Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah

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Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) is an Arab tribe in Iraq. They are Adnanite Arabs, powerful and one of the most famous tribes. They are widely respected by many Arab tribes, respected by Shia Muslims because they have buried the body of Husayn ibn Ali, his family (Ahl al-Bayt) and companions with the help of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the son of Husayn, and many martyrs from the Battle of Karbala are from the tribe. Today, many members of the tribe live in the Iraqi cities of Basra, Najaf, Kufa, Karbala, Nasiriyah, Amarah, Kut, Hillah, Diyala and Baghdad. There are people from the Bani Assad in Kuwait, Lebanon, Yemen and even India who have all migrated from Iraq. There are also members of Bani Assad tribe in Ahvaz in the Khuzestan of Iran located with neighboring tribes of Banu Tamim, Bani Malik, Banu Kaab and other notable Arab tribes.

Lineage[edit]

The Bani Assad are the patrilineal lineage originating from a man named Asad ben (meaning: son of) Khuzaimah ben Mudrikah ben Elias ben Mudar ben Nezar ben Ma'ad ben Adnan ...ben Nebaioth ben Ismâ`îl (Ishmael) ben Ibrahim (Abraham).

The Asad tribe that exists today are from Mudar (Mudarites), said to be cousins of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad who share with them the same ancestor Khuzaimah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar.[1]

Legacy of the Banu Asad[edit]

In the 6th century a royal chief of the Kindah tribe named Hojr was killed by the Banu Asad. A contemporary of Imru' al-Qais, the illustrious Arabian mu'allaqat poet 'Abid ben al-Abras belonged to the Banu Asad and was fond of vaunting Hojr's murder. In the Namara inscription, Nasrid king of al-HiraImru' lQays ibn Amru claimed he killed two chiefs from Bani Assad, which is mentioned in Ibn Ishaq where their nephew said a poem about her two uncles the Asadites "One came early to tell me of the death of the two best of Asad, 'Amr b. Mas'tid and the dependable chief (alsamad)".[2][3][4]

Banu Asad had their own Talbiyah of the prilgrimmage to Mecca before Islam.[5]

Religion[edit]

It has been noted from historians that before Muhammad, the Banu Asad used to practice the religion of Abraham who believed in one God. The tribe embraced Islam in the 7th century during the beginning of Muhammad's life. After moving to Kufa in Iraq, they sided with Ali (`Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib). They are among the first Arab tribes to be Shia of Ali. They also sided with Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala. The entire Bani Assad tribe is Shia Muslim, with most living in Iraq and Ahvaz, usually belonging to the Twelver or Ja'fariyah sect. Additionally, there are small Twelver minorities in Hadhramaut and a large Zaidi community in northwestern Yemen and southwestern Arabia, and some in Southern Lebanon, Tyre, Chehour as families: El Haj, Mazyad, Fares, Darwich, Machlab and Abdallah.

Conflicts with Muhammad[edit]

The Islamic prophet Muhammad was involved in armed conflict against this tribe. The first conflict was the Expedition of Qatan in June 625 [6] Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe after receiving intelligence that they were allegedly plotting to attack Medina[7] 3 people were captured by Muslims during that expedition.[8] The second one was the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan in 627,[9] Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe to capture booty/spoils[9][10]

They also were involved in the Expedition of Al Raji where they were bribed to kill some Muslim's on behalf of the Banu Lahyan tribe. According to William Montgomery Watt, the most common version of the event states that the motives of the Banu Lahyan for attacking Muslims, was that the Banu Lahyan wanted to get revenge for the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation. So they bribed the two tribes of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to convert to Islam. Watt also said that the seven men Muhammad sent may have been spies for Muhammad and instructors for Arab tribes. He also said that the it is difficult to verify the exact date the assassination of their chief took place.[11]

Migration to Iraq[edit]

The Banu Asad migrated to Iraq in the 7th century and settled in Kufa. They have settled near the banks of the Euphrates river near Kufa and Karbala and have also settled in Basra and in Ahvaz, sharing land with the Banu Tamim. The Bani Assad sided with Ali in the Battle of the Camel. Many companions of Muhammad and Ali are from the Bani Assad. The Bani Assad tribe sided with the son of Ali, Husayn, in the Battle of Karbala, which took place on Muharram 10th, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) in Karbala, Iraq.[12] Many martyrs from the Bani Assad clan died with Husayn in the Battle of Karbala.

