Back street in old Baoding
Location of Baoding City jurisdiction in Hebei
|County-level divisions||5 districts
4 county-level cities
|Township-level divisions||28 subdistricts
3 ethnic townships
|• Prefecture-level city||22,185 km2 (8,566 sq mi)|
|• Urban||326 km2 (126 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,840 km2 (710 sq mi)|
|Elevation||25 m (83 ft)|
|Highest elevation||2,286 m (7,500 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||11,194,379|
|• Urban density||3,600/km2 (9,200/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Licecse plate prefixex||冀F|
Baoding (Chinese: 保定; pinyin: Bǎodìng) is a city in Hebei province, China, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of the national capital, Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 3 urban districts and Qingyuan and Mancheng counties largely being conurbated, on 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi). Baoding is among 13 Chinese cities with a population of over 10 million, ranking seventh.
Baoding is a city with a history dating back to the Western Han Dynasty. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century, but after the Mongols established the Yuan Dynasty, it was rebuilt. It acquired the name "Baoding" during the Yuan dynasty — the name is roughly interpreted as "protecting the capital", referring to the city's proximity to Beijing. Baoding served for many years as the capital of Zhili, and was a significant centre of culture in the Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty. During the Boxer rebellion, Boxer rebels killed a Turk, two Swiss, and an Italian in Baoding. After Zhili province was abolished in 1928 Baoding became the capital of the newly formed Hebei province. During World War II, the city was the site of a headquarters for Japanese occupation forces. In 1958, the role of provincial capital was assumed by Tianjin, which had lost its status as a provincial level municipality, but when Tianjin was elevated again in 1966, Baoding regained its position. In 1970, however, the rapidly growing city of Shijiazhuang became the provincial capital instead.
Baoding is located in the west-central portion of Hebei province and lies on the North China Plain, with the Taihang Mountains to the west. Bordering prefecture-level cities in the province are Zhangjiakou to the north, Langfang and Cangzhou to the east, and Shijiazhuang and Hengshui to the south. Baoding also borders Beijing to the northeast and Shanxi to the west.
Elevations in Baoding's administrative area decrease from northwest to southeast. The western parts are dominated by mountains and hills that are generally more than 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) tall; this area includes parts of Laishui, Yi, Mancheng, Shunping, Tang and Fuping Counties as well as the entirety of Laiyuan County, occupying 30.6% of the prefecture's area. The highest peak is Mount Waitou (歪头山), with an elevation of 2,286 metres (7,500 ft). Moving southeast from this area, one encounters low-lying mountains and hills, taking up 18.9% of the prefecture's area. Further to the east lies generally flat terrain of 30 to 100 metres (98 to 330 ft) elevation. Here the primary rivers are the Juma, Yishui (易水), Cao (漕河), Longquan (龙泉河), Tang (唐河), and Sha Rivers. Baiyangdian Lake, the largest natural lake in northern China, can be found nearby.
Baoding has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, very dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn is similar to spring in temperature and lack of rainfall. The annual rainfall, about 60% of which falls in July and August alone, is highly variable and not reliable. In the city itself, this amount has averaged to a meagre 513 millimetres (20.2 in) per annum. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) in January to 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). There are 2,500 to 2,900 hours of bright sunshine annually, and the frost-free period lasts 165−210 days.
|Climate data for Baoding (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.9
|Average high °C (°F)||2.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.6||2.0||3.1||4.2||5.7||7.7||11.7||11.3||6.9||4.9||3.3||1.6||64.0|
|Source: Weather China|
As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, several Hebei cities are among one of the most polluted cities and has one of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's airpocalypse has been accompanied by a slideshow of several cities in the country smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, 7 cities in Hebei including Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Langfang, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities.
