In Irish and British civil engineering, a banksman is the person who directs the operation of a crane or larger vehicle from the point near where loads are attached and detached. The term 'dogman' may be used in Australia and New Zealand, while 'spotter' is the more common term in United States.
Offshore & Oil and Gas
The general term for a professional banksman offshore is a ‘rigger’ or deck crew. A team of riggers will manage lifting operations. There are specific methods, pieces of equipment, and safety protocol for many different types of loads. Offshore, on rigs or vessels, most equipment and materials will arrive on location, transferred by boat utilising a crane, therefore banksmen play an important role in the marine and offshore industries. 
Crane or large vehicle drivers do not always have clear visibility of the loading area, especially when tower cranes are employed. The banksman is in charge of the crane movements from the point of loading and unloading. They may use a system of hand signals or a radio link.
A banksman may also be responsible for directing the movement and loading/unloading of lorries, or directing the movement of other plant. A banksman may also control the movements of an excavator, by carefully monitoring the bucket for any obstructions or underground services.
In many countries, banksmen are required to meet a regulated standard, such as laid down by the UK's Health and Safety Executive; in the UK over a quarter of vehicle deaths at work are due to reversing vehicles.
- 1825: the man stationed at the bank or top of a pit who unhooked and emptied the laden corves  into carts or wagons, from a frame or stage.
- 1849: the man who drew the full tubs from the cages at the surface, when wound up by the engine, and replaced them with empty ones; he also put the full tubs to the weighing machine, and thence to the skreens, upon which he teemed the coals. It was also his duty to keep an account of the quantity of coals and stones drawn each day.
- 1894: a person who controlled the unloading and loading of the cage at the pit top, and signalled the descent of the workmen.
- Scott, John (1992). Dictionary Of Civil Engineering (3rd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 401.
- "Banksmen and signallers". Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "Vehicles at work - Reversing". www.hse.gov.uk. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- RoSPA's Safety course material
- Health and Safety executive Banksman's Signals video
- Durham Mining Museum Historic use in coal industry.
-  Cornish Tin Mining Terms.
- The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) The UK Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996, PART IX Minimum requirements for hand signals.