Banknotes of the rupiah

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Variants of Indonesian rupiah's banknotes, issued in 1999 - 2001 and have been withdrawn in 2008 (except for the Rp1,000 and Rp5,000 notes which are still in circulation as of 2017 along with the new series.)
Republic of Indonesia - 1 rupiah (1945, first year of issue)
Netherlands Indies (Indonesia) De Javasche Bank - 5 Gulden (1866, first year resuming issue)
Netherlands Indies (Indonesia) De Javasche Bank-5 Gulden (1937).

The first paper money (banknotes) used in the Indonesian archipelago was that of the United East Indies Company, credit letters of the rijksdaalder dating between 1783 and 1811. Netherlands Indian gulden government credit paper followed in 1815, and from 1827 to 1842[1] and again from 1866 to 1948[2] gulden notes of De Javasche Bank. Lower denominations (below 5 gulden) were issued by the government in 1919–1920 and 1939–1940, due to wartime metal shortages, but otherwise day-to-day transactions were conducted using coinage.

Gulden notes were issued by 'The Japanese Government' during the occupation from 1942, becoming 'roepiah' in 1943.

The first truly Indonesian rupiah notes, however were issued in 1946, during the war of independence with the Dutch, following the unilateral declaration of independence by the Indonesians at the end of World War Two on 17 August 1945. This money is known as 'Oeang Republik Indonesia' ('oeang' being the old spelling of 'uang', in English 'money').

Following the negotiated peace treaty in The Hague of 1949, the 'ORI' was withdrawn, to be replaced by an internationally recognised 'Indonesian rupiah'.

The Indonesian rupiah has been subject to numerous devaluations, and in 1965 existing paper was withdrawn, replaced by a new currency at the rate of 1000 to 1.

Contents

Money around independence year[edit]

Series 1, '1945'[edit]

The first 'Indonesian rupiah' bank notes bore the date of the proclamation on new Indonesian money, 17 October 1945, under the authority of the "Republik Indonesia", and were apparently intended for issue on 1 February 1946, but due to the capture of most of the notes, only a tiny number escaped at this time.

The circulation began in earnest in Java from 10 October 1946. The notes were in denominations of 1, 5, and 10 sen notes, plus ½, 1, 5, 10, and 100 rupiah notes.[3]

1945 Republik Indonesia series
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Serial printing issue withdrawal
Indonesia 1945 1s Rev.jpg 1 sen 97 × 45 mm Green Keris Legal text with wings None None 1946 10 October 1946 1 May 1950 Violet underprint
    Green underprint
    5 sen 100 × 49 mm Violet Various leaves Legal text with wings Buffalo underprint (strong)
Indonesia 1945 5s Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 5s Rev.jpg Dark blue Buffalo underprint (faint)
Indonesia 1945 10s Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 10s Rev.jpg 10 sen 105 × 51 mm Black Keris and machete underprint Legal text Narrow borders
    Brown
    Wide borders
    1/2 rupiah 119 × 58 mm Green Horned motif Legal text Six numbers two letters [01234]nnnnn [LMNPRST][PRTUVWX] Pink underprint
Indonesia 1945 50s Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 50s Rev.jpg Orange underprint
Indonesia 1945 1r Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 1r Rev.jpg 1 rupiah 138 × 65 mm Blue Sukarno, volcano Volcano, legal text Some without serial, some with six-digit, two-letter serial (1st letter is check code), some with simple two letter code  
Indonesia 1945 5r Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 5r Rev.jpg 5 rupiah 148 × 71 mm Green Rice stalk, Sukarno Rikce stalks, legal text Six numbers, two letters, first letter is check code; two different serial printing styles  
Indonesia 1945 10r Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 10r Rev.jpg 10 rupiah 160 × 77 mm Blue Sukarno, volcano Legal text Six numbers, two letters, or Six numbers, three letters. First letter is check code. Several serial printing styles  
Indonesia 1945 100r Obv.jpg Indonesia 1945 100r Rev.jpg 100 rupiah 174 × 86 mm Blue/green Sukarno, keris, horns Legal text, horned '100' Five numbers, two letters, first letter is check code.  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Series 2, '1 January 1947'[edit]

The second series of money now emanated from 'Djokjakarta', the Republic's base following the 'Police Action' of 21 July 1947, which had confined the Republicans to Yogyakarta and Central Java. The notes were dated 1 January 1947, in denominations of 5, 10, 25, and 100 rupiah.[4]

1947 First Issue (1 January 1947)
Note Value
IND-21-Republik Indonesia-5 Rupiah (1947)2-mid.jpg 5 rupiah
IND-22-Republik Indonesia-10 Rupiah (1947).jpg 10 rupiah
IND-23-Republik Indonesia-25 Rupiah (1947).jpg 25 rupiah
IND-24-Republik Indonesia-100 Rupiah (1947).jpg 100 rupiah

Series 3, '26 July 1947'[edit]

The next new issue was dated 26 July 1947, and consisted of ½, 2½, 25, 50, 100, and 250 rupiah notes.[5]

Series 4, '23 August 1948'[edit]

New notes were issued by the national government in 1948, in the bizarre denominations of 40, 75, 100, and 400 rupiah, plus an unissued 600 rupiah note.[6]

On 19 December 1948, the Dutch seized Yogyakarta, reverting the head office of the Republic's central bank, Bank Negara Indonesia, back to De Javasche Bank, with DJB offices also reopened in Surakarta and Kediri.[7]

It was planned in 1949 to revalue the national rupiah notes of the republic (which were at this time circulating in Java). To do this, "rupiah baru" ('new rupiah') notes were printed. This revaluation did not take place in Java, but some were issued in Aceh instead. The denominations printed were 10 sen (blue or red), ½ (green or red), 1 (purple or green), 10 (black or brown), 25, and 100 rupiah.[8]

Regional Issues[edit]

In addition to the 'national' (but restricted in practice to the central republican enclave in Java) notes, the republican authorities, to discourage the circulation of Dutch money, instructed regional commanders in areas that the national money couldn't reach, to issue their own money, to be unified after full independence.

Java[edit]

The notes issued in Java generally featured text, a signature, and a serial number, all issued on low-grade paper without modern security features such as watermarks, and demonstrated few similarities between areas. Only in a few areas did the notes have any pictures on them.

  • 1 and 5 rupiah notes of 'Daerah Kota Blitar' (the region of the town of Blitar, East Java) dated 6 August 1948.
  • 1/2, 1, 5, and 10 rupiah notes of 'Daerah Bodjonegoro' (the region of Bojonegoro, East Java) dated 15 November 1948.
  • 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah notes of 'Dearah Istimewa Jogjakarta' (the special region (Sultanate) of Yogyakarta, Central Java), dated 10 November 1948.
  • 5 rupiah notes of 'Kota Kediri' (the town of Kediri, East Java), dated 5 August 1948
  • 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah notes of 'Daerah Karesidenan Kediri' (the Kediri Residency), dated 16 October 1948
  • 1, 2½, 5, 10 rupiah notes of 'Daerah Kota Madiun', (the region of Madiun town, East Java) dated 1 September 1948
  • 2½ and 5 rupiah notes of Magelang Residency, Central Java dated 1 August 1948 and also dated 25 October 1948
  • 1, 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah notes of Magetan Residency, East Java, 17 September 1948
  • 1/2, 1, 5 and 10 rupiah notes of Patjitan Residency, East Java, 1948
  • 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 rupiah notes of Serang, Banten Residency, West Java, 15 December 1947
  • 1, 2½ and 5 rupiah notes of Surakarta Residency, Central Java, 1 November 1948, and 5, 10 and 25 rupiah of 1 November 1949
  • 5 rupiah notes of Cepu region, 17 August 1948

Sumatra[edit]

As with the Java notes, the Sumatran notes are all primitive lacking security feature printed on poor-quality paper. In most cases they have some kind of artwork.

