Banks Peninsula

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Map of New Zealand showing the location of Banks Peninsula
Map of New Zealand showing the location of Banks Peninsula
Banks Peninsula
The location of Banks Peninsula in the South Island
Banks Peninsula, with Lyttelton Harbour on the right and Lake Ellesmere / Te Waihora in the background
European ships, possibly French, in Akaroa in the early 19th century
Akaroa Harbour, Banks Peninsula with storm clouds overhead. (December 2020)

Banks Peninsula is a peninsula of volcanic origin on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an area of approximately 1,150 square kilometres (440 sq mi) and encompasses two large harbours and many smaller bays and coves. The South Island's largest city, Christchurch, is immediately north of the peninsula.

Geology[edit]

Banks Peninsula has a roughly circular shape, with many bays and two deep harbours.
Model of Banks Peninsula, showing the mountainous nature otherwise atypical of the Christchurch area.

Banks Peninsula forms the most prominent volcanic feature of the South Island, similar to — but more than twice as large as — the older Dunedin volcano (Otago Peninsula and Harbour) 350 kilometres (220 mi) to the southwest. Geologically, the peninsula comprises the eroded remnants of two large composite shield volcanoes[clarification needed] (Lyttelton formed first, then Akaroa), and the smaller Mt Herbert Volcanic Group.[1] These formed due to intraplate volcanism between approximately eleven and eight million years ago (Miocene) on a continental crust. The peninsula formed as offshore islands, with the volcanoes reaching to about 1,500 m above sea level. Two dominant craters formed Lyttelton and Akaroa Harbours.

The Canterbury Plains formed from the erosion of the Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana (an extensive and high mountain range caused by the meeting of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates) and from the alluvial fans created by large braided rivers. These plains reach their widest point where they meet the hilly sub-region of Banks Peninsula. A layer of loess, a rather unstable fine silt deposited by the foehn winds which bluster across the plains, covers the northern and western flanks of the peninsula. The portion of crater rim lying between Lyttelton Harbour and Christchurch city forms the Port Hills.

Prehistory[edit]

According to tradition the first Māori settlers of the area now known as Banks Peninsula were the Waitaha led by their founding ancestor Rākaihautū. The Māori name for the peninsula is Te Pataka o Rākaihautū (The Storehouse of Rākaihautū) in recognition of his deeds and the abundance of mahinga kai (foods of the forests, sea, rivers and skies). They were followed by Kāti Māmoe, and then the Ngāi Tahu hapu Ngāi Tūhaitara, who arrived in the 1730s.[2]

History[edit]

The first European sighting of the peninsula was on 17 February 1770 by Captain James Cook and crew during Cook's first circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook described the land as "of a circular figure ... of a very broken uneven surface and [having] more the appearance of barrenness than fertility."[3] Deceived by the outline of higher land behind the peninsula, Cook mistook it for an island and named it "Banks Island" in honour of Endeavour's botanist, Joseph Banks.[3] Distracted by a phantom sighting of land to the southeast, Cook then ordered Endeavour away to the south without exploring more closely.

In 1809 Captain Samuel Chase, in the sealer Pegasus, corrected Cook's charts by determining that "Banks Island" was in fact a peninsula.[4] His first officer, William Stewart, charted this area of the coast.[5] Pegasus Bay is named after their vessel.[6]

In 1830 the Māori settlement at Takapūneke was sacked, and the local Ngāi Tahu chief, Tama-i-hara-nui captured, by Ngāti Toa chief, Te Rauparaha, with the assistance of the captain of the British brig Elizabeth, John Stewart.[7] It was partly as a result of this massacre that the British authorities sent James Busby, as official British Resident, to New Zealand in 1832.[7]

