Bankia

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Bankia S.A.
Sociedad Anónima
Traded as BMADBKIA
Industry Financial services
Founded 3 December 2010; 6 years ago (2010-12-03)
Headquarters Madrid and Valencia, Spain
Area served
Spain
Key people
José Ignacio Goirigolzarri
(Executive Chairman)
José Sevilla
(CEO)
Products Retail banking, corporate banking, investment banking, private banking, asset management, finance and insurance
Revenue Decrease € 3.166 billion (2016)[1]
Decrease € 1.301 billion (2016)[1]
Profit Decrease € 804 million (2016)[1]
Total assets Decrease € 190.167 billion (2016)[1]
Total equity Increase € 12.837 billion (2016)[1]
Owner Spanish Government (64%)
Number of employees
13,505 (2016)[1]
Website www.bankia.com
Bankia's operational headquarters in Puerta de Europa Tower in Madrid

Bankia (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaŋkja]) is a Spanish bank that was formed in December 2010, consolidating the operations of seven regional savings banks,[2] and was partially nationalized by the government of Spain in May 2012 due to the near collapse of the institution.[3][4] As of 2017, Bankia is the fourth largest bank of Spain with total assets of €190.2 billion.[5]

History[edit]

Formation and IPO[edit]

Bankia was formed on 3 December 2010, as a result of the union of seven Spanish savings banks that had a major presence in their historical core regions. The merger of the seven banks, known as 'cold fusion', took only four months, with the integration contract being signed on 30 July 2010.[6] Caja Madrid, which was itself owned by the government of the Community of Madrid, held controlling interest. The distribution of shares was as follows:

  • 52.06% Caja Madrid
  • 37.70% Bancaja
  • 2.45% La Caja de Canarias
  • 2.33% Caja de Ávila
  • 2.11% Caixa Laietana
  • 2.01% Caja Segovia
  • 1.34% Caja Rioja

After the merger, Bankia was initially owned by the holding company Banco Financiero y de Ahorros (BFA), and the seven banks controlled BFA. The most toxic assets from the banks were transferred to BFA, which obtained 4.5 billion euros from the Spanish government rescue fund FROB in exchange for preference shares with an annual interest rate of 7.75%, maturing in 2015. In 2011, Bankia offered shares to the public in an IPO.[7][8] Investment bankers found little interest in the IPO among international institutional investors. Strategy shifted to selling the stock domestically with 98% of the initial 3.1 billion euros raised by domestic sales of shares.[9] The shares of Bankia began trading on the Bolsa de Madrid on 20 July 2011, under the symbol BKIA, and the bank was listed in the IBEX 35.

Insolvency and state bailout[edit]

In 2012, Bankia was the third largest lender in Spain, but the largest holder of real estate assets at 38 billion euros.[8] On 7 May 2012, Rodrigo Rato stepped down as chairman of Bankia SA, in order to clear the way for a rescue plan that the Spanish government hoped would persuade international investors of the country's financial stability. José Ignacio Goirigolzarri became the new president. Concerns about the value of Bankia's assets, and the potential for further losses in the future, prompted speculation that the Spanish government would inject up to 10 billion EUR of new capital into the troubled bank.[10]

On 10 May, the Spanish government said it would convert its preference shares in BFA into voting shares, giving it a controlling stake of 45% in Bankia.[8] On 25 May, trading in the shares was suspended at Bankia's request.[11]

On 25 May, it was reported that Bankia SA had negotiated a further 19 billion euro (US$23.8 billion) bailout, marking another rise in the cost of a drawn-out rescue.[12] The government had already spent 4.5 billion euros to prop up Bankia, and the entire rescue was then seen totalling some 20 billion euros.[13] Bankia also revised its earnings statement for 2011, stating that instead of a profit of 309 million euros, it had in fact lost 4.3 billion euros before taxes, and asked for 1.4 billion fiscal credit to reduce its loss.[11][14] The New York Times described the increasing bailout as making Spain one of the new focal points of the European sovereign-debt crisis.[15] In response to growing concerns, Standard & Poor's downgraded its rating of Bankia's creditworthiness to BB+, making it a junk bond.[12]

Restructuring (2012-2017)[edit]

A number of limitations were imposed as a result of having received state aid. Shareholders had to share part of the burden of the capital injection, the balance sheet had to be reduced, dividends were restricted until 2014, and both the branch network (-39%) and workforce (-28%) had to be reduced.[16]

In addition to the financial problems, the new management had to deal with controversies related to former managements.

