Bantawa language

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Bantawa
RegionNepal Sikkim Darjeeling and Kalimpong in India
Native speakers
170,000 (2001 & 2011 censuses)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3bap – inclusive code
Individual code:
wly – Waling
Glottologbant1280[2]

The Bantawa Language (also referred to as An Yüng, Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirawa Yüng),[3] is an endangered Kiranti language spoken in the eastern Himalayan hills of eastern Nepal by Bantawa ethnic groups. They use a syllabic alphabet system known as Kirat Rai.[4] Among the Kirat Rai people of Eastern Nepal, Bantawa is the largest language spoken.[5] According to the 2001 National Census, at least 1.63% of the Nepal's total population speaks Bantawa. About 370,000 speak Bantawa Language mostly in eastern hilly regions of Nepal (2001). Although Bantawa Rai is among the more widely used variety of the Bantawa language, it falls in the below-100,000 category of endangered languages.[6] It is experiencing language shift to Nepali, especially in the northern region.[7]

Bantawa is spoken in subject-object-verb order, and has no noun classes or genders.[8]

Dialects[edit]

Most of the Bantawa clan are now settled in Bhojpur, Dharan, Illam, and Dhankuta. Recent figures show most of them are settled in Dharan. Bantawa is spoken in the following districts of Nepal (Ethnologue).

Dialects are as follows (Ethnologue).

  • Northern Bantawa (Dilpali)
Northern subdialects: Mangpahang, Raipachha, Awaichha, Rungchenbung and Yangma
  • Southern Bantawa (Chewali, Okhreli, Hatuwali, Hangkhim)
Southern and Northern Bantawa, similar, could be united as 'Intermediate Bantawa'.
  • Eastern Bantawa (Dhankuta)
Eastern dialect is the most divergent. It is most closely related to Dungmali language, though also related to Puma language, Sampang language, and Chhintange language.
  • Western Bantawa (Amchoke, Amchauke)
Amchaucke dialects: Sorung, Saharaja, Lulam, and Sukita
  • Wana Bantawa (also called simply Bantawa), spoken by the Bantawa subcaste. The Amchoke dialect is spoken in the Limbu area, especially in Ilam district.

Bantawa is also considered as a superior clan in the Kiranti family. Bantawa is also reportedly in use as a lingua franca among Rai minorities in Himalayan India and Bhutan. Meanwhile, the language is just being introduced in a few schools at the primary level (Year 1- Year 5) [9] using Devanagari script.[10] [11]

The extinct Waling language attested from the late 19th century may have been a variety of Bantawa, or a closely related language, if not the Hatuwali dialect the Waling people speak today.

Bantawa Language[edit]

Wasewa - Bihanko namaste- good morning, Khosewa - dinko namaste good afternoon Khasewa - sanjhko namaste - good evening
Bantawa Nepali English
Aalange Sewa अालांङे सेवा नमस्ते Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening,

Aalangne = Dhanyabad - Thanks

Koke काेक भात Food, Rice
Khan खान तरकारी Curry
Manachi मनाची मानिसहरू People
Diwa दिवा हजुरबुवा Grandfather
Dima दिमा हजुरअामा Grandmother
Aapa अापा वुवा Father
Aama अामा अामा Mother
Nana नाना दिदी Elder-sister
Nichha Mechhachha निछा मेछाछा बहिनी Little-Sister= Nichham
Dewa देवा बडा बुवा Uncle elder to dad
Dema देमा बडी अामा Aunt Elder to Dad/ Dad's elder sister-in-law
Banga बाङा काका Uncle younger to Dad
Chhana छना काकी Younger uncle wife
Aabuwa अाबुवा दाजु Elder Brother= Buwa
Nichha Duwachha निछा दुवाछा भाइ Younger Brother= Nichhap
Nichha O Chhachi निछा अाे छाची भाइ बहिनीका छाेरा छाेरी Brothers children Son/ Daughter
Aachhuwa अाछुवा मामा Mother's Brother= Chhuwa
Phepwa फेप्वा पैसा Money= Phekwa, Yaang
Teet तित लुगा Cloths
Chawa चावा पानी Water= Chakwa
Me मि अागाे Fire
Pitho पिठाे पिठाे Flour= Thuli
Sampicha साम्पिचा काेदाे Millet
Khawat/Wachhon खावात, वाछाेन जार Locally brew wine
Hengmawa हेङमावा रक्सी Rum/Whisky/Brandy
Saa सा मासु Meat
Fupu फुपु फुपु Aunt (Father's sister)= Chhana
Diwa/Dima दिवा, दिमा हजुरबुवा, हजुरअामा Grandmother (Father's mother)
Oyatni अाेयात्नी यहा Here
Moyatni माेयात्नी त्यहा There
Khadatni खादात्नी कहाँ Where
Demni देम्नी कति How
Monni माेन्नी यति मात्र This much
Chama चामा खानु Eat
Tacha तचा खाने हाे? Eat ?
Koke Tacha? काेक तचा ? खाना खाने हाे ? Do you eat rice?

Words Corrected by: Kiran Bantawa (Mangphang-Lokchwawa)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bantawa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Waling at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bantawic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  4. ^ "Bantawa language and Kirat Rai alphabet". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  5. ^ "Language use among the Bantawa: Homogeneity, education, access, and relative prestige". SIL International. 2013-01-28. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  6. ^ "Bantawa: observations of a threatened language". robbie.eugraph.com. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  7. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  8. ^ "Bantawa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  9. ^ Jadranka Gvozdanovic. "Morphosyntactic transparency in Bantawa" (.pdf). Himalayan Languages: Past and Present, by Anju Saxena. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  10. ^ "The Bantawa Rai of Nepal". Archived from the original on 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  11. ^ "Bantawa, A language of Nepal". Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.

Further reading[edit]

  • Winter, Werner. 2003. A Bantawa Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics - Documentation 20. Mouten de Gruyter: New York.
  • Doornenbal, Marius. 2009. A Grammar of Bantawa. Leiden University PhD Thesis. LOT Dissertation Series: Utrecht.
  • Nishi 西, Yoshio 義郎 (1992b). "バンタワ語" [Bantawa, Bantāwā, Bāntāwā, Bantava; Bontawa, Bontāwā; Buntāwā, Bāntuwā]. In 亀井 Kamei, 孝 Takashi; 河野 Kōno, 六郎 Rokurō; 千野 Chino, 栄一 Eichi (eds.). 三省堂言語学大辞典 The Sanseido Encyclopaedia of Linguistics (in Japanese). 3. Tokyo: 三省堂 Sanseido Press. pp. 380a–391a. ISBN 4385152179.

External links[edit]