The Al-Mazeedi state of the Banu Asad[edit]

Main article: Al-Mazeedi

In 998, 'Ali ben Mazyad, leader of the Baniu Asad tribe, established a virtually independent Al-Mazeedi state in the Kufa area of Iraq. Backed by a powerful tribal army, the Al-Mazeedis enjoyed great influence in the area for a century and a half. They acquired titles and subsidies from the Buyids in return for military services. Their most lasting achievement was the founding of Hilla, one of the main cities in Iraq, which became their capital in 1012. The originator of the Al-Mazeedi name was a scholar, hadith narrator and chemist called Mazyad ben Mikhled al Sadaqa. Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani commented about the rulers of the Al-Mazeedi State, saying:

They were Arabs, belonging to the Bani Mazyad from the Powerful Banu Asad Tribe. They established themselves with the strength of their swords on the banks of Euphrates. They were the refuge of those who were in need of it, the shelter for the expectants, the helpers of those who sought help and supporters of the weak. People with expectation were attracted towards them and scholars found money with them. What they did in spending on good purpose is too well known and talks of their generosity too common. Sadaqa shook with pride when he listened to poetry and set aside for the poet a special part of his generosity. He made them free from poverty. He accepted them in his audience. He was all ears to listen to the requests of people and very generous in giving them what they needed.

Members of the Bani Assad clan outside of Iraq[edit]

Mansour Moosa Al-Mazeedi played an important role in developing the Constitution of Kuwait issued on January 29, 1963 as part of Al Majles Al Ta'sesy or Founding Parliament.[13]

The Al Mazeedi family are Shia in Iraq, dramatically increasing the influence of Shiite minorities in Arabia. And there are also Al Mazeedi Shia families in Kuwait as well as Sunni. Recently it was discovered that some Al-Mazeedi family members migrated to Yemen a few hundred years ago and settled in the region of Hadhramaut. Their tribal name is Al-Mazyad or Banu Asad, their surnames or their family names is Assadi, Al-Assadi, or Al-Mazeedi, some (about 1,000) were also found in Oman and in India, primarily in the state of Karnataka with ancestral concentration in a place called Tokur, they are Sunnis. They migrated from Tokur to Udupi,Shivamoga, Shirva and Boalar. Today thousands of Assadi's are present in Karnataka.They build Mosque in Tokur as well as in Nayerkere. Nayerkere Mosque called Hashmi Masjid. Few famous Assadis are Abul Razak Assadi, Mohammed Ziauddin Assadi, Amanath Assadi, Riyaz Assadi, Shabbir Assadi, Parvez Assadi, Basheer Assadi, Dr. Muzaffar Assadi

Fatalities from the Banu Asad in the Battle of Karbala[edit]

Uns ben Hars Asadi, Habib ibn Muzahir (commander of the left flank) Moslem ben Ausaja Asadi, Qais ben Masher Asadi, Abu Samama Umru ben Abdellah, oreer Hamdani, Hanala ibn Asad, Abis Shakri, Abdul Rahman Rahbi, Saif ibn Hars, Amer ben Abdellah Hamdani.

Burials[edit]

On the 13th of Muharram, three days after the massacre, members of the Banu Asad in Karbala had the honor of burying the bodies of Husayn, his family and their companions. The Banu Ad tribe is widely respected by other Shia Arab tribes. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, the 4th Twelver Shia Imam, helped the Banu Asad tribe to bury the martyred bodies and helped them to identify the bodies of Husayn ibn Ali, his father, and the Ahl al-Bayt and their companions.

Clans[edit]

All clans are related which goes back to the same tribe or ancestor of Asad.

