Bank of America Tower (Manhattan)
|Bank of America Tower|
|Alternative names||One Bryant Park|
|Location||Sixth Avenue & 42nd Street
Manhattan, New York 10036
|Architectural||365.8 m (1,200 ft)|
|Roof||287.9 m (945 ft)|
|Top floor||234.5 m (769 ft)|
|Floor count||55 (+3 basement floors) (7 mechanical)|
|Floor area||2,100,000 sq ft (200,000 m2)|
|Design and construction|
Adamson Associates Architects
|Structural engineer||Severud Associates|
|Main contractor||Tishman Construction Corporation|
The Bank of America Tower (BOAT) at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft (366 m) skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City. It is located on Sixth Avenue, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park.
The US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, and advertised to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the fourth tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center, 432 Park Avenue, and the Empire State Building, and the sixth tallest building in the United States. Construction was completed in 2009.
The building's Urban Garden Room at 43rd Street and 6th Avenue is open to the public.
The tower's architectural spire is 255.5 ft (77.9 m) tall and was placed on December 15, 2007. The building is 55 stories high and contains 2,100,000 square feet (195,096 m2) of office space, three escalators and a total of 52 elevators manufactured by Schindler Group – 50 to serve the offices and two leading to the New York City Subway's mezzanine below ground, for the 42nd Street – Bryant Park / Fifth Avenue station.
Several buildings were demolished to make way for the tower. Among them was the Hotel Diplomat, a 13-story structure which occupied the site at 108 West 43rd Street since 1911, and Henry Miller's Theatre, which was rebuilt and reopened at its previous location. The building's tenants include Bank of America as the anchor tenant and Marathon Asset Management, and the tower's platinum LEED rating and modern column-free office space has enticed tenants from all over the city. The Bank of America Tower is considered a worldwide model for green architecture in skyscrapers.
The design of the building makes it environmentally friendly, using technologies such as floor-to-ceiling insulated glazing to contain heat and maximize natural light, and an automatic daylight dimming system. The tower also features a greywater system, which captures rainwater for reuse. Bank of America states that the building is made largely of recycled and recyclable materials. Air entering the building is filtered, as is common, but the air exhausted is cleaned as well. Bank of America Tower is the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification.
The Bank of America Tower is constructed using a concrete manufactured with slag, a byproduct of blast furnaces. The mixture used in the tower concrete is 55% cement and 45% slag. The use of slag cement reduces damage to the environment by decreasing the amount of cement needed for the building, which in turn lowers the amount of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas produced through the normal cement manufacturing process. Each ton of regular cement produced creates about one ton of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Temperature control and the production of some of its energy are accomplished in an environmentally friendly manner for the tower. Insulated glazing reduces thermal loss, lowering energy consumption and increasing transparency. Carbon dioxide sensors signal increased fresh air ventilation when elevated levels of carbon dioxide are detected in the building. Conditioned air for the occupants is provided by multiple air column units located in the tenant space that deliver 50 °F air into a raised access floor plenum. This underfloor air system provides users with the ability to control their own space temperature as well as improving the ventilation effectiveness. When building churn occurs, workstation moves can be performed more easily with lower cost and less product waste. The cooling system produces and stores ice during off-peak hours, and allows the ice to melt to help cool the building during peak load, similar to the ice batteries in the 1995 Hotel New Otani Tokyo in Japan. Ice batteries have been used since absorption chillers first made ice commercially available 150 years ago, before the invention of the electric light bulb.
Water conservation features in the tower include waterless urinals, which are estimated to save 8,000,000 US gal (30,000,000 l) of water per year and reduce CO2 emissions by 144,000 lb (65,000 kg) per year (as calculated with the Pacific Institute water-to-air model). The tower has a 4.6-megawatt cogeneration plant, which provides part of the base-load energy requirements.