The following notes are known to have been printed::

  • 1, 5, 10 and 100 rupiah Sumatra Province, Pematang Siantar 31 March 1947
  • 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 rupiah notes of Bengkulu Residency, 1 June 1947
  • 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 rupiah, Palembang Defence Council, South Sumatra, 1 August 1947
  • 5, 50, 100 and 250 rupiah 5 August 1947, Serbalawan district (Simalungun, North Sumatra)
  • 5 rupiah, Tapanuli Residency, 8 August 1947, 10 rupiah 8 September 1947, 25 rupiah 18 November 1947, 50 rupiah 28 April 1948, 100 rupiah 11 October 1948, 200 rupiah 23 November 1948
  • 10 and 50 sen plus 1, 2½, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 2500 and 100000 rupiah, all dated 21 August 1947, of Asahan Regency North Sumatra, plus 1000, 2500 and 100000 rupiah dated 7 February 1948, 2000000 rupiah dated 1 and 2 April 1948, 100000 rupiah dated 'May' 1948, 250000 rupiah dated 'April' and '12 April' 1948
  • 50 and 100 rupiah Limapuluh district, North Sumatra, 1 September 1947
  • 50 and 100 rupiah of Kualuh Leidong district (North Labuhan Batu Regency, North Sumatra), 1 September 1947, 250 rupiah October 1947, 1000 rupiah 10 December 1947, 2500 rupiah 1 January 1948, 5000 rupiah 13 January 1948, 10000 rupiah 20 January 1948 and 10 February 1948, 250000 rupiah 15 February 1948, 25000 rupiah 22 February 1948, 50000 rupiah 3 March 1948, 10000000 rupiah 15 April 1948, and 25000000 rupiah 3 May 1948
  • 50 sen, 1 rupiah and 2.5 rupiah Banda Aceh, 'Aceh residency', 15 September 1947, 2½ and 5 rupiah 1 December 1947 and 5 and 10 rupiah 15 January 1948
  • 2½, 5, 50, 100 and 500 rupiah, Labuhan Batu Regency from Rantau Prapat, North Sumatra, 1947, 100, 1000 and 2500 rupiah 29 November 1947, 5000 and 1000 rupiah January/February 1948, 25000 rupiah February 1948, 50000 rupiah February/March 1948, 250000 rupiah March/April 1948, and 5000000 and 25000000 rupiah April/May 1948
  • 50 rupiah Karo Regency, Tigabinangga 17 September 1947, 100, 250 and 1000 rupiah 20 November 1947
  • 1 rupiah note for Jambi Residency (East Sumatra), 17 September 1947, 1/2 and 2½ rupiah 24 October 1947 and 28 November 1947, 5 and 10 rupiah 17 November 1947, 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah 27 December 1947, 1, 5 and 10 rupiah 31 March 1948, 1 rupiah 1 April 1948, plus 2½, 5 and 25 rupiah 20 May 1948.
  • 1 rupiah Nias, 25 September 1947, 100 and 200 rupiah 20 December 1948, 500 rupiah 5 January 1949 and 12 November 1949
  • 1, 5 and 10 rupiah notes of South Sumatra (Bengkulu), 1 December 1947
  • 10, 50, 100, 250 and 100 rupiah Pagar Alam, South Sumatra, 17 December 1947
  • 10 and 25 rupiah Labuhan Bilik, 23 December 1947, 100 rupiah January/February 1948, 10000 and 100000 rupiah 24 February 1948, 50000 rupiah 6 March 1948, 250000 rupiah 25 March 1948, 500000 rupiah 9 April 1948, 25000000 rupiah 7 May 1948
  • 500 rupiah of Barus, a town in Central Tapanuli Regency 26 December 1947
  • 25 Japanese rupiah 15 November 1947, Tandjungkarang, defence mandate of Lampung Residency, 50 and 100 rupiah 15 January 1948
  • 1/2, 1, 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah, Lampung Residency, Sumatra province 1 June 1948
  • 1, 5 and 10 rupiah Kutacane 1948
  • 10 and 50 rupiah Koetabumi, North Lampung (Southern Sumatra), 1949
  • 100 and 250 rupiah East Aceh (Langsa), 2 January 1949
  • 10 and 25 rupiah Lintang IV Lawang, (Lahat Regency, South Sumatra), 17 January 1949
  • 10 rupiah Palembang Residency, 17 January 1949, 50 rupiah 17 April 1949, 40 rupiah 6 July 1949, 50 rupiah 18 November 1949
  • 250 rupiah Kutaradja, for North Sumatra region, 1 March 1949
  • 25 and 50 rupiah South Pesisir (West Sumatra), 1949* 20 rupiah notes of the South Sumatra Special Military Region (Bukit Barisan), 1 May 1949
  • 40 rupiah South Sumtra Province - Tjurup (Rejang Lebong Regency, South-West Sumtra), 1949

The following notes were all issued by the 'Governor of Sumatra' in Bukittinggi:

  • 1/2, 1, 2½, 5, 10 and 25 rupiah notes of 'Sumatra Province', 17 August 1947, 2½ rupiah 17 December 1947, 1, 5 and 10 rupiah 1 January 1948, 25 rupiah 17 January 1948, 5, 10, 25 and 50 rupiah 1 April 1948, and 100 rupiah 17 April 1948
  • 10 rupiah issued for Jambi district 17 December 1947
  • 5 rupiah issued for Riau district, 17 December 1947
  • 1, 2½, 5 and 10 rupiah for South Sumatra Sub-Province, 1 January 1948
  • 5 rupiah for East Sumatra district, 1 January 1948
  • 10 and 25 rupiah for Aceh district, 1 January 1948
  • 5 rupiah for Tapanuli (Northwest Sumatra), 1 January 1948
  • 10 rupiah for West Sumatra district, 17 January 1948

1950 onwards: Indonesian independence recognised[edit]

1950–1952: Gulden/roepiah notes[edit]

Low denomination notes[edit]

The Dutch treasury had in 1947 issued Indonesian language 10 sen and 25 sen notes. Due to the initial lack of coinage and due to their relatively republic-friendly design, the Indonesian government saw it as expedient to continue to print these notes, and authorised their issue until such time as coinage had been minted, and in sufficient quantity to replace them.

Dutch 'Indonesia' notes of 1947, also printed by Indonesia until it had minted sufficient coinage
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial note withdrawal
Indonesia 1947 10s o.jpg Indonesia 1947 10s r.jpg 10 sen 100 × 60 mm Green Floral border Legal text in Indonesian and Dutch None 1 December 1947 1 January 1957
Indonesia 1947 25s o.jpg Indonesia 1947 25s r.jpg 25 sen Brown Central floral design

De Javasche Bank notes[edit]

The peace settlement with the Dutch, negotiated in The Hague in November 1949, had kept De Javasche Bank as the central bank in Indonesia, hence the first notes that were issued for the post-independence rupiah bore its imprint. It was decided that the existing De Javasche Bank money dated 1946 would simply be revised in colour, with the 5 gulden note changing from purple to red and green, the 10 gulden from green to purple, and 25 gulden from red to green. In addition, 50 gulden, 100 gulden, 500 gulden, and 1000 gulden notes were added, still dated 1946.

Because there were existing 10 and 25 sen notes (which remained as legal tender and continued to be printed), a gap existed between the 25 sen Indonesia and 5 gulden De Javasche Bank notes. This was filled with notes of 1/2 rupiah, 1 rupiah, and 2½ rupiah, all dated 1948.[9] The notes in wording were similar to the notes of 5 gulden and up, but the Indonesian text ('roepiah') placed above Dutch ('gulden').

The notes were all printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, the Dutch printer.