During the 1830s several European whaling bases were established on Banks Peninsula. In 1838 Captain Jean Langlois, a French whaler, decided that Akaroa would make a good settlement to service whaling ships and "purchased" the peninsula in a dubious land deal with the local Māori.[8] He returned to France, floated the Nanto-Bordelaise company, and set sail for New Zealand with a group of French and German families aboard the ship Comte de Paris, with the intention of forming a French colony on a French South Island of New Zealand. By the time Langlois and his colonists arrived at Banks Peninsula in August 1840, many Māori had already signed the Treaty of Waitangi (the signatories including two chiefs at Akaroa in May) and New Zealand's first British Governor, William Hobson, had declared British sovereignty over the whole of New Zealand. On hearing of the French plan for colonisation, Hobson quickly dispatched HMS Britomart from the Bay of Islands to Akaroa with police magistrates on board.[9] While Langlois and his colonists sheltered from unfavourable winds at Pigeon Bay on the other side of the peninsula, the British raised their flag at Greens Point between Akaroa and Takapūneke and courts of law convened to assert British sovereignty over the South Island.[citation needed]

During the 1840s, the peninsula and the Canterbury Plains beyond were considered for colonisation, but it took until 1848 for the Canterbury Association chief surveyor, Captain Joseph Thomas to survey the surrounding plains and prepare for the arrival of the Canterbury pilgrims in December 1850.[citation needed]

From the 1850s, Lyttelton and then Christchurch outgrew Akaroa, which is now a holiday resort and cruise ship destination and has retained many French influences as well as many of its nineteenth-century buildings.[citation needed]

Historic harbour defence works dating from 1874 onwards survive at Ripapa Island in Lyttelton Harbour, and at Awaroa / Godley Head.[citation needed]

In 2011, the Christchurch earthquakes of Feb and June had their epicentres in the Port Hills, significantly affecting communities.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Fisheries[edit]

Several sites off the coast of the peninsula serve for mariculture cultivation of mussels.

Farming[edit]

Farming has been a traditional industry on Banks Peninsula.

Tourism[edit]

Following the major earthquakes of 2010 and 2011, which affected Christchurch and Lyttelton (the harbour serving Christchurch), cruise ships were diverted to Akaroa Harbour.

Summit Road[edit]

The Summit Road forms a notable feature on the peninsula. The road included portions of the early tracks that were built to move cattle around (e.g. the 15 mile track from Akaroa to Pigeon Bay completed in 1844). Much of the construction was completed in the 1880s with more work carried out in the 1930s,[10] the road is in two[dubious ] sections (both of which have views of the area, as well as parks, walkways, and other recreational features):

  • one section runs along the crest of the Port Hills from Godley Head (the northern head of Lyttelton Harbour) to Gebbies Pass at the head of the harbour.
  • the other section runs around the crater rim of Akaroa Harbour from 'Hill Top' – the junction with the main Christchurch-Akaroa highway – to a point above Akaroa.

Conservation[edit]

Estimates suggest that native forest once covered 98% of the peninsula. However, Māori and European settlers successively denuded the forest cover and less than 2% remains today, although some reforestation has started. European settlers have planted many English trees, notably walnut.

Hinewai Reserve[edit]

Hinewai Reserve, a private nature reserve, has been established on the peninsula to allow for native forest to regenerate on land that was once farmed. It was established in 1987 and now spans 1250 hectares of native bush.[11] it has 40 km of walking tracks through the native bush.[12]

Other protected areas on the peninsula include Ellangowan Scenic Reserve (3.14 km²), designated in 1973, Mount Herbert Scenic Reserve (2.42 km²), designated in 1980, Wairewa Stewardship Area (6.51 km²), designated in 1987, and Palm Gully Scenic Reserve (1.11 km²), designated in 1989.[13]

Marine Reserves[edit]

A large Marine Mammal Sanctuary, mainly restricting set-net fishing, surrounds much of the peninsula. This has the principal aim of the conservation of Hector's dolphin, the smallest of all dolphin species. Eco-tourism based around the playful dolphins has now become a significant industry in Akaroa.

The relatively small Pohatu Marine Reserve centres on Flea Bay on the south-east side of the peninsula and the larger Akaroa Marine Reserve lies at the entrance to the Akaroa Harbour.

