|Traded as||BMAD: BKIA|
|Founded||3 December 2010|
|Headquarters||Madrid and Valencia, Spain|
|José Ignacio Goirigolzarri
|Products||Retail banking, corporate banking, investment banking, private banking, asset management, finance and insurance|
|Revenue||€ 3.806 billion (2015)|
|Profit||€ 1.040 billion (2015)|
|Total assets||€ 206.970 billion (2015)|
|Owner||Spanish Government (64%)|
Number of employees
Bankia (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaŋkja]) is a Spanish bank that was formed in December 2010, consolidating the operations of seven regional savings banks. As of 2012, Bankia is the fourth largest bank of Spain with 12 million customers. Formerly a private bank, it was partially nationalized by the government of Spain in May 2012 due to the near collapse of the institution. The bank is organised into six business areas: Retail Banking, Business Banking, Private Banking, Asset Management and Bancassurance, Capital Markets and Investees. Bankia is listed on the Bolsa de Madrid and is a constituent of the IBEX 35.
Formation and IPO
Bankia was formed on 3 December 2010 as a result of the union of seven Spanish financial institutions, with major presence in their areas of influence. The merger of the seven savings banks, known as 'cold fusion', took only four months, with the integration contract being signed on 30 July 2010. Caja Madrid, which is itself owned by the government of the Community of Madrid, holds controlling interest. The distribution of shares was as follows:
- 52.06% Caja Madrid
- 37.70% Bancaja
- 2.45% La Caja de Canarias
- 2.33% Caja de Ávila
- 2.11% Caixa Laietana
- 2.01% Caja Segovia
- 1.34% Caja Rioja
After the merger, Bankia was initially owned by a holding company Banco Financiero y de Ahorros (BFA), and the seven banks controlled BFA. The most toxic assets from the banks were transferred to BFA, which obtained 4.5 billion euros from the Spanish government rescue fund FROB in exchange for preference shares with an annual interest rate of 7.75%, maturing in 2015. In 2011 Bankia offered shares to the public in an IPO. Investment bankers found little interest in the IPO among international institutional investors. Strategy shifted to selling the stock domestically with 98% of the initial 3.1 billion euros raised by domestic sales of shares.
Insolvency and state bailout
In 2012, Bankia was the third largest lender in Spain, but the largest holder of real estate assets at 38 billion euros. On 7 May 2012, Rodrigo Rato stepped down as chairman of Bankia SA in order to clear the way for a rescue plan that the Spanish government hoped would persuade international investors of the country's financial stability. José Ignacio Goirigolzarri became the new president. Concerns about the value of Bankia's assets, and the potential for further losses in the future prompted speculation that the Spanish government would inject up to 10 billion EUR of new capital into the troubled bank.
On 10 May, the Spanish government said it would convert its preference shares in BFA into voting shares, giving it a controlling stake of 45% in Bankia. On 25 May, trading in the shares was suspended at Bankia's request.
On 25 May, it was reported that Bankia SA had negotiated a further 19 billion euro (US$23.8 billion) bailout, marking another rise in the cost of a drawn-out rescue. The government had already spent 4.5 billion euros to prop up Bankia, and the entire rescue was then seen totalling some 20 billion euros. The New York Times described the increasing bailout as making Spain one of the new focal points of the European sovereign-debt crisis. Bankia also revised its earnings statement for 2011, stating that instead of a profit of 309 million euros, it had in fact lost 4.3 billion euros before taxes and asked for 1.4 billion fiscal credit to reduce its loss.
A number of limitations were imposed as a result of having received state aid. Shareholders had to share part of the burden of the capital injection, the balance sheet had to be reduced, dividends were restricted until 2014 and the branch network (-39%) and workforce (-28%) had to be reduced.
On 28 February 2014, Spain sold a 7.5% stake in Bankia for €1.3 billion, realizing a €138 million profit. The shares were sold at 1.51 euros each.
On 7 July 2015, Bankia paid the first dividend in its history, €1,75 cents per share. On 16 October, Bankia completed the sale of City National Bank of Florida for $883 million to Chilean bank BCI. This resulted in a net gain of €117 million. At the end of 2015, Bankia had fulfilled two years ahead of schedule all the targets set by the European Commission in the BFA-Bankia Group Restructuring Plan. The bank also reported the best efficiency, solvency and return on equity among the large Spanish banks.
On 23 February 2016, Fitch raised Bankia's rating to "BBB-", restoring the bank's rating to investment grade. On 8 September, Bankia announced that it was included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index with a score of 84 out of 100.
On 27 January 2016, the Spanish Supreme Court ordered Bankia to reimburse two small investors for misleading them during its 2011 IPO. The court said that the prospectus for its public stock offering had contained “serious inaccuracies". The bank is aware of lawsuit claims totalling €819 million, and has set aside €1.84 billion in provisions for claims. On 17 February 2016, the bank announced it would fully compensate minority shareholders who participated in the IPO in exchange for returning their shares to the bank. They will receive 100% of their investment plus 1% compensatory interest per annum.
Bankia sold around €5 billion in complex financial products such as preference shares and subordinated debt to customers. Most of these products suffered enforced writedowns. The bank began an arbitration process in 2013. On 15 July 2016, the time limit for submissions of applications for arbitration expired.
Mortgage floor clauses
On 21 December 2016, the European Court of Justice ordered Spanish banks to repay clients all the money they made on mortgage floor clauses. The floor clauses in effect imposed a minimum interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage. Bankia calculated the cost of claims at €214 million. The bank eliminated mortgage floor clauses in September 2015.
Credit card misuse
There is a separate lawsuit against 66 individuals linked to misuse of the company's credit cards. Prosecutors are demanding a jail sentence of four and a half years for Rodrigo Rato (former president) and six years for Miguel Blesa (former head of Caja Madrid). Documents indicate that the personal spending by executives and directors totaled €15.25 million. The fraud was discovered by an audit commissioned by Goirigolzarri.
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