1950 De Javasche Bank notes
Image Series Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial issue withdrawal replacement note
Indonesia 1946b 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 5r r.jpg "1946" 5rp 150 × 75 mm Green and red Coconut trees at sea shore Legal text in Dutch, Indonesian, Javanese, and Mandarin; Letters DJB six numbers and either two or three letters 19 March 1950 13 December 1965 2 June 1950
Indonesia 1946b 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 10r r.jpg 10rp Purple Mangosteen 2 June 1950
Indonesia 1946b 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 25r r.jpg 25rp Green Coconut trees at sea shore 18 June 1954
Indonesia 1946b 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 50r r.jpg 50rp Black Sailboat 13 August 1954
Indonesia 1946b 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 100r r.jpg 100rp Brown Paddy field 18 December 1953
Indonesia 1946b 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 500r r.jpg 500rp Red six numbers and two letters 24 August 1959
Indonesia 1946b 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1946b 1000r r.jpg 1000rp Grey six numbers and two letters 5 March 1959 2 November 1954
Indonesia 1948 50s o.jpg Indonesia 1948 50s r.jpg "1948" 1/2 rp 124 × 64 mm Pink Moon orchid Legal text in Dutch and Indonesian; letters DJB Letter 'A' (two sizes), or 'AA', written fractionally over two numbers, followed by six numbers 1 December 1957 Last of denomination
Indonesia 1948 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1948 1r r.jpg 1 rp Blue Coconut trees Letter 'B' (three sizes), or 'BB', written fractionally over either one or two numbers, followed by six numbers 3 October 1951
Indonesia 1948 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1948 250s r.jpg 2½ rp Red Jasmine Letter 'C' (two sizes) over 1 or 2 numbers, followed by six numbers
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Republik Indonesia Serikat money[edit]

The "Republik Indonesia Serikat" passed legislation on 2 June 1950 to allow it to issue new treasury notes, which were dated 1 January 1950 in 5 and 10 rupiah denominations.[10] This was not long-lasting, as the RIS dissolved on 17 August 1950 (5 years after the original declaration of independence).

The notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue of England and had the date '1 January 1950' printed on the note.

1950 'Republik Indonesia Serikat' Notes
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial issue withdrawal
Indonesia 1950 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1950 5r r.jpg 5rp 136 × 64 mm Red Soekarno Rice field "D" over number between 1 and 10, followed by six numbers 2 June 1950
Indonesia 1950 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1950 10r r.jpg 10rp Purple "E" over number between 1 and 19, followed by six numbers
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Nationalisation of De Javasche Bank: first Republik Indonesia banknotes[edit]

With the nationalisation of De Javasche Bank via the Emergency Act of 1951, it was decreed that the government would be able to issue notes of 1 and 2½ rupiah denominations. Thus, 'Republik Indonesia' notes dated 1951 were issued in 1 and 2½ rupiah denominations.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, first series (landscapes), 1951, printed by Security Banknote Printing Company (USA)
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
IND-38-Republik Indonesia - 1 Rupiah (1951).jpg 1 rupiah 127 × 66 mm Blue Beach with palms, rice terrace Mountain 2 letters, 1 above the other, 6 numbers Sjafruddin Prawiranegara None '1951'
IND-39-Republik Indonesia - 2.5 Rupiah (1951).jpg 2½ rupiah Red Beach with cliff, palms Garuda Pancasila

Formation of Bank Indonesia from De Javasche Bank: second Republik Indonesia banknotes[edit]

With the transformation from DJB to Bank Indonesia, the Emergency Act of 1951 was renewed as the Currency Act of 1953, and the 1951 1 and 2½ rupiah government notes were reissued with the signature of the new Minister of Finance dated 1953.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, second series (landscapes), 1953, printed by Security Banknote Printing Company (USA)
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1953 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1953 1r r.jpg 1 rupiah As 1951 Soemitro Djojohadikoesoemo None (As 1951) '1953'    
Indonesia 1953 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1953 250s r.jpg 2½ rupiah    
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  

1953–1954: First notes of Bank Indonesia[edit]

Notes featuring the new name of the nationalised De Javasche bank - 'Bank Indonesia' - were prepared dated 1952, in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 rupiah, signed by Indra Kasoema as Director, and Sjafruddin Prawiranegara as Governor. The notes began circulating from July 1953 to November 1954 depending on denomination.

1952 Bank Indonesia notes ('culture series')
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Printer's mark issue withdrawal replacement note
Indonesia 1952 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1952 5r r.jpg 5rp 136 × 75 mm Blue Ibu Kartini Floral design, serpents 5' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers Thomas De La Rue 2 July 1953 16 January 1961 1 September 1959
Indonesia 1952 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1952 10r r.jpg 10rp Brown Statue of Dewi Sri Floral design, beasts 2 (Joh. Enschede) or 3 (Joh. Enschede/Perkeba) letters, then six numbers Joh. Enschede en Zonen/Pertjetakan Kebajoran 5 September 1959
Indonesia 1952 25 0.jpg Indonesia 1952 25r r.jpg 25rp 143 × 83 mm Blue Kalpataru Batik ship 18 June 1954
Indonesia 1952 50 o.jpg Indonesia 1952 50 r.jpg 50rp Green Trees/bird Batik 2 or 3 letters then six numbers Joh. Enschede en Zonen 13 August 1954 1 August 1959
Indonesia 1952 100 o.jpg Indonesia 1952 100 r.jpg 100rp Brown Lion statue, Diponegoro 2 stylised birds kissing 18 December 1953 15 December 1960 24 June 1958
Indonesia 1952 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1952 500r r.jpg 500rp 152 × 91 mm Red/green Hindu relief Batik 21 September 1959 6 January 1959
Indonesia 1952 1000 o.jpg Indonesia 1952 1000r r.jpg 1000rp Green/red Hindu relief Wood design two or three letters, starting W/WW, then six numbers 2 November 1954 7 August 1958 2 September 1958
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Despite the new notes, which meant that paper bearing the name of DJB was no longer printed, the DJB notes dated '1946', and in fact circulating since 1950, remained legal tender right up to the 'new rupiah' of 1965 (which invalidated ALL previous money at that point), although some old DJB notes were repealed, as follows:

  • 2 March 1956: 1000 gulden '1946' note dating from 1950 withdrawn, effective 5 March 1959, due to rampant counterfeiting.
  • 22 November 1957: 1 and 2½ rp '1948' DJB notes withdrawn, effective 1 December 1957, because these denominations of notes were the issuing privilege of the government under the 1914 Currency Act in force at the time of their issue, and hence De Javasche Bank had lacked the authority for their issue.

The few Netherlands Indies government notes (all low denomination) still legal tender were repealed as follows:

  • 1 January 1954: all 'Nederlandsch Indie' government money withdrawn: 1/2, 1, and 2½ gulden notes, all dating from early World War 2, 1940
  • 1 January 1957: 10 sen and 25 sen 'Indonesia' '1947' notes withdrawn (these were also issued by the Republic of Indonesia)

1954 brought a redesign of the Indonesian government 1 and 2½ rupiah notes, which were re-dated with the new Minister of Finance's signature in 1956.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, third series (ethnic people), 1954, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1954 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1954 1r r.jpg 1 rupiah 130 × 60 mm Blue Javanese girl Garuda Pancasila 3 letters, 6 numbers Ong Eng Die None '1954'    
Indonesia 1954 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1954 250s r.jpg 2½ rupiah Red and green Rotinese man    
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  
Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, fourth series (ethnic people), 1956, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1956 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1956 1r r.jpg 1 rupiah 130 × 60 mm As 1954 Jusuf Wibisono None '1956'    
Indonesia 1956 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1956 250s r.jpg 2½ rupiah    
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  

1958–1959 Animals series - Second Series of Banknotes of Bank Indonesia[edit]

In 1957, governor of Bank Indonesia Sjafruddin Prawiranegara commissioned a new series of notes from English printer, Thomas De La Rue & Co. However, Syafruddin's involvement with PRRI meant that he was replaced in January 1958 as governor by Loekman Hakim. Specimens were produced in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 rupiah, and the first of these to be brought into circulation were the 100 and 1000 rupiah notes, in 1958, due to the counterfeiting of these denominations of the 1952 series (the counterfeit notes can be distinguished by the wavy line watermark being printed onto the paper rather than a true watermark).

The issue of the notes was interrupted somewhat by a devaluation of 24 August 1959, with 500 (tiger) and 1000 (elephant) rupiah notes devalued to 50 (crocodile) and 100 rupiah (squirrel) in September 1959. The 2500 and 5000 rupiah notes were deemed unnecessary thanks to the devaluation. The 2500 rupiah note was eventually issued three years later due to continued high inflation, while the 5000 rupiah was never issued. The 10 and 25 rupiah notes were only circulated for 3 days, although they remained legal tender, and are today extremely rare.