Rod Donald Banks Peninsula Trust[edit]

The Rod Donald Banks Peninsula Trust aims to improve public walking and biking access and enhance biodiversity on Banks Peninsula.

They (in 2020) are raising money to purchase 500ha of land including the summits of Mt Herbert/ Te Ahu Patiki and Mt Bradley with the intention to set up a conservation park protecting and restoring native biodiversity.[11] The land is currently farmland but over time the trust intends to return it to native bush. In May 2021, the money was raised to purchase the land.[14] The Rod Donald Banks Peninsula Trust plans to upgrade fencing and remove feral grazing animals.[15]

The Rod Donald Banks Peninsula Trust are also involved in developing Te Ara Pātaka, also known as the Summit Walkway. They have also been involved in providing tramping huts (Rod Donald Hut and Otamahua Hut on Otamahua / Quail Island) for the public to access.[16]

Banks Peninsula Conservation Trust[edit]

The Banks Peninsula Conservation Trust was formed in 2001. It works to conserve and enhance the biodiversity and encourage sustainable land management on Banks Peninsula. Work being undertaken in 2020 included work to protect moreporks and tuis. They also work with landowners to legally protect important biodiversity and landscape values in perpetuity through covenants.[17]

Towns[edit]

Akaroa[edit]

Akaroa is a small town on the edge of the Akaroa harbour.

Little River[edit]

Little River is a small town which sits at the end of the Little River Rail Trail. There are several art galleries, a camp ground, rugby club and primary school there. The area is known to Māori as[according to whom?] Wairewa.[clarification needed]

Wainui[edit]

Wainui is a settlement of mostly holiday houses on the Akaroa harbour.

Wainui can mean 'big water' or 'big river' or 'big bay'. Wainui was once home to a large Ngati Mamoe settlement.[18] Wainui has important associations for Ngāi Tahu as the bay was then claimed by Te Ruahikihiki for Ngai Tahu. He made his claim when he landed at Wainui and dug for fern roots there. (This was one of the many traditional ways to claim land). In Ngāi Tahu legend, Mt Bossu which lies behind Wainui, is the resting place of the kō (digging stick) of Rakaihautū. He used this digging stick to dig out many of the South Island lakes.[19]

In 1856, the Wainui Maori Reserve was established and set aside 432 acres for the Ngai Tarewa Hapu of Ngai Tahu. In the 1857 census, there was 40 people living there but by 1861, this had declined to 20 people.[18]

A post office was established in 1874, telephone office in 1875, school in 1885 and Presbyterian Church in 1911.[18]

Duvauchelle[edit]

Duvauchelle is a small town which sits at the head of the Akaroa harbour.

Bays[edit]

The inland valleys of the Port Hills known as McCormacks Bay and Moncks Bay are bays of the Avon Heathcote Estuary, rather that coastal bays of Banks Peninsula. Working around the coast from north to south one encounters:

Sumner Bay[edit]

Sumner Bay from Rapanui to Scarborough

Sumner Bay marks the coastal transition from the long sandy beach of Pegasus Bay and the lowlands of the Canterbury Plains to the rocky cliffs of Banks Peninsula. While Sumner is politically and socially considered a suburb of Christchurch, the high Clifton cliffs and the post of volcanic rock on the beach, known locally as Rapanui, or Shag Rock, mark the place where the coastal plains meet the peninsula.

Taylors Mistake[edit]

Taylors Mistake (2021)

Te Onepoto / Taylors Mistake is a Christchurch swimming beach with a number of holiday houses lining the bay. Originally, it was known as Vincent's Bay as a result of a Captain John Vincent wrecking his schooner in the bay. It became known as Taylors Mistake in 1853 after another ship wreck in the bay. This time, a Captain Samuel Taylor wrecked his cutter named Hawk at night time. Taylors Mistake is known as Te One-poto in Māori.[20]

Lyttelton Harbour[edit]

Lyttelton Harbour is a harbour within Banks Peninsula. Within the harbour lies Quail Island and Ripapa Island.