|Division code||English name||Simp. Chinese||Trad. Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Townships||Ethnic townships||Residential communities (居委会)||Villages (村委会)|
|130600||Baoding||保定市||保定市||Bǎodìng Shì||22185||Jingxiu District||071000||28||142||170||3||389||6209|
|130602||Jingxiu District||竞秀区||竞秀區||Jìngxiù Qū||149||Xianfeng Subdistrict (先锋街道)||071000||5||6||80||79|
|130603||Lianchi District||莲池区||蓮池區||Liánchí Qū||82||Wusi Road Subdistrict (五四路街道)||071000||10||7||91||121|
|130605||Mancheng District||满城区||滿城區||Mǎnchéng Qū||658||Huiyang Subdistrict (惠阳街道)||072100||1||5||7||6||204|
|130606||Qingyuan District||清苑区||清苑區||Qīngyuán Qū||856||Qingyuan (清苑镇)||071100||8||10||6||266|
|130607||Xushui District||徐水区||徐水區||Xúshuǐ Qū||723||Ansu (安肃镇)||072500||7||7||15||304|
|130682||Dingzhou City||定州市||定州市||Dìngzhōu Shì||1284||Nanchengqu Subdistrict (南城区街道)||073000||3||17||5||1||31||486|
|130681||Zhuozhou City||涿州市||涿州市||Zhuōzhōu Shì||751||Shuangta Subdistrict (双塔街道)||072700||3||6||5||39||404|
|130683||Anguo City||安国市||安國市||Ānguó Shì||485||Qizhouyaoshi Subdistrict (祁州药市街道)||071200||1||6||4||6||198|
|130684||Gaobeidian City||高碑店市||高碑店市||Gāobēidiàn Shì||674||Xinghua Road Subdistrict (兴华路街道)||074000||5||6||4||19||442|
|130633||Yi County||易县||易縣||Yì Xiàn||2535||Yizhou (易州镇)||074200||9||18||1||7||469|
|130630||Laiyuan County||涞源县||淶源縣||Láiyuán Xiàn||2431||Laiyuan (涞源镇)||074300||7||10||8||285|
|130626||Dingxing County||定兴县||定興縣||Dìngxīng Xiàn||714||Dingxing (定兴镇)||072600||5||11||8||274|
|130636||Shunping County||顺平县||順平縣||Shùnpíng Xiàn||712||Puyang (蒲阳镇)||072200||5||5||4||237|
|130627||Tang County||唐县||唐縣||Táng Xiàn||1414||Renhou (仁厚镇)||072300||7||13||8||345|
|130631||Wangdu County||望都县||望都縣||Wàngdū Xiàn||358||Wangdu (望都镇)||072400||2||6||7||143|
|130623||Laishui County||涞水县||淶水縣||Láishuǐ Xiàn||1662||Laishui (涞水镇)||074100||7||8||1||6||284|
|130628||Gaoyang County||高阳县||高陽縣||Gāoyáng Xiàn||496||Gaoyang (高阳镇)||071500||4||5||11||170|
|130632||Anxin County||安新县||安新縣||Ānxīn Xiàn||728||Anxin (安新镇)||071600||9||3||5||207|
|130638||Xiong County||雄县||雄縣||Xióng Xiàn||513||Xiongzhou (雄州镇)||071800||6||3||7||223|
|130629||Rongcheng County||容城县||容城縣||Róngchéng Xiàn||311||Rongcheng (容城镇)||071700||5||3||4||127|
|130634||Quyang County||曲阳县||曲陽縣||Qūyáng Xiàn||1076||Hengzhou (恒州镇)||073100||5||13||6||367|
|130624||Fuping County||阜平县||阜平縣||Fùpíng Xiàn||2494||Fuping (阜平镇)||073200||5||8||5||209|
|130637||Boye County||博野县||博野縣||Bóyě Xiàn||331||Boye (博野镇)||071300||3||4||4||133|
|130635||Li County||蠡县||蠡縣||Lǐ Xiàn||653||Liwu (蠡吾镇)||071400||8||5||6||232|
|Note: Baoding New High Technology Product Development Zone (保定高新技术产业开发区) includes Damafang Township (大马坊乡) of Jingxiu District and Jiantai Township (贤台乡) of Mancheng District; the Baigou New City (白沟新城) includes Baigou Town (白沟镇) of Gaobeidian City.|
|Residence population (November 2010)||Hukou population
(end of 2010)
|Total||Ratio (%)||Population density (persons/km2)|
|Note: The 58,709 people residing in Baoding High Technology Product Development Zone and the 124,274 in the Baigou New City are not listed separately.|
According to the 2010 Census, the residence population stood at 11,194,379, an increase of 605,100 (5.71%) from 2000. The male-female ratio was 101.94:100. Children aged up to 14 numbered 1,915,800 (17.11% of the population), citizens 15 to 64 numbered 8,370,600 (74.78%), and 65+ numbered 908,000 (8.11%). The urban area of Baoding has a population of around 1,006,000 (2009). The overwhelming majority of the population is Han Chinese. The language of Baoding is Mandarin Chinese — specifically, the Baoding dialect of Ji-Lu Mandarin. Despite Baoding's proximity to Beijing, the Chinese spoken in Baoding is not particularly close to the Beijing dialect — rather, it is more closely related to Tianjin dialect.