The magazine Time found out in August 2013 that the Bank of America Tower used twice as much energy overall as the Empire State Building did, due to the large energy usage in the Bank of America Tower and the comparatively small occupancy rate of the Empire State Building.
|One World Trade Center||1,776 ft (541 m)||1,368 ft (417 m)|
|Empire State Building||1,472 ft (449 m)||1,250 ft (380 m)|
|Bank of America Tower||1,200 ft (370 m)||953.5 ft (290.6 m)|
|Chrysler Building||1,046 ft (319 m)||925 ft (282 m)|
|New York Times Building||1,046 ft (319 m)||748 ft (228 m)|
When comparing building height, only the structural height is used according to rules and regulations of the World Council on Tall Buildings. Currently, the New York Times Building and the Chrysler Building are tied for the position of the third tallest buildings in New York City. With the architectural spire included, the structural height of the Bank of America Tower is 1,200 ft (370 m), making it the third tallest building in New York City (after One World Trade Center and the Empire State Building).
A formal ruling by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat has been released, confirming this.
Materials fell from the building on three occasions:
- October 17, 2007: A construction container fell from a crane around 1 p.m., causing damage to the tower and injuring eight people on the sidewalk. The container broke windows on several floors of the building, spraying debris that rained down on the streets below. Eight people suffered cuts and bruises. The Buildings Department temporarily stopped construction at the site.
- August 12, 2008: A 1,500-pound (680 kg) glass panel fell onto a sidewalk. Two people suffered minor injuries.
- September 17, 2008: A debris container fell, shattered a panel of glass facade, and caused several pieces of glass to fall from the 50th floor to the sidewalk and street (West 42nd and Sixth Avenue) at around 3:00 pm (EDT). No one was injured.
- Buildings and architecture of New York City
- List of tallest buildings in New York City
- Tallest buildings in the United States
- "Bank of America Tower - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.
- Bank of America Tower (Manhattan) at Emporis
- Bank of America Tower (Manhattan) at Glass Steel and Stone
- "Bank of America Tower". SkyscraperPage.
- Bank of America Tower (Manhattan) at Structurae
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- Dunlap, David W. (7 November 1993). "An Aging Midtown Hotel That Will Not Go Gently". The New York Times. NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- McDonnell, Tim (16 September 2015). "There's been a boom in energy-efficient skyscraper construction". Grist.
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- "EF Technology". U.S. Concrete, Inc. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- "Ice-cooling System Reduces Environmental Burden". The New Otani News. New Otani Co.,Ltd. 28 June 2000. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Foley, Gearoid; DeVault, Robert; Sweetser, Richard. "The Future of Absorption Technology in America" (PDF). U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- Pacific Institute. "Water to Air Models". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
- Walsh, Bryan (2013-08-14). "The Surprisingly Large Energy Footprint of the Digital Economy [UPDATE]". TIME.com. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- Satow, Julie (6 August 2013). "Worker Bees on a Rooftop, Ignoring Urban Pleasures". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Wood, Anthony (4 May 2007). "Existing Height Criteria & Issues". CTBUH Tall Building Height Criteria – International Meeting. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago: Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. p. 4. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "Photo of Bank of America Tower: Elevations". Emporis. Cook + Fox Architects, LLP. 4 September 2005. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "Green Buildings Solutions: What's Working? Post Occupancy Evaluation". New York Academy of Sciences. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- See MegaStructures
- "CTBUH 9th Annual Awards, 2010". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- "Crane's Bucket Falls 53 Stories In Midtown". WNBC. 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- Hauser, Christine (12 August 2008). "At a Midtown Intersection, Another Sheet of Glass Falls". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "Glass Falls 50 Floors From Midtown Building". NY1. 17 September 2008. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Dirk Stichweh: New York Skyscrapers. Prestel Publishing, Munich, 2009, ISBN 3-7913-4054-9
- The Bank of America - Megastructure at One Bryant Park
- National Geographic Channel - "Man-Made: Ultimate Skyscraper" (Television Episode)
- Curbed NY topic
- The Site Selection report on the tower
- Bank of America press release on the tower
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