Lyttelton Harbour and Quail Island (2016)

Port Levy[edit]

Port Levy is the most north facing of the bays on Banks Peninsula. It has been visited by Europeans since the 1820s and known as Koukourarata in Maori.[21][22]

Port Levy (December 2020)

Pigeon Bay[edit]

Pigeon Bay (December 2020)

Pigeon Bay has a walking track which follows the eastern side of Pigeon bay out to the head of the bay. It takes about 4 or 5 hours to walk there and back. It has spectacular coastal views.[23] There are a number of holiday homes in Pigeon bay as well as a yacht club. Pigeon Bay most likely gained its name from early whalers seeing the large number of pigeons (kereru) in the forests of Pigeon Bay. The first reference to Pigeon Bay was in 1836.[24]

Captain Langlois celebrated his "purchase" of Banks Peninsula on 9 August 1840 by raising the French flag and conducting a 101 gun salute at Pigeon Bay.[24]

The HMS Britomart visited Pigeon Bay towards the end of August 1840 conducting the first hydrographic survey and reinforcing British sovereignty of Banks Peninsula.[24]

Little Akaloa[edit]

The turnoff to Little Akaloa (December 2020)

Little Akaloa is named "little" to distinguish it from Akaroa. It was spelt Hakaroa until 1864.[25] Feral goats have been a problem in Little Akaloa but a successful cull of them in early 2019 is helping eradication efforts on Banks Peninsula.[26]

A moonfish (150 cm long) washed up on the beach at Little Akaloa in 2013. They are more commonly found further north.[27]

Farming around Little Akaloa is a mainstay of the economy.[28] with accommodation providers being a second.[29] Camping at the Little Akaloa Domain is popular in summer. The beach has a boat ramp.

Okains Bay[edit]

Okains Bay has a holiday camp ground and a large sandy beach.

A light aircraft lands on the beach at Okains Bay

Le Bons Bay[edit]

Le Bons Bay has a large often empty beach. There is a small settlement of holiday houses. It is surrounded by rolling hills. A river empties into the sea where New Zealand Fur Seals often frolic.[30] First known as Bones bay in 1845, it became known as Le Bons Bay. It is suggested that this was either that a French settler named Le Bon lived there, or that early French settlers called it "The good bay" or that it is a corruption of Bones bay.[31]

John Cuff and William Cudden established a timber mill in Le Bons Bay in 1857. By 1878, the population of Le Bons Bay reached 237. At this stage, the timber had all been milled and the timber mill was moved to Hickory Bay until 1886.[31]

Hickory Bay[edit]

Hickory Bay is known as having a beach that provides good surfing.[32][33] It is east facing. It is known in Maori as Waikerikikari, the Bay of Angry Waters, and was never permanently settled by the Māori.[34]

The Ellangowan Scenic Reserve walk is located just below the Summit road in Hickory Bay.

Goughs Bay[edit]

Goughs Bay was home to a pā in the 1820s with around 100 people living there. The residents were fugitives from the Kai Huānga feud.[35] In 1830 the pā was attacked by Te Maiharanui and again in 1832 by Te Rauparaha’s raiding parties.[35]

Goughs Bay is most likely named after a whaler, Walter Gough, who was put ashore at the bay in 1836 after an attempted mutiny on the whaling barque Australian. He lived there in the Maori community for many years. Goughs Bay was first referenced in 1858 when Elie Bauriaud, who originally arrived on the Comte de Paris, purchased land there.[18]

Goughs Bay is a well known surfing location and has an exposed beach break that provides consistent surf through out the year.[36]

In 2021, funding was put aside to protect and fence the upper Goughs Bay stream catchment. The aims were to exclude stock, allow native bush to regenerate and improve the water quality. Matai and totara trees will be protected as well as a range of native animals.[37]

Otanerito Bay[edit]

Home to a Ngati Mamoe pā (known as Parakākāriki) and an ancient Maori burial ground, Otanerito Bay possibly means "the place of Tane, the fertile one". Home to the Hinewai reserve since 1987. Otanerito Bay also formed part of the Banks Track until 2017.[18][38]

Pohatu / Flea Bay[edit]

Pohatu / Flea Bay has large colonies of penguins and seals living there,[39] It is home to the Pohatu Marine Reserve.[40] The Marine Reserve is home to many fish species including triplefins, lumpfish, moki, butterfish, spotties, banded wrasse, blue cod, leather jackets, lobsters, paua and rockfish.[41]

Akaroa Harbour[edit]

Akaroa Harbour (December 2020)

Akaroa Harbour is one of the two large harbours on Banks Peninsula. The other being Lyttelton Harbour.