Baoding is located in the centre of the Bohai Rim economic area which includes Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang. One of the largest employers in Baoding is China Lucky Film, the largest photosensitive materials and magnetic recording media manufacturer in China. And, Yingli group, 2010 World Cup sponsor, has its headquarters in Baoding, who is the Global Top 10 solar panel manufacturer. More renowned companies include ZhongHang HuiTeng Windpower Equipment Co., Ltd (Wind Turbine), Baoding Tianwei Group Co., Ltd (Transformer) and Great Wall Motor.
- Baoding High-tech Industrial Development Zone 
Baoding city has one of China's biggest plants which manufacture blades used in wind turbine generators, catering mainly to the domestic market. Tianwei Wind Power Technology is one of the three main plants in Baoding that produces wind turbine generators. It wheeled out its first 20 turbines in 2008, and it will produce 150 units in 2009 and another 500 in 2010.
Baoding has good connections to other cities, being located on one of the main routes in and out of Beijing. The Jingshi Expressway connects the two cities, and Baoding is also the western terminus of the Baojin Expressway linking Baoding with Tianjin, which is one out of two nearest ports (Huanghua is the other one). The Jingguang Railway provides frequent services to Beijing West Railway Station. On 30 December 2012, a new railway station was opened in Baoding, old train station was closed for passengers.
Baoding is headquarters of the 38th Mechanized Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending the PRC capital.
Perhaps the best-known item to supposedly originate in Baoding are Baoding Balls, which can be used to relax one's keyboard hand and strengthen one's wrist. The most famous local specialty food is the Donkey Burger (驴肉火烧).
Anxin County is home to the Quantou Village Music Association (圈头村音乐会), a well known traditional music group performing on guan (oboes), sheng (mouth organs), and percussion. The village of Quantou is located on an island in Lake Baiyangdian.
The city's streets follow a rough grid pattern, although this is less obvious in the older part of the city. The traditional main street of old Baoding is Yuhua Road, running from the city's centre to its eastern edge — most of Baoding's historic buildings are located in this area, along with some of its larger shopping centres. Other major streets include Dongfeng Road and Chaoyang Avenue. There is a ring road around the city.
Baoding contains a number of notable historic sites. In the city proper, there can be found a historic provincial governor's mansion and an ancient lotus garden. In the hills to the northwest of the city, near the suburb of Mancheng, there are the Mancheng Han Tombs, where Prince Liu Sheng and his wife Dou Wan were buried.
The greater Baoding administrative area has 16 designated state-level cultural relics:
- Yan State Capital Relics (475BC-221BC, Yixian County)
- Great Wall at Zijinguan Pass (1368–1644, Yixian County and Laiyuan County)
- Stele of Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching (618-907, Yixian County)
- Western Qing Tombs (1730–1915, Yixian County)
- Geyuan Temple (916-1125, Laiyuan County)
- Ciyun Pavilion (1306, Dingxing County)
- Yicihui Stone Pillar (550-577, Dingxing County)
- Kaiyuan Temple (960-1127, Dingzhou County)
- Kaishan Temple (618-907, Gaobeidian County)
- Dingzhou Porcelain Kiln Relic (960-1127, Quyang County)
- Beiyue Temple (386-543, Quyang County)
- Jin-cha-ji Border Region Headquarters Ruins (1938, Fuping County)
- Ranzhuang Underground Tunnel (1937–1945, Qingyuan County)
- Mancheng Han Tombs (154BC-113BC, Mancheng County)
- Zhili Provincial Governor Office (1730–1911, Baoding)
- Historical Site of the Baoding Military Academy (1902–1923)
- Fan Ye - gymnast, 2003 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships Balance Beam Gold Medalist
- Guo Jingjing - diver and Olympic gold medalist in 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics.
- Qian Hong - swimmer and Olympic gold medalist in 1992 Summer Olympics.
- Fan Hongbin - gymnast, Olympic silver medalist in 1996 Summer Olympics.
- Wei Jianjun - billionaire, Chairman of Great Wall Motors
- 概况 (in Chinese). Baoding People's Government. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
- "最新中国城市人口数量排名（根据2010年第六次人口普查）". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- Preston 2000, p. 58.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644. ISSN 1027-5606.
- Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Baoding new railway station" (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "Wei Jianjun". Forbes. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Preston, Diana (2000). The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 0802713610. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
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