In addition to the 8 notes designed, Loekman commissioned a new note, of 2500 rupiah. Apart from the 100 and 1000 rupiah notes, the remaining high denomination note, the 500 rupiah, was released on 6 January 1959.

Animal Series (not dated, first printed 1957, except for the 2500 rupiah), all printed Thomas De La Rue
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial issue withdrawal replacement note
Indonesia 1957 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 5r r.jpg 5rp 125 × 65 mm Green and blue Gibbon Prambanan Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (Governor) TRB. Sabaroedin (Director) Diponegoro '5' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 1 September 1959 10 June 1962 19 January 1960
Indonesia 1957 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 10r r.jpg 10rp Brown and green Deer Kora Kora '10' followed by 3 letters, then 5 numbers 5 September 1959 3 January 1961 2 January 1960
Indonesia 1957 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 25r r.jpg 25rp 143 × 72 mm Brown and red Javan rhinoceros Tapanuli traditional house '25' followed by 3 letters, then 5 numbers
Indonesia 1957 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 50r r.jpg 50rp 150 × 76 mm Red Crocodile Grand Mosque, Medan '50' then 1 or 2, letters then 5 numbers 1 August 1959 21 May 1965 19 January 1960
Indonesia 1957 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 100r r.jpg 100rp 158 × 81 mm Green and red Squirrel Istana Bogor '100' then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 4 numbers 24 June 1958 8 September 1959
Indonesia 1957 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 500r r.jpg 500rp 165 × 85 mm Red/green Sumatran tiger Rice terrace '500' then 1 or 2 letters then 4 numbers 6 January 1959 21 September 1959 Denomination withdrawn - reintroduced 1 May 1960
Indonesia 1957 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 1000r r.jpg 1000rp 173 × 89 mm Blue and brown Elephant Fisherman '1000' then 1 or 2 letters, then 4 numbers 2 September 1958 Denomination withdrawn - reintroduced 10 May 1960
Indonesia 1957 2500r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 2500r r.jpg 2500rp 181 × 92 mm Green and blue Komodo dragon Fishing village, Martipura River Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) '2500' then 1 letter or 2 letters, then 4 numbers; or '2500' then 2 letters over 'I' plus 5 numbers 1 September 1962 13 December 1965 Last of denomination
Indonesia 1957 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1957 5000r r.jpg 5000rp 190 × 97 mm Red Bull   Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (Governor) TRB. Sabaroedin (Director) 5000A0000 UNISSUED SPECIMEN ONLY
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

1959: First Indonesian-designed notes, the 'handicrafts' series[edit]

8 September 1959 brought the first purely Indonesian-designed notes, issued by state printers Pertjetakan Kebajoran, of 5 and 100 rupiah notes (see full 'handicrafts' section below for full details).

1960: Thomas De La Rue flowers and birds banknotes[edit]

Yet another series of notes, the 'flowers' series was issued by Bank Indonesia in 1960 (showing flowers on the obverse and birds on the reverse), and dated 1 January 1959, but issued in 1960. These notes were printed by Thomas De La Rue & Co. Ltd., England.

Flowers and birds series, dated '1 January 1959', issued 1960, printed by Thomas De La Rue
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial issue withdrawal
Indonesia 1959 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 5r r.jpg 5rp 125 × 65 mm Blue and yellow Tuberose 4 sunbirds Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) Garuda Pancasila '5' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 19 January 1960 31 December 1966
Indonesia 1959 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 10r r.jpg 10rp 133 × 68 mm Red and green Hoya flowers 4 cockatoos '10' followed by 1, 2 or 3 letters, then 5 numbers 2 January 1960
Indonesia 1959 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 25r r.jpg 25rp 143 × 72 mm Green and blue Nelumbo nucifera 2 great egrets '25' followed by 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 5 numbers
Indonesia 1959 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 50r r.jpg 50rp 150 × 76 mm Orange and purple Stylised Nelumbo nucifera 2 white-bellied fish-eagles '50' then 1, 2 or 3 letters then 5 numbers 19 January 1960
Indonesia 1959 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 100r r.jpg 100rp 158 × 81 mm Purple Rafflesia arnoldii 5 rhinoceros hornbills '100' then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 5 numbers
Indonesia 1959 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 500r r.jpg 500rp 165 × 85 mm Blue and red Bougainvillea Green junglefowls '500' then 1, 2, or 3 letters then 4 numbers, or '500', 1 letter, 5 numbers 10 May 1960
Indonesia 1959 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1959 1000r r.jpg 1000rp 173 × 89 mm Black and blue Jasmine flower Bird-of-paradise '1000' then 1, 2, or 3 letters, then 4 numbers, or '1000' then 2 letters over 'I', then 5 numbers 1 May 1960
2500rp 180 x 92 mm Orange and red   Great argus displaying 2500AA0000 UNISSUED SPECIMEN ONLY
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

1960–1961: Government banknotes[edit]

A new design for the 1 and 2½ rupiah government notes was issued in 1960 showing agricultural workers, also re-dated with the new Minister of Finance's signature 1961.

Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, fifth series (agriculture theme), 1960, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1960 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 1r r.jpg 1 rupiah 120 × 60 mm Green and yellow Rice farmers Vegetables 3 letters, 6 numbers Ir. Djuanda K. None '1960'    
Indonesia 1960 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1960 250s r.jpg 2½ rupiah Blue Corn farmers Corn and paddy    
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  
Government Notes: Republik Indonesia, sixth series (agriculture theme), 1961, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1961 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1961 1r r.jpg 1 rupiah As 1960 R.M. Notohamiprodjo None '1961'    
Indonesia 1961 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1961 250s R.jpg 2½ rupiah    
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  

1961–1964: Complete handicrafts series[edit]

The Indonesian-printed handicrafts series replaced the TDLR notes in 1961 and 1962, with all denominations 5 to 1000 rupiah in issue. Introducing the first 10,000 rupiah banknote in 1964

Native crafts/houses banknotes, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran, issued 1959, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964 - first series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Note issue withdrawal
Indonesia 1958 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 5r r.jpg 5rp 135 × 65 mm Green and red Javanese woman doing batik Central Java traditional house Loekman Hakim (Governor), TRB Sabaroedin (Director) Banteng head 3 letters, 6 numbers '1958' 8 September 1959 13 June 1966
Indonesia 1958 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 10r r.jpg 10rp Brown and blue Balinese statue carver Balinese house 11 December 1961
Indonesia 1958 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 25r r.jpg 25rp 150 × 75 mm Green and blue Batak weaver Batak house 26 April 1962
Indonesia 1958 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 50r r.jpg 50rp Orange and purple Timor spinner Timor house
Indonesia 1958 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 100r r.jpg 100rp Purple Rubber tapper Kalimantan traditional house 8 September 1959
Indonesia 1958 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 500r r.jpg 500rp 160 × 85 mm Red and brown Man opening coconut Minahasa house 3 letters, 5 numbers 16 January 1961
Indonesia 1958 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 1000r r.jpg 1000rp Violet and green Minangkabau silversmith Minangkabau house 2 May 1961
Indonesia 1958 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1958 5000r r.jpg 5000rp 170 × 95 mm Brown and green Woman with paddy Rice fields in mountain 18 October 1963 13 January 1966
Indonesia 1964 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1964 10000r r.jpg 10000rp Red and brown 2 fishermen with fish trap Barito river Kalimantan Jusuf Muda Dalam (Governor), Hertatijanto (Director) '1964' 18 August 1964
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Due to inflation, the TDLR 2500 rupiah note of 'animals' design was finally issued in September 1962, becoming then the top denomation. A further response to inflation came with the issue of a 1958-dated 5000 rupiah (brown) note in October 1963. By August 1964, it was necessary to add a 10,000 rupiah note (in red), and dated '1964', completing the manual workers series.

