00 2.3 2.00 1.14 1.16 1.15 1.32 1.51 1.71 1.35 1.47 1.51 1.56 1.44 1.23 1.22

Current exchange rates[edit]

Current BDT exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From TransferWise: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD INR CNY
From Currency.Wiki: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USDINR CNY

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Consumer Price Index (CPI) And Inflation Rate" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. August 2015. Retrieved 19 Sep 2015. 
  2. ^ Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Bangladesh". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA. 
  3. ^ Currency museum - Bangladesh bank notes
  4. ^ Counterfeit currency [1]
  5. ^ "Bangladesh new note family confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  6. ^ "Bangladesh new 10-, 20-, and 50-taka notes confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  7. ^ "Bangladesh new 40-taka commemorative confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  8. ^ "Bangladesh new 60-taka commemorative note confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  9. ^ "Bangladesh new 25-taka commemorative note confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  10. ^ "Bangladesh new 100-taka commemorative note confirmed". banknotenews.com. 
  11. ^ "Bangladesh new 50-taka note withdrawn due to error". banknotenews.com. 
  12. ^ a b c d e "Bangladesh : Country Studies - Federal Research Division, Library of Congress". loc.gov. 
  13. ^ "Historical Exchange Rates". OANDA. OANDA Corporation. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2011. 

External links[edit]