Banjar people

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Banjar people
Urang Banjar
اورڠ بنجر
Nanang Galuh Banjar.jpg
Traditional Banjar attire during the 2013 Nanang Galuh pageant competition.
Total population
5.7 million
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia4,127,124[1]
            South Kalimantan2,686,627
            Central Kalimantan464,260
            East Kalimantan440,453
            Riau227,239
            North Sumatra125,707
            Jambi102,237
            West Kalimantan14,430
            East Java12,405
            Riau Islands11,811
            West Java9,383
            Jakarta8,572
 Malaysia1,237,615
 Singapore8,210
Languages
Banjar
Indonesian, Malay
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Dayak (Dayak Bukit, Bakumpai, Ngaju, Ma'anyan, Lawangan, Tidong), Malays (Bruneian Malay, Berau Malay, Kutai etc.), Kedayan, Javanese, Bugis.

The Banjar or Banjarese people (Banjar: Urang Banjar; Jawi: اورڠ بنجر), are an ethnic group native to South Kalimantan province, Indonesia. This ethnic group also considered as Bumiputera in Malaysia, they can be found mostly in the Malay Peninsula and Malaysian state of Perak[2] and Sabah.

History[edit]

The Proto-Malay people migrated to Borneo in 2500 BC. They were the ancestors of the Dayak people. In 2500 BC, the Deutero Malays migrated to Borneo. The Malay people from Sumatra brought their culture to Borneo in 400 AD. The fusion of the cultures saw the birth of the Upper Banjar language (Bahasa Banjar Hulu). Later, in 520 AD, the Malays formed the Buddhist Kingdom of Tanjungpuri in the present-day region of Tanjung, Tabalong.[3][4]

In 937 AD, Empu Jatmika built the Hindu Kingdom of Negara Dipa by the river of Tapin.[5] This was the start of the Javanese-style courts in South Kalimantan. The Hindu era in South Kalimantan remained the most remembered period in South Kalimantan's history. The glory of Negara Dipa was succeeded by the Hindu Kingdom of Negara Daha in 1400 AD.[6]

According to history, Prince Samudera, the rightful heir to the kingdom of Negara Daha, was forced to flee the court of because of his uncle's revolt against him.[7] He was accepted by the people of Bandar Masih (Bandar: port, Masih: Malay people). Supported by the Sultanate of Demak, he formed a new Islamic Banjar Kingdom in 1526 with Bandar Masih as its capital.[8] The name of Bandar Masih was later changed to its present name Banjarmasin.

Since the 19th century, migration of the Banjarese people went as far as the east coast of Sumatra and Malaysia. In Malaysia and Singapore, Banjarnese people are classified as part of the Malay race.

Sub-ethnicities[edit]

The division of Banjar people into 3 ethnicities is based on the locations of the assimilation between the Malays, the local Dayaks (Dayak Bukit, Dayak Ma'anyan, Dayak Lawangan, Dayak Ngaju, Dayak Barangas, and Bakumpai), and the Javanese people.

  1. The Banjarnese Pahuluan, who live in the valleys by the upriver of Meratus mountain ranges. They make their living from agriculture.
  2. The Banjar Batang Banyu, who live in the valleys by the river of Negara. They are proud of their position as the people of the ancient capital. They are also prominent merchants.
  3. The Banjar Kuala, who live in Banjarmasin and Martapura. They are the people of the new capital.

Language[edit]

Banjar language Arabic script Logo of Banjar Wikipedia

The Banjar language (bjn) reflects the history of people. It is in a family of Malay language, with some words that are taken from Javanese and the native Dayaks. Although Banjarese is sometimes considered to be Malay, it is not particularly close to other Malayan languages.

Religion[edit]

The Banjarese are adherents of Islam. Islam first arrived in the South Kalimantan region in the 15th century. [4]

Cuisine[edit]

Relations with Dayaks[edit]

Sasanggan, a bronze bowl used by the Banjarese during a traditional ceremony.

The relationship between Banjar people and the neighboring Dayaks have always been good. Some of the Dayaks who had converted to Islam have also assimilated into the Banjar culture and call themselves Banjar. The Dayaks also think of the Banjars as their brothers and sisters. This is further strengthened by the fact there are many inter-marriages between the Banjars and the Dayaks, even among the members of the royalty. For example, Biang Lawai, a wife of a Banjar king was of Dayak Ngaju ethnicity. This means that the Banjarese Kings and Queens have Dayaks lineage in their blood.

According to Meratus Dayak legends, Banjarese and Meratus are descendants of related brothers of Datung Ayuh or Sandayuhan who was the ancestor of Meratus Dayak, while Bambang Basiwara or Intingan who was the ancestors of Bajarese. In the legends, Sandayuhan is strong and good at fighting, while Intingan has weaker physique but smarter. This relationship grew strong when both ethnicities faced colonization by the Dutch in the 18th century. They became comrades in an age of war. Some of the warriors involved in Banjar War are of Dayak ethnicity or have Dayaks lineage in their blood.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 978-979-064-417-5. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
  2. ^ "Etnik Banjar Di Perak" (in Malay). The Malaya Post. 7 December 2020.
  3. ^ M. Suriansyah Ideham (2007). Urang Banjar Dan Kebudayaannya. Pemerintah Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan. ISBN 978-979-98892-1-8.
  4. ^ a b Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1.
  5. ^ H. Iberamsyah Barbary (2015). Bayu Novri Lianto (ed.). 1001 Gurindam. EnterMedia. ISBN 978-979-780-783-2.
  6. ^ Deni Prasetyo (2009). Mengenal Kerajaan-Kerajaan Nusantara. Pustaka Widyatama. ISBN 978-979-610-309-6.
  7. ^ Ahmad Gazali Usman (1989). Urang Banjar Dalam Sejarah. Lambung Mangkurat University Press. ISBN 979-8128-16-8.
  8. ^ Mohamad Idwar Saleh (1981). Banjarmasih: Sejarah Singkat Mengenai Bangkit Dan Berkembangnya Kota Banjarmasin Serta Wilayah Sekitarnya Sampai Dengan Tahun 1950. Museum Negeri Lambung Mangkurat, Propivsi [i.e. Propinsi] Kalimantan Selatan. OCLC 19940334.

Further reading[edit]

  1. de Bruyn, W.K.H.F.; Bijdrage tot de kennis van de Afdeeling Hoeloe Soengai, (Zuider a Ooster Afdeeling van Borneo), 19--.
  2. Broersma, R.;Handel en Bedrijf in Zuiz Oost Borneo, S'Gravenhage, G. Naeff, 1927.
  3. Eisenberger, J.; Kroniek de Zuider en Ooster Afdeeling van Borneo, Bandjermasin, Drukkerij Lim Hwat Sing, 1936.
  4. Bondan, A.H.K.; Suluh Sedjarah Kalimantan, Padjar, Banjarmasin, 1953.
  5. Ras, J.J.; Hikajat Bandjar, A study in Malay Histiography, N.V. de Ned. Boeken, Steen Drukkerij van het H.L. Smits S'Graven hage, 1968.
  6. Heekeren, C. van.; Helen, Hazen en Honden Zuid Borneo 1942, Den Haag, 1969.
  7. Riwut, Tjilik; Kalimantan Memanggil, Penerbit Endang, Djakarta.
  8. Saleh, Idwar; Sejarah Daerah Tematis Zaman Kebangkitan Nasional (1900–1942) di Kalimantan Selatan, Depdikbud, Jakarta, 1986.

External links[edit]