1965: Updates to the crafts notes[edit]

In 1965, amid soaring inflation, all of the notes, with the exception of the bottom 5 rupiah and the 500 rupiah note of the handicrafts series were revised and re-issued, some more than once.

Native crafts/houses banknotes, printed by Pertjetakan Kebajoran, issued 1965 - second series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Signature Watermark Serial Note issue withdrawal
Indonesia 1963 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1963 10r r.jpg 10rp As first series As first series As first series Soemarno, Hertatijanto As first series As first series '1963'
Indonesia 1964 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1964 25r r.jpg 25rp Jusuf Muda Dalam, Hertaijanto None - overprinted Gardua Pancasila '1964' 21 May 1965 13 June 1966
Indonesia 1964 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1964 50r r.jpg 50rp 27 April 1965
Indonesia 1964 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1964 100r r.jpg 100rp As first series 10 March 1965
Indonesia 1964b 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1964b 100r r.jpg 100rp Blue None - overprinted Gardua Pancasila 19 November 1965
Indonesia 1958b 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1958b 1000r r.jpg 1000rp Red As first series As first series '1958' (As first series) 21 May 1965 13 March 1966
Indonesia 1958b 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1958b 5000r r.jpg 5000rp Purple As first series plus overprinted Garuda Pancasila 19 November 1965 13 January 1966
Indonesia 1964b 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1964b 10000r r.jpg 10000rp Green As first series '1964' (As first series) 29 March 1965
Indonesia 1964c 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1964c 10000r r.jpg 10000rp As first series plus overprinted Garuda Pancasila 19 November 1965
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

1965–1968: First series of banknotes ('Soekarno') of the 'new rupiah'[edit]

The hyperinflation of the early 1960s resulted in the pronouncement of the 'new rupiah' supposedly worth 1,000 of the old rupiah.

The withdrawal of the old money meant the issue of an entirely new set of banknotes, by Presidential decree of 13 December 1965. The decree authorised Bank Indonesia to issue fractional notes for the first time (although the 1 and 2½ rupiah notes were still issued by the government itself), in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 sen showing 'Volunteers', dated 1964. Due to the fact that the rupiah was only devalued about 10, rather than 1000 times, they were worthless on issue, and many millions of notes never entered circulation.

The remaining notes all featured President Soekarno on the obverse, and various dancers on the reverse; this series was issued by 'Republik Indonesia' in 1 and 2½ rupiah, dated 1964, and Bank Indonesia dated 1960, in 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 rupiah were issued ('1960'-dated Bank Indonesia notes of 5, 10, and 100 rupiah were already circulating in Irian Barat and Riau, along with '1961'-dated 'Republik Indonesia notes of 1 and 2½ rupiah in those same places); the notes from 500 to 10,000 rupiah were deemed unnecessary due to the devaluation.

To complete the devaluation, older notes (largely worthless by this point) were withdrawn over 1965–1966.

By 1967, due to the limited nature of the devaluation, it had proved necessary to add 500 and 1,000 rupiah notes, in the same design.

Notes of the 'new rupiah' (1965 devaluation), Republik Indonesia
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signature Printer's mark Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note
1 rupiah 121 × 60 mm Red Soekarno with sugar cane Balinese female dancer 2 letters, 6 numbers (no printer mark); 3 letters 6 numbers (otherwise) Soemarno Pertjetakan Kebajoran, P.N. Pertjetakan Kebajoran, or no mark Garuda Pancasila '1964' 13 December 1965   8 January 1968 - as Bank Indonesia These are the Last government notes in Indonesia
2½ rupiah 119 × 60 mm Blue Balinese female dancer 2 letters, 6 numbers (no printer mark); 3 letters 6 numbers (otherwise) Pertjetakan Kebajoran, or no mark  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Notes of the 'new rupiah' (1965 devaluation, plus 1967 denomination additions), Bank Indonesia
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signatures Printer's mark Watermark Note issue withdrawal replacement note
Indonesia 1964 1s o.jpg Indonesia 1964 1s r.jpg 1 sen 104 × 52 mm Green Man wearing paddy hat Spiral patterns 3 letters, 6 numbers Governor: Jusuf Muda Dalam; Director: Hertatijianto Pertjetakan Kebajoran None '1964' 13 December 1965 Never withdrawn Worthless upon issue, never replaced as coin or note
Hd-1964-indonesia-5-lima-sen-front.jpg Hd-1964-Indonesia-5-sen-back.jpg 5 sen Violet Man with peaked cap and 'Suklarelawan' (volunteer) badge 15 November 1996
Indonesia 1964 10s o.jpg Indonesia 1964 10s r.jpg 10 sen Green
Indonesia 1964 25s o.jpg Indonesia 1964 25s r.jpg 25 sen 110 × 55 mm Red Man with hat and 'Suklarelawan' (volunteer) badge
Indonesia 1964 50s o.jpg Indonesia 1964 50s r.jpg 50 sen Purple
Indonesia 1960 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 5r r.jpg 5rp 135 × 67 mm Violet Soekarno, with sugar cane Female Balinese dancer 3 letters, 6 numbers Governor: Soetikno Slamet; Director: Indra Kasoema Pertjetakan Kebajoran Soekarno, replaced by buffalo from 30 August 1966 '1960' 1 September 1971 13 January 1969
Indonesia 1960 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 10r r.jpg 10rp 140 × 70 mm Brown 2 female Balinese dancers 3 letters, 6 numbers Soekarno 15 April 1968
Indonesia 1960 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 25r r.jpg 25rp 147 × 73 mm Green Female Balinese dancer showing hands 3 letters, 6 numbers (Pertjetakan); 1/2/3 letters, six numbers (Thomas De La Rue) Thomas De La Rue until 25 July 1966, then Pertjetakan Kebajoran Soekarno (Thomas De La Rue); buffalo (Pertjetakan Kebajoran) 13 January 1969
Indonesia 1960 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 50r r.jpg 50rp 158 × 77 mm Black Hindu female Balinese dancer with 2 gamelan players Thomas De La Rue until 30 August 1966, then Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Indonesia 1960 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 100r r.jpg 100rp 158 × 79 mm Red-brown Batak male and female dancer 3 letters, 6 numbers Pertjetakan Kebajoran Soekarno
Indonesia 1960 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 500r r.jpg 500rp 165 × 82 mm Green Javanese dancers 1/2/3 letters 4 numberes (TDLR), 3 letters six numbers (PK) Thomas De La Rue/Pertjetakan Kebajoran First Printings: Soekarno (Thomas De La Rue), buffalo/Soekarno (Pertjetakan Kebajoran); 1968 reprint Garuda (Pertjetakan Kebajoran) 20 February 1967
Indonesia 1960 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 1000r r.jpg 1000rp 171 × 87 mm Black 2 Balinese dancers Soekarno (Thomas De La Rue - first printing), buffalo (Pertjetakan Kebajoran - 1968 reprint)
Indonesia 1960 2500r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 2500r r.jpg 2500rp           Thomas De La Rue   Unissued specimens
Indonesia 1960 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1960 5000r r.jpg 5000rp   Black        
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

1968–1970: Second series of banknotes ('Sudirman') of the 'new rupiah'[edit]

By 1968 the Suharto New Order had been established, and Bank Indonesia, as of 1968 was given sole right to issue banknotes (including notes below 5 rupiah) as well as coins (which had previously been the issue of the central government).[11]

Hence, the new issue of banknotes 1 to 1,000rp, dated 1968, were all emanating from Bank Indonesia. The notes featured the revolutionary hero General Sudirman, backed by various scenes of industry. The notes were issued in 1968 and 1969. In 1970, notes of the same theme (but a different watermark) were added in 5,000 and 10,000 rupiah denominations, thus restoring notes to the same denominations that had been circulating prior the 1965 devaluation