In 2013, Bankia returned to profitability.[17]

On 28 February 2014, Spain sold a 7.5% stake in Bankia for €1.3 billion. The shares were sold at 1.51 euros each.[18]

On 7 July 2015, Bankia paid the first dividend in its history, €1,75 cents per share. On 16 October, Bankia completed the sale of City National Bank of Florida for $883 million to Chilean bank BCI.[19] The bank was bought by Caja Madrid for $1.12 billion in 2008.[20] At the end of 2015, Bankia had fulfilled two years ahead of schedule all the targets set by the European Commission in the BFA-Bankia Group Restructuring Plan. The bank also reported the best efficiency, solvency and return on equity among the six largest Spanish banks.[21]

On 23 February 2016, Fitch raised Bankia's rating to "BBB-", restoring the bank's rating to investment grade.[22] On 8 September, Bankia announced that it was included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index with a score of 84 out of 100.[23]

On 27 June 2017, Bankia agreed to buy state-owned bank BMN (Banco Mare Nostrum) for €825 million in an all-stock deal. BMN was the result of the merger of the savings banks Caja Murcia, Caja Granada and Sa Nostra.[5] The restructuring period will end on 31 December 2017.[24] The deadline for the privatisation of Bankia is end-2019.[25]

Controversies[edit]

IPO misleading[edit]

On 27 January 2016, the Spanish Supreme Court ordered Bankia to reimburse two small investors for misleading them during its 2011 IPO. The court said that the prospectus for its public stock offering had contained “serious inaccuracies". The bank is aware of lawsuit claims totalling €819 million, and has set aside €1.84 billion in provisions for claims.[26] On 17 February 2016, the bank announced it would fully compensate minority shareholders who participated in the IPO in exchange for returning their shares to the bank. They will receive 100% of their investment plus 1% compensatory interest per annum.[27] The offer saved Bankia €400 million in legal costs.[28]

Preference shares[edit]

Bankia sold around €5 billion in complex financial products such as preference shares and subordinated debt to customers. Most of these products suffered enforced writedowns. The bank began an arbitration process in 2013.[29] On 15 July 2016, the time limit for submissions of applications for arbitration expired.[30]

Credit card misuse[edit]

On 23 February 2017, 65 individuals received sentences for misusing the company’s credit cards. Rodrigo Rato (former president) was sentenced to four and a half years in jail, and Miguel Blesa (former chairman of Caja Madrid) was sentenced to six years in jail.[31] The other defendants received sentences ranging from three months to six years.[32] Documents indicate that the personal spending by executives and directors totaled €12.5 million.[31] The fraud was discovered by the publication of an article on eldiario.es based on the emails of Miguel Blesa. Initially the article did not lead to any judicial investigation. Instead, Madrid’s chief prosecutor tried to promote legal actions against the media that spread the emails of Blesa, because they were "illicitly obtained". The news led Bankia to order an internal investigation, and the bank later transferred the information to the FROB.[33][34]

Organisation[edit]

The bank is organised into six business areas: Retail Banking, Business Banking, Private Banking, Asset Management and Bancassurance, Capital Markets and Investees.[35]

Bankia is listed on the Bolsa de Madrid and is a constituent of the IBEX 35.

