From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Baosteel Group)
China Baowu Steel Group
TypeState-owned enterprise
PredecessorShanghai Baosteel Group Corporation
Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation
Founded1978; 45 years ago (1978)
HeadquartersShanghai, China
Key people
Chen Derong (Chairman)
ProductsSteel, flat steel products, long steel products, wire products, plates
Revenue$79.93 Billion
  1. [1]
OwnerChinese Central Government (100%)
Number of employees
195 434 (2019) [2]
ParentSASAC of the State Council
Subsidiariessee list
Footnotes / references
China Baowu Steel Group Corporation Limited
Simplified Chinese中国宝武钢铁集团有限公司
Traditional Chinese中國寶武鋼鉄集團有限公司
Literal meaningChina Baowu Steel Group Limited [Liability] Corporation
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaningBaoshan & Wuhan

China Baowu Steel Group Corp., Ltd., commonly known as Baowu, is a state-owned iron and steel company headquartered in the Baosteel Tower in Pudong, Shanghai, China.[4] The company was formed by Baosteel Group absorbing its smaller state-owned peer, Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation in 2016. It is the world's largest steel producer.[5]

In 2015, Baowu was the second largest steel producer in the world measured by crude steel output, with an annual output of around 35 million tons (China's total steel production in 2015 was 803.8 million tons[6]), and employed 130,401 employees as of the end of 2012, had annual revenues of around $21.5 billion, and produces a mix of products.[7] In 2019, the company closed the gap with ArcelorMittal reaching 95.47 million tons of steel, and hitting $78 billion in revenues,[1] with 195 434 employees.[2]

According to World Steel Association (Chinese companies data were provided by China Iron and Steel Association), the corporation was ranked the 5th in 2015 the world ranking by production volume (2nd in China for 34.938 million metric tons).[8] A plan to merge with Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation was announced on 21–22 September 2016,[9] which would make the combined production volume the second highest in the world (34.938 million + 25.776 million), after ArcelorMittal (97.136 million in 2015), surpassing Hesteel Group (47.745 million in 2015). Since Baosteel Group and Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation also announced targets of cutting 3.95 and 4.42 million metric tons production capacity respectively in June[10] and July 2016,[11] and a further cut for Baosteel Group of 2.10 million while a 3.15 million cut was already planned[12] the final ranking may still significantly change.

The IPO of the subsidiary of Baosteel Group on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2000 was the largest in China up to that time, raising CNY 7.7 billion despite being limited to domestic investors only.[13]


Baoshan Iron and Steel[edit]

In 1978, as part of the Chinese government's reform and opening, Chinese paramount leader Deng Xiaoping sought to develop large-scale steel production in China.[14] The government planned for a large integrated steel production facility to be located near the port of Shanghai, in Baoshan District, a suburb of Shanghai.[14] In 1978, a delegation from the Chinese government, including Deng Xiaoping himself, visited a steel mill operated by Nippon Steel to learn how to construct such a large facility.[14] As the government's flagship steel company, Baoshan Iron and Steel as it was originally called, benefitted from acquiring the engineers and managers, access to technology, and receiving government contracts.[15]

Initially, the firm limited its exports to just 10% of steel production, hoping to fulfill domestic demand.[14]

Baoshan Iron and Steel also benefitted from the Chinese economic expansion which consumed all the steel available.[citation needed] However, with the continuing liberalization of the Chinese economy, Baoshan found itself in competition with new rivals, both foreign and domestic.[citation needed] By the late 1990s, the company removed its cap on steel exports;[14] it scored notable success in South Korea.[citation needed] Although hurt by the Asian financial crisis, Baoshan pushed through with a merger of other money losing state owned enterprises, though it had managed to remain profitable itself.[citation needed]

Baosteel Group[edit]

On November 17, 1998, the former Baoshan Iron and Steel (Group) Corporation absorbed the Shanghai Metallurgical Holding Group Corporation (上海冶金控股集团公司) and the "Shanghai Meishan Group" (上海梅山集团公司) to form Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation. The new conglomerate was the largest steel producer in the country with annual steel production of nearly 20 million tons. Since then, the strategy of Baosteel Group has been to expand production capacity in iron and steel, achieve vertical integration along the value chain, and acquire related industries.[16]

In 1997, a subsidiary of Shanghai Metallurgical Holding, the former Shanghai No.3 Iron and Steel Plant, Shanghai Pudong Iron and Steel, formed a joint venture with ThyssenKrupp of Germany, as Shanghai Krupp Stainless.[17] It followed the parent company to become a subsidiary of Baosteel Group in 1998.[18]