Sudirman/industry notes, '1968', Bank Indonesia: Second series of notes post-devaluation, Printed by PN Pertjetakan Kebajoran
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of  
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Serial Signatures Watermark issue withdrawal replacement note  
Indonesia 1968 1r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 1r r.jpg 1rp 112 × 56 mm Red Sudirman, Coat of arms of Indonesia Woman extracting copra 3 letters, 6 numbers Radius Prawiro, Soeksmono B. Martokoesoemo Garuda Pancasila 8 January 1968 1 September 1975 Replaced with coin  
Indonesia 1968 250s o.jpg Indonesia 1968 250s r.jpg 2½rp Blue Woman holding paddy No replacement  
Indonesia 1968 5r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 5r r.jpg 5rp 132 × 66 mm Violet Hydropower construction 13 January 1969 Replaced with coin  
Indonesia 1968 10r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 10r r.jpg 10rp Brown Oil refinery 15 April 1968  
Indonesia 1968 25r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 25r r.jpg 25rp Green Ampera bridge, Palembang 13 January 1969  
Indonesia 1968 50r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 50r r.jpg 50rp Violet and green Hangar  
Indonesia 1968 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 100r r.jpg 100rp 144 × 72 mm Red Brickworks, harbour 2 April 1988 1 October 1977  
Indonesia 1968 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 500r r.jpg 500rp Green and black Cotton mill 5 April 1978  
Indonesia 1968 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 1000r r.jpg 1000rp Black and orange Fertiliser factory 1 September 1977 1 June 1976  
Indonesia 1968 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 5000r r.jpg 5000rp 156 × 78 mm Green Sudirman, Garuda Pancasila PT Tonasa Cement Factory Diponegoro 2 April 1970 1 July 1977 5 October 1976  
Indonesia 1968 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1968 10000r r.jpg 10,000rp Red and violet Bangka Island tin mine 15 July 1976  
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.  

Diponegoro series (unissued)[edit]

A new series of notes, which now started only at 100 rupiah (then US$0.24), was designed with a Diponegoro theme in 1971 (but undated); however, this series was never issued, although the 1000 rupiah note, with date added, was issued in 1976 (see below), and the reverse of the 5000 rupiah was also used for the 1976 5000 rupiah, but with a new obverse design.

This aborted note series was the last in Indonesia to have a consistent theme, although new notes typically retained the same colour as old ones of the same denomination.

Diponegoro series (only 1000 rupiah issued); printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signature Serial issue withdrawal replacement
    100 rupiah 158 × 79 mm Pink Diponegoro at right, facing left Mountain scenery Diponegoro   2 letters, 000000 SPECIMEN ONLY, UNISSUED, UNDATED
    500 rupiah Green Diponegoro at left, facing right Rice terraces   3 letters, six numbers
    1000 rupiah Green Buffalo ploughing rice field Majapahit statue  
    5000 rupiah Brown and red-brown Diponegoro at right, facing left 3 Sailing Ships Diponegoro   2 letters, 000000
    10000 rupiah Green and red Rice farmers  

1976–1978: Banknote series 3 of the new rupiah[edit]

Due to counterfeiting of the Sudirman notes, the 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 rupiah notes were all re-designed, dated 1975, and issued in 1976. The Sudirman notes of 1000 rupiah and above were withdrawn as legal tender as of 1 September 1977.[12]

Redesigns of the 100 and 500 rupiah notes followed in 1978, thereby completing the third series of notes to be issued since the 1965 devaluation.

Rupiah notes '1975' and '1977', printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signature Serial note issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1977 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1977 100r r.jpg 100 rupiah 144 × 72 mm Pink Javan rhinoceros A Javan rhino in habitat Garuda Pancasila Rachmat Saleh (Governor), Arifin M. Siregar (Director) 3 letters, six numbers '1977' 1 October 1977 2 April 1988 1 February 1985  
Indonesia 1977 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1977 500r r.jpg 500 rupiah 144 × 79 mm Green Woman with Vanda orchid Bank Indonesia building, Jakarta Diponegoro 5 April 1978 1 December 1982  
Indonesia 1975 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1975 1000r r.jpg 1000 rupiah 158 × 79 mm Green Diponegoro at left, facing right Buffalo ploughing rice field Gajah Mada Rachmat Saleh (Governor), Soeksmono. B. Martokoesoemo (Director) '1975' 1 June 1976 1 July 1980 Undated specimens exists; issued note dated '1975'
Indonesia 1975 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1975 5000r r.jpg 5000 rupiah Red-brown Fisherman 3 Sailing Ships Tjut Njak Dhien 5 October 1976 1 March 1982 Identical to unissued 'Diponegoro' note, except Diponegoro replaced with fisherman
Indonesia 1975 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1975 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah Green, brown and orange Ramayana frieze at Borobodur Batara kala, Jago Temple General Sudirman 15 July 1976 2 January 1980 29 June 1979  

1979–1982: Banknote Series 4 of the new rupiah[edit]

The first note to be replaced was again the top 10,000 rupiah note (by then worth approximately US$16), in 1979. Further redesigned notes followed in all denominations except the 100 rupiah, in 1980 and 1982.

Rupiah notes '1979', '1980', '1982', printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1982 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1982 500r r.jpg 500 rupiah 140 × 68 mm Green Titan arum Bank Indonesia building Ahmad Yani Rachmat Saleh, Durmawel Achmad 3 letters, six numbers '1982' 1 December 1982 1 May 1992 29 January 1988
Indonesia 1980 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1980 1000r r.jpg 1000 rupiah 145 × 72 mm Blue Soetomo Sianok Valley Hasanuddin '1980' 1 July 1980 30 June 1987
Indonesia 1980 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1980 5000r r.jpg 5000 rupiah 153 × 76 mm Brown Diamond cutter, Kalimantan 3 Toraja houses Dewi Sartika '1980' 1 March 1982 9 December 1986
Indonesia 1979 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1979 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 144 × 79 mm Purple Gamelan players, Central Java Prambanan temple Soetomo Rachmat Saleh, Arifin M. Siregar '1979' 29 June 1979 27 December 1985

1985–1988: Banknote series 5 of the new rupiah[edit]

The 100 rupiah note dating from 1977 was finally replaced in 1985; replacement notes of all denominations followed in 1985, 1987 and 1988.

Rupiah notes '1984', '1985', '1986','1987','1988', printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1984 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1984 100r r.jpg 100 rupiah 133 × 64 mm Pink Victoria crowned pigeon Asahan dam Garuda Pancasila Arifin M. Siregar, Sujitno Siswowidagdo 3 letters, six numbers '1984' 1 February 1985 25 September 1995 28 December 1992
Indonesia 1988 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1988 500r r.jpg 500 rupiah 140 × 68 mm Green Rusa deer Bank Indonesia building, Cirebon Ahmad Yani '1988' 29 January 1988
Indonesia 1987 1000r o.JPG Indonesia 1987 1000r r.JPG 1000 rupiah 145 × 72 mm Blue Sisingamangaraja XII Kraton Yogyakarta Sultan Hasanuddin '1987' 30 June 1987
Indonesia 1986 5000r o.JPG Indonesia 1986 5000r r.JPG 5000 rupiah 153 × 76 mm Brown Teuku Umar Minaret of Menara Kudus Mosque Martha Christina Tiahahu '1986' 9 December 1986 10 February 1992
Indonesia 1985 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1985 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 144 × 79 mm Purple Kartini with Prambanan temple Female university graduate, Indonesian flag Tjipto Mangunkusumo '1985' 27 December 1985 18 August 1992

1992: series six banknotes of the new rupiah[edit]

1992 saw a complete overhaul of all denominations of notes for the first time since 1968. In addition, a new top denomation, 20,000 rupiah note was added, with a US$ value of approximately $10 at the time. This was the first new denomination of the 'new rupiah' since the 10,000 rupiah had been issued in April 1970 (then worth about US$26). From this issue forwards, Indonesian notes have carried in small text in the note border the year of printing; the most conspicuous date on the note is still the date of authority (e.g., "Direksi 1992").