  • Altaraihi
  • Al-Khayoon tribe
    • Al-Hassan
    • Al-Jayyid
    • Al-Janaah
    • Al-Sheikh
  • Bani Askari tribe
    • Al-Abdul Ameer
    • Al-A'beed
    • Al-Sheikh Ali
    • Al-Sh'haab
  • Al-Wanis tribe
    • Al-Freeh
    • Al-Khaitan
    • Al-Badir
    • Al-Ghaithan
    • Al-Jasim
    • Al-Sh'haf
    • Al-Tarshaan
    • Al-Hamad
    • Al-Khamees
  • Al-Abbas tribe
    • Al-bo Sodah
    • Al-bo Sidyo
    • Al-bo Zahroon
  • Al-Haddad tribe
    • Al-Rasheeda
    • Al-Mas'ood
    • Al-Sajiyah
    • Al-Shneen
    • Al-Awaad
    • Al-Hjool
    • Al-Hlool
  • Al-Aneesa (Anisa) tribe
    • Al-Sahr
    • Al-Ataab
    • Al-Sweenij
  • Al-Abdallah tribe
    • Al-Sawaad
    • Al-Finjaan
    • Al-bo Ayaash
    • Al-Hajj Sari
    • Al-Makhyour
    • Al-Oweeti
    • Al-Hjemeen
    • Al-Rofah (Raufah)
    • Al-Sawari
    • Al-Dilfeen
    • Al-Khazaam
    • Al-Saleh Khalawi Jabr
    • Al-Rahi
    • Al-Sidyo
  • Al-Mawajid tribe
    • Al-Eisa
    • Al-Hwaichim (Huwaijim)
    • Al-Hajji
    • Al-Ta'ama Nasir
    • Al-Shjreeji
  • Al-Khalisi tribe
    • Al-bo Mahdi
    • Al-bo Ali
    • Al-Sabayigh
  • Al-Khatir tribe
    • Al-Aziz
    • Al-Sheikh Mohammed
    • Al-Sheikh La'eebi Jabir
    • Al-Bazoon
    • Al-Jam'iyat
    • Al-Bdeer
    • Al Abeidallah
    • Al-Khazzam
    • Al-bu Sedwear
    • Al-Sawari
    • Al-Sari
    • Al-Bu Makhyour
    • Bani Mushrif (includes many clans)
    • Al-Hilal
    • Al-Mazeedi (includes clans)
    • Bani Kahel (includes clans)
    • Al-Nawashi
    • Al-Hul
    • Al Reyoufa
    • Al-Bu Hmael
    • Al-Terrhiyoun
    • Al-Kammouna
    • Al-Shibeebi
    • Al-Hmaed
    • Al-Baghdadi
    • Al Ghamaas
    • Al-Jaza'iri
  • There are Sayyids who have joined the Bani Assad tribe, in southern Iraq many centuries ago
  • There are more tribes and clans of Banu Asad

Population[edit]

Currently, very large numbers of the Banu Asad live in Iraq in Basra, Najaf, Nasiriyah, Karbala, Hilla, Amara, Diyala, Salah-e-Deen and Baghdad. Bani Assad are one of the 5 biggest tribes in Iraq. 65% of the 1.2 million population of Karbala are Bani Assad and 40% of Hilla and large numbers in Najaf, Kufa, Basra and Nasariyah. There significant population of Bani Assad in Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen and Ahwaz in Iran (Arabs of Iran).

Leading personalities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ibn Ishaq; Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq’s sīrat. London. p. 3. ISBN 0195778286. The Lineage of Muhammad, Asad and Muhammad have same grandfather Khuzaimah 
  2. ^ Ibn Ishaq; Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Isḥāq’s sīrat. London. pp. 736, 120, 568, 720, 305, 557, 756. ISBN 0195778286. 
  3. ^ Watt, Montgomry. Muhammad at Medina. pp. 30, 36, 79, 88. ISBN 9780199064731. Archived from the original on 2000. Qatan battle page 30, Mecca battle 36,79, Tulayha 88 
  4. ^ Shahid (1989). Byzantium and the Arabs in the 5th century. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 0884021521. 
  5. ^ Marx, edited by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael (2010). The Qur'an in context historical and literary investigations into the Qur'anic milieu (PDF). Leiden: Brill. p. 302. ISBN 9789047430322. Archived from the original on 2010. 
  6. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0195773071. The expeditions to Hamra' al-Asad and Qatan (March and June 625)  (free online)
  7. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 349.
  8. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir. 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 150. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  9. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 205. (online)
  10. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 104. ASIN B0007JAWMK. Then occurred the sariyyah of 'Ukashah Ibn Mihsan al-Asadl on al-Ghamr. 
  11. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1. The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors.  (online)
  12. ^ Karbala: Chain of events Section - The Battle
  13. ^ Amiri Diwan, The Efforts of the Constituent Assembly, State of Kuwait 2006

Other sources[edit]