In 2000, a subsidiary Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. was formed to list a portion of the group on the Shanghai Stock Exchange, while Shanghai No.1st, 2, 3 and 5 Iron and Steel Plants of the group were remaining unlisted. In 2004, the listed subsidiary acquired Meishan Iron and Steel from Baosteel Group (via Shanghai Meishan Group).[16]

In 2007 Baosteel Group acquired the majority stake of Xinjiang Ba Yi Iron and Steel Group, which was the parent company of Ba Yi Iron and Steel [Company Limited by Shares].[19]

In 2008 Baosteel Group expended in Southern China, which planned to build a new facility in Zhanjiang, Guangdong, which formally started by its subsidiary Baoshan Iron & Steel in 2012, by acquiring 71.8032% stake of Zhanjiang Iron and Steel for CNY4.976 billion from State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of Guangzhou City.[20]

In 2011, Baosteel Group acquired 51% stake of Guangdong Shaoguan Iron and Steel Group from SASAC of Guangdong Government. In April 2012, Shaoguan Iron and Steel Co, Ltd. was established.[21]

Boasteel owns the 85% of held resources company Aquila Resources Pty Ltd, through Baosteel Resources.[22]

Boasteel developed a sales and distribution network in China and foreign countries. Boasteel overseas subsidiaries controls key minerals resources for steel production, such as the Majishan ore terminal in the port of Zhoushan.[16] Baosteel also invested in steel-related industries such as Baoxin Software and Baosteel Chemical.[16]


On 21–22 September 2016, a plan to merge Baosteel Group and fellow state-owned steel maker Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation was announced. Baoshan Iron and Steel Company Limited, the listed portion of Baosteel Group would takeover the counterpart Wuhan Iron and Steel Company Limited in an all-share deal,[23] while the rights of Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation would be transferred to Baosteel Group for free as a wholly owned subsidiary. Both Baosteel Group and Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation were supervised by SASAC of the Central Government. As of December 2016, the name of the new group is China Baowu Steel Group Corporation.[24] It is now the second largest steel producer in the world, with assets estimated to be worth around 730 billion Yuan,[25] employing 228,000 employees and expected annual sales revenues of 330 billion Yuan ($47.9 billion).[26]

In early 2016, Baosteel Group was accused by US Steel Corp. of stealing commercial secrets. Baosteel rejected these allegations, stating that "In particular, the charges claiming that Baosteel stole commercial secrets from U.S. Steel is rootless speculation and subjective assumption, and could even be described as an absurd statement".[27] The United States International Trade Commission launched a probe into these allegations in May 2016. Next to Baosteel, Hebei Iron and Steel Group, Wuhan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd., Maanshan Iron and Steel Company Limited, Anshan Iron and Steel Group and Jiangsu Shagang Group are also under investigation.[28] In February 2017, US Steel dropped the claim of trade secret theft because of a lack of evidence, and in October 2017, the United States International Trade Commission dismissed the anti-circumvention allegation. In March 2018, it additionally dismissed the antitrust claims, again because of a lack of evidence, and ended the investigation.[29]

In 2019, China Baowu Steel Group acquired 51% stake of Masteel Group from the SASAC of Anhui Provincial People's Government [zh] for free. The acquisition also included the indirect controlling stake of the list company Maanshan Iron and Steel Company Limited.[30]

By 2020 the company had become the largest steel manufacturer in the world by volume.[31]

In 2022, Baowu acquired fellow state-owned enterprise Sinosteel.[32][33][34]


Equity investments[edit]

Baosteel Group was a minority owner of Metallurgical Corporation of China Limited for 0.65% (as at 30 June 2010).[35] Excluding the investment held by the listed subsidiary Baoshan Iron and Steel, Baosteel Group owned 0.88% stake (via Hwabao Investment) in PetroChina Pipelines, the company that runs West–East Gas Pipeline.[36]

Baosteel Group, as at 31 December 2015, still owned 15.11% stake in New China Life Insurance, a listed company in both Hong Kong and Shanghai Stock Exchange,[37] as well as China Bohai Bank for 11.67% stake,[38] China Pacific Insurance for 14.17% stake.[39]