Rupiah notes '1992' series, printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description   Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1992 100r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 100r r.jpg 100 rupiah 136 × 68 mm Pink Bugis phinisi Krakatoa Ki Hajar Dewantara Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Sujitno Siswowidagdo (Director) 3 letters, six numbers 18 August 1992 30 November 2006 Last of denomation Carries imprint dates 1992–1996,1999,2000
Indonesia 1992 500r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 500r r.jpg 500 rupiah 140 × 68 mm Green Orangutan East Kalimantan house Omar Said Tjokroaminoto Carries imprint date 1992–1999
Indonesia 1992 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 1000r r.jpg 1000 rupiah 144 × 68 mm Blue Lake Toba Stone jumping, Nias Cut Nyak Meutia Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hendrobudiyanto (Director) 29 November 2000 Carries imprint date 1992–2000
Indonesia 1992 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 5000r r.jpg 5000 rupiah 145 × 72 mm Brown Sasando Rote Tri-coloured lake, Kelimutu Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hasudungan Tampubolon (Director) 18 August 1992 6 November 2001 Carries imprint date 1992–2001
Indonesia 1992 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 150 × 73 mm Purple Hamengkubuwono IX, Scouts camping Borobodur Wage Rudolf Supratman Adrianus Mooy (Governor), R. Rachmad (Director) 18 August 1992 21 August 2000 18 February 1998 Carries imprint date 1992–1998
Indonesia 1992 20000r o.jpg Indonesia 1992 20000r r.jpg 20,000 rupiah 152 × 72 mm Green Red bird-of-paradise Clove flower, map of Indonesia Ki Hajar Dewantara Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Binhadi (Director) 15 January 1992 28 August 1995 Carries imprint dates 1992–1995

1993: Soeharto commemorative 50,000 rupiah[edit]

In 1993 a 50,000 rupiah (approx US$22) note celebrating "25 Years of Development" in polymer with hologram, limited to five million, and in a presentation pack explaining the 25-year growth plan since 1969 were printed, priced at double face value: 100,000 rupiah. The design featured Soeharto on the front and Soekarno-Hatta airport on the back, with a plane taking off to symbolise Indonesia's growth. However, it is believed that due to poor sales, that some of the polymer notes, minus the folder, were issued as regularly circulating money. A paper version of similar design was printed in 1993 and 1994.

Rupiah notes Soeharto '1993'
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description   Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1993 50000r o.jpg Indonesia 1993 50000r r.jpg 50,000 rupiah 152 × 76 mm Green Soeharto with scenes of industrial development, slogan "25 Tahun Indonesia Membangun" (25 years of Indonesian development) Garuda Indonesia Boeing 747 Aircraft taking off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Wage Rudolf Supratman Adrianus Mooy (Governor), TM Sjakur Machmud (Director) 3 letters, 6 numbers 1 March 1993 21 August 2000 Last of denomation Printed by state printers Perum Peruri, with imprint date 1993 or 1994
Indonesia 1993 p50000r o.jpg Indonesia 1993 p50000r r.jpg Soeharto hologram, Bank Indonesia watermark Adrianus Mooy (Governor), Hasudungan Tampubolon (Director) Plastic note, printed by North Printing Australia

1995: addition of security thread to top 1992/1993 banknotes[edit]

1995 saw the introduction of the security thread to Indonesian banknotes, a feature on all large (10,000 and above) notes of 'Direksi 1995' and newer. The 1992 20,000 rupiah, and 1993 paper 50,000 notes were the affected notes.

Rupiah notes 1995 security thread updates, printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description   Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial issue withdrawal replacement
Indonesia 1995 20000r o.jpg Indonesia 1995 20000r r.jpg 20,000 rupiah As 1992 note As 1992 + security foil strip J. Soedradjad Djiwandono, Heru Soepraptomo (20,000 rupiah)
J. Soedradjad Djiwandono, Boediono (50,000 rupiah)
3 letters, 6 numbers 28 August 1995 21 August 2000 23 January 1998 Imprint dates 1995–1998
Indonesia 1995 50000r o.jpg Indonesia 1995 50000r r.jpg 50,000 rupiah As 1993 note (paper) 1 June 1999

Updates to high denominations; introduction of 100,000 rupiah note[edit]

The high denomination notes, 10,000, 20,000 and 50,000 rupiah were replaced in 1998 and 1999. A new polymer 100,000 rupiah note (by then only worth about US$10) was also added, imported from Australia. These notes, which were no longer printed following the introduction of new designs in 2004–2005, are no longer legal tender since 31 December 2008, although they remain exchangeable at Bank Indonesia offices for a further 10 years.

Rupiah notes '1998', '1999' series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Printer Serial issue note series first of denomination replacement withdrawal
Indonesia 1998 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 1998 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 148 × 72 mm Brown, gray Tjut Njak Dhien Lake Segara Anak Wage Rudolf Soepratman; security thread J. Soedradjad Djiwandono, Mukhlis Rasyid (10,000 rupiah).
J. Soedradjad Djiwandono, Haryono (20,000 rupiah)
Perum Peruri 3 letters, 6 numbers 18 February 1998 '1998' 1964 18 October 2005 31 December 2008 Carries imprint date 1998–2005
Indonesia 1998 20000r o.jpg Indonesia 1998 20000r r.jpg 20,000 rupiah 152 × 72 mm Green Ki Hadjar Dewantara Children in classroom Ki Hadjar Dewantara; security thread 19 February 1998 1992 29 December 2004
Indonesia 1999 50000r o.jpg Indonesia 1999 50000r r.jpg 50,000 rupiah Gray, green WR Soepratman Indonesian flag hoist ceremony, 17 August 1997 Omar Said Tjokroaminoto; security thread Syahril Sabirin (Governor), Dono Iskandar Djojosoebroto (Deputy Governor) (1999). 1 June 1999 '1999' 1993 18 October 2005 Carries imprint dates 1999–2005
Indonesia 1999 100000r o.jpg Indonesia 1999 100000r r.jpg 100,000 rupiah 151 × 65 mm Red, brown, green, and blue Sukarno and Hatta, proclamation of independence Indonesian Parliament building, Jakrta Garuda Pancasila and the logo of Bank Indonesia ; security thread Syahril Sabirin (Governor), Iwan R. Prawiranata (Deputy Governor) Note Printing Australia; Note Printing Works Bank of Thailand 1 November 1999 First of denomination 31 December 2004 No imprint date; phosphorus number for security
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Current series[edit]

Low denomination notes, 2000 and 2001[edit]

The lower denominations, 1,000 and 5,000 rupiah were updated in 2000 and 2001. While the 5,000 rupiah note is still being printed, the 1,000 rupiah note was last issued dated 2013 and, while remaining in circulation, has largely been replaced by a coin of the same value. The previous lowest denominations, 100 and 500 rupiah, no longer exist, since the rupiah had fallen in value by 80% since the previous issue of these denominations in 1992.

Rupiah notes '2009' series, Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue note series first of denomination replacement withdrawal
1000 rupiah bill, 2000 series (2013 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 1000 rupiah 141 × 65 mm Blue and green Captain Pattimura Maitara and Tidore Islands, with fishermen on a boat Tjut Njak Meutia Anwar Nasution (Senior Deputy Governor),
Aulia Pohan (Deputy Governor)
Perum Peruri 3 letters, 6 numbers 29 November 2000 '2000' 20 February 1967 19 December 2016 Still in circulation Carries imprint date 2000–2013 and 2016
5000 rupiah bill, 2001 series (2009 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 5000 rupiah 143 × 65 mm Yellow Tuanku Imam Bonjol Songket weaver, Tanah Datar Syahril Sabirin (Governor),
Miranda S. Goeltom (Deputy Governor)
6 November 2001 '2001' 2 April 1970 Carries imprint date 2001–2016

2004/2005 high denomination note updates[edit]

The 10,000 - 100,000 notes were replaced in 2004 and 2005, with the 100,000 reverting to a locally printed paper design, as the polymer notes proved difficult for bank machines to count; all the notes were given better anti-forgery devices.