Peraki Bay[edit]

Peraki Bay is one of the bigger bays on the south west coast of Banks Peninsula. Multiple spellings of Peraki have existed. It was home to a whaling station in the 1830s and 1840s.[42][43]

Tumbledown Bay[edit]

Tumbledown Bay is considered one of the best beaches near Christchurch. Most people are put off by the drive to get there, hence it is usually very quiet.[30] Tumbledown bay has supported a large Maori population in pre-European times. Numerous archaeological digs have uncovered artefacts including tool fragments, fish hooks, oven stones and seal, dog, tuatara, penguin, kiwi, kereru and moa remains in the middens.[44]

Tumbledown bay, was named as a result of the actions of Billy Simpson, who working on sailing boats in the area as early as 1836. He was instructed to collect a case of alcohol from a local whaling station. On his return, he sat down in the bay and had a drink or two. On getting up he succeeded in allowing all the bottles to tumble down the hillside and break hence the naming.[44] The earliest reference to the name of Tumbledown bay occurred in 1842.[45]

There are two small islets at the entrance of the bay named Jachin and Boaz (after the pillars to the Temple of Solomon). These were thought to have been named by Bishop George Selwyn.[44]

In 1911, the Bell Flower (a 98 ton schooner) was wrecked on the cliffs next to Tumbledown Bay.[44]

Tumbledown Bay

Te Oka Bay[edit]

Te Oka Bay (left) and Tumbledown Bay (right)

Magnet Bay[edit]

Surf at Magnet Bay

Magnet Bay is known as a spot to go surfing. It has an exposed reef and point break. These provide reasonably consistent surf all year around.[46] The bay is known in Māori as Makara and a pa existed in the bay at one stage. Magnet Bay is named after the Magnet, a 148-ton barque that was shipwrecked in the bay on 3 September 1844. It was sailing under the charge of a Captain Lewis who was travelling from Wellington to Waikouaiti. One person lost their life in the shipwreck.[47]

Mountains[edit]

Banks Peninsula includes numerous hills or mountains. Named peaks over 700 metres high include:

Mount Herbert / Te Ahu Pātiki is the tallest point on Banks Peninsula at 919m[48]

Mt Bradley, the second tallest peak on Banks Peninsula at 855m was named after Reginald Robert Bradley who farmed at Charteris Bay from 1858 and also was the vicar of the Parish of Governors Bay and Purau. His oldest son, Orton Bradley, took over the farm which became Orton Bradley Park after his death in 1943.[18]

Mt Sinclair at 841m was named after Captain Francis Sinclair who lived at Holmes Bay. He drowned in 1846 when sailing from Banks Peninsula to Wellington in his schooner Jessie Millar. In Maori, Mt Sinclair is known as Tarawera.[18]

Saddle Hill (841m) befits its descriptive name. The French settlers named it Pitou Comete and the Maori named it Puwaitaha or Ka Mokaikai. Near the summit is a spring known as Te Wai-o-hine-puariari[18][49]

Mt Fitzgerald (826m) overlooks Holmes Bay. It is named after William Fitzgerald who arrived at Pigeon Bay in 1861 and taught at the Pigeon Bay Academy until 1869.[18]

Flag Peak 809m

Stony Bay Peak 806m

Brasenose 785m

View Hill 762m

High Bare Peak 756m

Lavericks (755m) and Lavericks Bay could have been named after several people. George Laverick was an early settler in the area. It could also have also been named after Captain Laverick of the schooner Lookin which supplied provisions to Akaroa and the Peninsula in the early 1840s. A third explanation is that it was named after Charlie Laveroux, a Frenchman who ended up marooned at the bay by bad weather during a hunting trip. The Maori name for the peak is Otepatotu.[18]