  1. ^ a b "China Baowu Steel Group | 2020 Global 500". Fortune. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "China: Baowu Steel Group number of employees 2014-2019". Statista. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  3. ^ "About Baosteel". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  4. ^ "Contact Us." Baosteel. Retrieved on November 10, 2012. "ADD:Baosteel Tower, Pu Dian Road 370, Pudong New District, Shanghai, 200122, P.R. China Postal Code:200122" - Chinese: "上海市浦东新区浦电路370号宝钢大厦"
  5. ^[bare URL]
  6. ^ "Worldsteel | World crude steel output decreases by -2.8% in 2015". Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2016-12-26.
  7. ^ Sirkin, Harold L.; James W. Hemerling; and Arindam K. Bhattacharya (2008-06-11). GLOBALITY: Competing with Everyone from Everywhere for Everything. Archived 2008-09-23 at the Wayback Machine New York: Business Plus, 304. ISBN 0-446-17829-2.
  8. ^ "World Steel Association - Top steel-producing companies". Archived from the original on 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
  9. ^ "China deal to create world's second-largest steelmaker". Financial Times. 21 September 2016.
  10. ^ "化解钢铁过剩产能公告" (in Chinese). Baosteel Group. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  11. ^ "武汉钢铁(集团)公司关于化解过剩产能实施脱困发展的公告" (PDF). Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation. 7 July 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  12. ^ "宝钢实施全方位结构调整和转型升级" (in Chinese (China)). Baosteel Group. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  13. ^ "China's Baosteel heads for stock market". BBC. 6 November 2000. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d e Yap, Chuin-Wei (2018-12-24). "How China Built a Steel Behemoth and Convulsed World Trade". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-01-25.
  15. ^ Freund, Elizabeth M. (1996). "Privatized Labor in Socialist Enterprises: China's Baoshan Iron and Steel Works". Asian Affairs. 23 (3): 176–186. doi:10.1080/00927678.1996.9933728. ISSN 0092-7678. JSTOR 30172402. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  16. ^ a b c d Larcon, Jean-Paul (22 October 2008). Chinese Multinational. World Scientific Publishing Company. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9789814338431.
  17. ^ Company Profile Shanghai Krupp Stainless
  18. ^ Publisher, Stainless Steel World (2001-11-05). "Germany and China undertake joint venture". Stainless Steel Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  19. ^ "Baosteel acquisition deal approved". Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  20. ^ Shen, Samuel; Cang, Alfred; Billingham, Erica (2008-06-23). "Baosteel to pay $4.2 billion for Guangdong acquisition". Reuters. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  21. ^ "BAOSTEEL GROUP | Iron & Steel". Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  22. ^ "Aquila Resources Pty Ltd (Aquila) is a privately held resources company with substantial interests in the bulk commodities of metallurgical coal and iron ore. | Aquila Resources". Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  23. ^ "China's Top Steel Mills Step Closer to Creating Arcelor Rival". Bloomberg. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  24. ^ "Announcement: Moody's says China Baowu Steel nears full merger with Wuhan Steel; no rating impact". Moody's. 6 December 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  25. ^ Levit, Donald (January 22, 2017). "China's Steel Reform Shifts Into Higher Gear". Economic Calendar. Archived from the original on January 23, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  26. ^ "China Baowu Steel Group officially established". Steel Orbis. December 5, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  27. ^ "China's Baosteel Group says U.S. Steel accusations groundless". Reuters. April 29, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  28. ^ "U.S. panel launches trade secret theft probe into China steel". Reuters. May 29, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  29. ^ Wu, Wendy (3 July 2018). "'A victory for Chinese steel and US law': why a lawyer thinks Chinese companies can put faith in the American legal system". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  30. ^ "Zhōngguó bǎowǔ "wúcháng" shōugòu mǎgāng gāngtiěyè jiānbìng chóngzǔ tísù" 中国宝武“无偿”收购马钢 钢铁业兼并重组提速. 第一财经 (Yicai) (in Chinese (China)). Shanghai. 3 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  31. ^ "China's Baowu unseats ArcelorMittal as world's top steelmaker," Nikkei Asia, retrieved 14 July 2021
  32. ^ "China's Baowu Steel absorbs Sinosteel in state-backed deal". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on 2022-12-24. Retrieved 2022-12-24.
  33. ^ "China Baowu Steel Officially Takes Over Sinosteel - Caixin Global". Retrieved 2022-12-24.
  34. ^ "FLASH: Baowu gets Beijing approval to acquire Sinosteel Group | Mysteel". Retrieved 2022-12-24.
  35. ^ "2010 Interim Report" (PDF). Metallurgical Corporation of China Limited. archive of Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  36. ^ "DISCLOSEABLE TRANSACTION, CONNECTED TRANSACTION" (PDF). PetroChina. archive of Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  37. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). New China Life Insurance. archive of Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  38. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). China Bohai Bank. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  39. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). China Pacific Insurance. archive of Hong Kong Stock Exchange. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.

External links[edit]