Rupiah notes '2004', '2005' series, Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
Indonesia 2005 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 2005 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 145 × 65 mm Purple Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II The traditional Limas House of Palembang, South Sumatra Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Burhanuddin Abdullah (Governor), Bun Bunan E.J. Hutapea (Deputy Governor) 3 letters, 6 numbers '2005' 18 October 2005 Imprint 2005–2008
Indonesia 2004 20000r o.jpg Indonesia 2004 20000r r.jpg 20,000 rupiah 147 × 65 mm Green Oto Iskandar di Nata Tea plantation, West Java Otto Iskandar Di Nata Burhanuddin Abdullah (Governor), Maulana Ibrahim (Deputy Governor) '2004' 29 December 2004 Imprint 2004–2008
Indonesia 2005 50000r o.jpg Indonesia 2005 50000r r.jpg 50,000 rupiah 149 × 65 mm Blue I Gusti Ngurah Rai Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, Bali I Gusti Ngurah Rai Burhanuddin Abdullah (Governor), Maman H. Soemantri (Deputy Governor) '2005' 18 October 2005 Imprint 2005–2008
Indonesia 2004 100000r o.jpg Indonesia 2004 100000r r.jpg 100,000 rupiah 151 × 65 mm Red As 1999 issue WR Supratman Burhanuddin Abdullah (Governor), Aulia Pohan (Deputy Governor) '2004' 29 December 2004 Imprint 2004–2008
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

New 2,000 rupiah note[edit]

After several delays, following an initial announcement that the 2000 rupiah note would replace the 1000 rupiah as lowest denomination, the new denomination, 2000 rupiah was finally officially released, to circulate alongside the lower denomination, in July 2009.

Rupiah notes '2009' series, Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
2000 rupiah bill, 2009 series (2014 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 2000 rupiah 141 x 65 mm Brown Antasari, Prince of Banjar Dayak traditional dance Prince Antasari Miranda Goeltom (Senior Deputy Governor)
Budi Rochadi (Deputy Governor)
'2009' 9 July 2009 Imprint 2009 - 2016

Revised 10,000 rupiah note[edit]

On 20 July 2010, the 2005 issue 10,000 rupiah note was revised, featuring the same theme but with a colour change to better distinguish it from the 100,000 rupiah note. Several changes were also made to the note's security features and devices.

Rupiah notes '2010', Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
10000 rupiah bill, 2010 revision (2014 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 10,000 rupiah 145 × 65 mm Blue-purple Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II The traditional Limas House of Palembang, South Sumatra Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Darmin Nasution (Acting Governor)
Muliaman D Hadad (Deputy Governor)
3 letters, 6 numbers '2010' 20 July 2010 Imprint 2010-2016

Revised 20,000, 50,000, and 100,000 rupiah notes[edit]

On 1 August 2011, in commemoration of Youth Pledge Day, Bank Indonesia issued newly designed banknotes denominated in 20,000-, 50,000-, and 100,000-rupiah, although they bear no special commemorative text or images. The new notes have enhanced security features including rainbow printing and new codes for the sight impaired.[13]

Rupiah notes '2011', Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
20000 rupiah bill, 2011 revision (2013 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 20,000 rupiah 147 × 65 mm Green Oto Iskandar di Nata Tea plantation, West Java Otto Iskandar Di Nata Darmin Nasution (Governor), Halim Alamsyah (Deputy Governor) Imprint 2011-2016
50000 rupiah bill, 2011 revision (2013 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 50,000 rupiah 149 × 65 mm Blue I Gusti Ngurah Rai Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, Bali I Gusti Ngurah Rai Darmin Nasution (Governor), Hartati Sarwono (Deputy Governor) Imprint 2011-2016
100000 rupiah bill, 2011 revision (2013 date), processed, obverse+reverse.jpg 100,000 rupiah 151 × 65 mm Red As 1999 issue WR Supratman Darmin Nasution (Governor), Ardhayadi Mitroatmodjo (Deputy Governor) Imprint 2011-2014

Revised 100,000 rupiah notes of 2014[edit]

Indonesia issued a revised 100,000 rupiah note on Independence Day, 17 August 2014. The banknotes have "Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia" ("The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia") written on the notes, replacing the name of its current issuer, Bank Indonesia. The new notes retain the images of its national figures, and are harder to counterfeit.[14][15] The revised series carry an imprint of TE. 2014.

2016 series[edit]

Bank Indonesia introduced a new family of banknotes on 19 December 2016 in denominations of 1,000-, 2,000-, 5,000-, 10,000-, 20,000-, 50,000 and 100,000 rupiah. This series features national heroes from the history of Indonesia.[16]

Rupiah notes '2016' series, Printed by Perum Peruri
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of Remarks
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark Signatures Serial note series issue
Indonesia 2016 1000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 1000r r.jpg 1,000 rupiah 141 × 65 mm Yellow-Green Tjut Meutia Tifa dance and Banda Neira Tjut Meutia Sri Mulyani Indrawati (Finance Minister), Agus Martowardojo (Governor) 3 letters, 6 numbers '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 2000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 2000r r.jpg 2,000 rupiah 141 × 65 mm Grey Mohammad Husni Thamrin Piring dance and Sianok Canyon Pangeran Antasari '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 5000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 5000r r.jpg 5,000 rupiah 143 × 65 mm Brown Idham Chalid Gambyong dance and Mount Bromo Tjut Meutia '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 10000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 10000r r.jpg 10,000 rupiah 145 × 65 mm Purple Frans Kaisiepo Pakarena dance and Wakatobi National Park Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 20000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 20000r r.jpg 20,000 rupiah 147 × 65 mm Green G.S.S.J. Ratulangi Gong dance and Derawan Islands Otto Iskandar Di Nata '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 50000r o.jpg Indonesia 2016 50000r r.jpg 50,000 rupiah 149 × 65 mm Blue Djuanda Kartawidjaja Legong dance and Komodo National Park I Gusti Ngurah Rai '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
Indonesia 2016 100000IDR.jpg Indonesia 2016 100000r r.jpg 100,000 rupiah 151 × 65 mm Red Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta Topeng Betawi dance and Raja Ampat Islands Wage Rudolf Supratman '2016' 19 December 2016 Imprint 2016–
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Security features[edit]

Collection of 50,000 rupiah notes clearly displaying the security threads.
  • The materials of the banknotes basically are long fibres from any kind of wood, or a mix of different types of wood. However, the preferable material is the abacá fibre, which is naturally plentiful in Indonesia and is believed to increase the durability of the banknotes. The banknotes are made with the process of heating, to create a unique type of pulp.
  • The minimum security features for naked eyes are watermarks, electrotypes and security threads with colour fibres. In addition to this, extra features may be included, such as holograms, Irisafe, iridescent stripes, clear windows, metameric windows and gold patches.
    • Watermark and electrotype are made by controlling the gap of density of the fibres which create certain images for the banknotes. This is done to raise the quality of the notes from the aesthetic view.
    • Security threads are put in the middle of the note's materials so horizontal and vertical lines are shown from top to bottom. The threads also can be made with many variations such as the materials, size, colour and design.
  • The 2010 10,000 rupiah, 2011 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 rupiah introduced several new security features: use of EURion constellation rings, rainbow printing designed to change colour when viewed from different angles, and tactile features for blind people and those with visual difficulties to recognise the different denominations stated on the notes.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, p.877.
  2. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, pp. 878-886.
  3. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, p. 697.
  4. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, p. 699.
  5. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, pp. 699-700.
  6. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, pp. 700-701.
  7. ^ BI.go.id
  8. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, p. 701.
  9. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, pp. 885-886.
  10. ^ Cuhaj, 2010, p. 701.
  11. ^ BI.go.id Archived 29 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ BI.go.id
  13. ^ Indonesia new 20,000-, 50,000-, and 100,000-rupiah notes confirmed BanknoteNews.com. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  14. ^ BI Planning to Issue New Banknotes on August 2014 Tempo (www.tempo.co). 19 June 2014. Retrieved on 2 July 2014.
  15. ^ Indonesia new 100,000-rupiah note reported BanknoteNews.com. 19 August 2014. Retrieved on 19 August 2014.
  16. ^ Indonesia unveils new banknote family Banknote News (banknotenews.com). 20 December 2016. Retrieved on 21 December 2016.

References[edit]

  • Cuhaj, George S. (2010). Paper Money General Issues 1368-1960 (13 ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-4402-1293-2.