Duvauchelle Peak (738m) and the town of Duvauchelle were named after the Duvauchelle brothers who arrived in 1840 at Akaroa. They ran a store in Akaroa before departing for South Pacific Islands in 1843.[18]

Mt Evans (703m) was named at some point between 1849 and 1850 after First Lieutenant Frederick Evans of the survey paddleship HMS Acheron.[18]

Walking tracks[edit]

Hilltop Tavern, Banks Peninsula (1973)

Banks Track[edit]

The Banks Track is a 31 km circular route which starts in Akaroa and visits Flea Bay, Stony Bay and Hinewai Reserve.[50]

Te Ara Pataki (Summit walkway)[edit]

Sign of the Packhorse Hut (2020)
Rod Donald Hut (December 2020)

The Te Ara Pataki (Summit walkway) is a three day tramp that can start at multiple places. The longest routes start either at Gebbies Pass or Kaituna Valley and go to Sign of the Packhorse Hut on the first day. On the second day, trampers follow a track crossing just below Mount Bradley (855m) and then ascend Mount Herbert (919m) before descending to the Port Levy Saddle. From here it is a short walk to the second overnight stay at Rod Donald Hut. The third day takes in Mount Fitzgerald (826m) and Mount Sinclair (841m). The track then descends past a 2000 year old giant tōtara in Montgomery Park Scenic Reserve before finishing near the Hilltop tavern on state highway 75.[51][52]

Le Race[edit]

The annual 100 km road cycling race from Cathedral Square in Christchurch to Akaroa traverses the Banks Peninsula. The course climbs up Dyers Pass road, follows the summit road along the Port Hills before descending Gebbies Pass to State highway 75. It then ascends to Hilltop before turning off and following the summit road, climbing Duvauchelle peak and descending Long Bays Road into Akaroa. It has been won by three times by Mark Bailey and Michael Vink, twice by Jeremy Yates and Daniel Whitehouse. Hayden Roulston (2016) and Brian Fowler (2005 ) have also won it.[53] In the women's competition Jo Buick, Reta Trotman and Sharlotte Lucas have all won it three times.[53]

Population[edit]