Headquarters[edit]

The bank has its registered office and address of the subsidiaries in Valencia, while its operational headquarters are in Madrid. It also has a representation office in Shanghai.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Annual Report – Consolidated Financial Statements 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Bankia Profile". Bankia.com. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Christopher Bjork; Jonathan House & Sara Schaefer Muñoz (25 May 2012). "Spain Pours Billions Into Bank". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Abiven, Katell (25 May 2012). "Spain's Bankia seeks record bailout of €19 bn". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  5. ^ a b S.A., Bankia. "Bankia approves merger agreement with BMN - Press releases - In the news - Communication - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2017-06-27. 
  6. ^ "Creation of the Bankia Group". Bankia. Bankia. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  7. ^ "Bankia's IPO Float hopes". The Economist. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c Charles Penty & Emma Ross-Thomas (9 May 2012). "Spain Takes Over Bankia, Readies Second Bailout After Rato Quits". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Sara Schaefer Munoz; David Enrich & Christopher Bjork (11 June 2012). "Spain's Handling of Bankia Repeats a Pattern of Denial". Wall Street Journal. 
  10. ^ "Bankia chief quits as Spain readies bailout". Reuters. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Bankia shares suspended amid bailout request reports". BBC News. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Bjork, Christopher (25 May 2012). "Spain to Inject €19 Billion into Bankia, Troubled Lender Says". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  13. ^ "Spain's Bankia Seeking $19B in Government Aid". Fox Business. Reuters. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  14. ^ M. Jiménez (26 May 2012). "Las pérdidas antes de impuestos de Bankia son de 4.300 millones". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  15. ^ Minder, Raphael (25 May 2012). "Spanish Lender Seeks 19 Billion Euros; Ratings Cut on 5 Banks". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  16. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Strategic Plan 2012-2015 - Strategic plan - Who we are - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  17. ^ S.A., Bankia. "BFA-Bankia records profit of €213 million in Q1 2013". Bankia. Retrieved 2017-02-26. 
  18. ^ "Spain makes small profit on Bankia stake sale". Reuters. 2014-02-28. Retrieved 2016-03-12. 
  19. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Bankia closes the sale of City National Bank with a net capital gain of 117 million euros - Press releases - In the news - Communication - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-03-10. 
  20. ^ "City National Bank of Florida will be sold to a Chilean bank". miamiherald. Retrieved 2017-02-25. 
  21. ^ S.A., Bankia. "BFA-Bankia Year 3 Report" (PDF). Bankia. Retrieved 2016-04-01. 
  22. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Bankia obtains a net attributable profit of 731 million euros in the year to September, down 14.5% - Press releases - In the news - Communication - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-11-10. 
  23. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Bankia recognised as one of the most sustainable companies in the world following its inclusion in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) - Press releases - In the news - Communication - Bankia". Retrieved 2016-09-13. 
  24. ^ European Commission. "Restructuring and Recapitalisation of the BFA Group" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-04-07. 
  25. ^ "UPDATE 1-Spain expands deadline to privatise Bankia by two years - government source". Reuters. 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  26. ^ Minder, Raphael (2016-01-27). "Spanish Supreme Court Orders Bankia to Repay 2 Investors in Its I.P.O.". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  27. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Bankia begins returning investments to minority shareholders who acquired shares during IPO - Press releases - In the news - Communication - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  28. ^ "Spanish Ex-Friar-Turned-Lawyer Counts Loss From Bankia IPO Offer". Bloomberg.com. 2016-02-19. Retrieved 2017-02-06. 
  29. ^ País, Ediciones El (2016-09-23). "Barcelona Bankia branch faces asset seizure over preferential shares". Retrieved 2016-09-23. 
  30. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Arbitration for preferred securities - Customers - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-12-28. 
  31. ^ a b Minder, Raphael (2017-02-23). "Former I.M.F. Leader Sentenced for Embezzlement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  32. ^ País, Ediciones El (2017-02-23). "Ex-IMF chief Rato sentenced to four-and-a-half years over credit card scandal". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  33. ^ "Los consejeros de Caja Madrid tenían tarjetas de crédito en 'negro' de hasta 50.000 euros al año". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  34. ^ "La investigación de las tarjetas se inició por la publicación de los correos de Blesa por eldiario.es". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  35. ^ S.A., Bankia. "Business areas - Who we are - Bankia". Bankia. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 

External links[edit]