The permanent population of Banks Peninsula is about 7600 people.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hampton, S.J.; J.W. Cole (March 2009). "Lyttelton Volcano, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand: Primary volcanic landforms and eruptive centre identification". Geomorphology. 104 (3–4): 284–298. Bibcode:2009Geomo.104..284H. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.09.005.
  2. ^ Tau, Te Maire (1 March 2017). "Ngāi Tahu – The move south". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b Beaglehole, J.C., ed. (1968). The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, vol. I:The Voyage of the Endeavour 1768–1771. Cambridge University Press. pp. 253–257. OCLC 223185477.
  4. ^ Entwisle, Peter (2005). Taka: a vignette life of William Tucker 1784–1817. Port Daniel Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-473-10098-3. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  5. ^ Marshall, Brian, ed. (2005). "From Sextants to Satellites: A Cartographic Time Line for New Zealand" (PDF). New Zealand Map Society Journal. The New Zealand Map Society (18): 9. ISSN 0113-2458. Retrieved 12 February 2021. William Stewart, on board the Pegasus, surveys ... and to affirm that Banks Peninsula is a peninsula and not an island as Cook had suggested.
  6. ^ McNab, Robert (1909). "CHAPTER XIII. — Stewart Island Exploited, 1809 and 1810". Murihiku: A History of the South Island of New Zealand and the Islands Adjacent and Lying to the South, from 1642 to 1835. Wellington: Whitcombe & Tombs Limited. p. 160. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  7. ^ a b "A frontier of chaos? Page 5 – Captain Stewart and the Elizabeth". New Zealand History. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  8. ^ "French colonists in Akaroa, South Island". New Zealand in History. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  9. ^ Andersen, Johannes C. "The Mission of the Britomart at Akaroa, in August, 1840" (PDF). The New Zealand Institute. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  10. ^ Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. pp. 260–262.
  11. ^ a b "Banks Peninsula to become home to new 500ha conservation park". Stuff. 29 October 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  12. ^ "The kaitiaki who's spent over 30 years reforesting a Banks Peninsula reserve". Stuff. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  13. ^ UNEP-WCMC (2020). Protected Area Profile for New Zealand from the World Database of Protected Areas, October 2020. Available at: www.protectedplanet.net
  14. ^ "We bought a hill! Fundraising target smashed – but there is still time to help". Stuff. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  15. ^ "We bought a hill! Fundraising target smashed – but there is still time to help". Stuff. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  16. ^ "Projects Landing Page « Rod Donald Trust". Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Covenants". www.bpct.org.nz. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
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  19. ^ "Wainui". my.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  20. ^ Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. p. 277.
  21. ^ "'Heaven' in Koukourārata". Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  22. ^ "The Red Rocks Of Te Ngarara – Port Levy". Discover The Delights Of Peeling Back History. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  23. ^ "Pigeon Bay Walkway". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  24. ^ a b c Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. pp. 206–207.
  25. ^ "Little Akaloa | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  26. ^ "Wild goats on Canterbury's Banks Peninsula in the crosshairs". Stuff. 25 October 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  27. ^ "'Huge' fish attracts attention in Little Akaloa". Stuff. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  28. ^ "Business and farming combine in environmental care". Stuff. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  29. ^ "Living large in a tiny home in Little Akaloa". Stuff. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  30. ^ a b "Christchurch's hidden beach gems, in time for summer". Stuff. 13 December 2018. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  31. ^ a b Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. pp. 134–135.
  32. ^ "Hickory Bay | Surf Seeker | NZ Surf Guide". surfseeker.nz. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  33. ^ "Banks Peninsula – Hickory Bay Surf Forecast and Surf Reports (Canterbury, New Zealand)". www.surf-forecast.com. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  34. ^ "Waikerikikari — Hickory Bay". my.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Ōkururu / Ōkaruru — Goughs Bay". my.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  36. ^ "Banks Peninsula – Gough Bay Surf Forecast and Surf Reports (Canterbury, New Zealand)". www.surf-forecast.com. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  37. ^ "Goughs Bay fantastic for conservation". Environment Canterbury. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  38. ^ "Ōtanerito Bay (Parakākāriki)". my.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  39. ^ "Banks Track: Is this New Zealand's best-kept walking secret?". NZ Herald. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  40. ^ "Pohatu Marine Reserve". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  41. ^ "Pohatu Marine Reserve | Christchurch – Canterbury, New Zealand". www.newzealand.com. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  42. ^ "Piraki (Peraki) Bay". my.christchurchcitylibraries.com. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  43. ^ "Peraki Bay". Discover The Delights Of Peeling Back History. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  44. ^ a b c d Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. p. 284.
  45. ^ Anderssen, Johannes (1927). Place Names of Banks Peninsula. Christchurch, New Zealand. p. 222.
  46. ^ "Banks Peninsula – Magnet Bay Surf Forecast and Surf Reports (Canterbury, New Zealand)". www.surf-forecast.com. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  47. ^ Ogilvie, Gordon (2017). Place Names of Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills. New Zealand: Canterbury University Press. p. 154.
  48. ^ "Banks Peninsula tramping tracks". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  49. ^ Andersen, Johannes (1927). Place Names of Banks Peninsula. New Zealand. p. 192.
  50. ^ "Banks Track – Banks Peninsula, NZ – An Eco-Tourism Experience". Banks Peninsula Track Limited. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  51. ^ "Greater Banks Peninsula Walks". Banks Peninsula Walks. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  52. ^ "Te Ara Pātaka/Summit Walkway". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  53. ^ a b Events, Tailwind. "Hall of Fame". Le Race. Retrieved 21 December 2020.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 43°45′00″S 172°49′59″E / 43.750°S 172.833°E / -43.750; 172.833