||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: non standard headings for a city article, informal text. (September 2014)|
General view of Bar.
|First mentioned||1401 (as Rov castle)|
|Named for||Bari in Italy|
|• City Head||Oleksiy Dzis|
|• Total||5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,890/km2 (7,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Bar (UK: i//; US: i//),[dubious ] officially the City of Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar) is a town located on the Rov River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The population is 16,442 (2013 est.) people.
The city was a small trade outpost named the Row from the 13th to 15th centuries, and it was described as the Rov for the first time in 1401 (from other information sources in 1425). Therefore, the city is 600 years old, and it celebrated the 600 years foundation anniversary in 2001.
In 1540 the Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and resisted all assaults. But during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwards.
In 1672 the Town of Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But the Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699.
The Town of Bar was comprehensively described in the MSc thesis by Mikhail Grushevsky: Bar Community: Historical Outlines in the 15th to 18th centuries. The international conference on the Town of Bar history will be held in Bar on September 26, 2014,. There is the Mikhail Grushevsky monument in Bar.
Main dates in Bar history
- 1538 – The permission by Sigismund I the Old to build the fortress in Bar is issued.
- 1540 – The permission by Sigismund I the Old to found the Town of Bar is issued.
- 1540 – Sigismund I the Old gave the Magdeburg Rights to Town of Bar, and Bernard Pretwicz became the head of Bar and founded a fortress for the operation against the Tatars.
- 1542 – Stanisław Bagieński became a head of fortress in Bar.
- 1565 – Wojciech Starzechowski began to build the stone made fortress in Bar. The 1000 Florenów from the King’s Treasury in Poland were assigned for the construction works.
- 1566 – The permission by Sigismund I the Old to adapt the new regulation on the fortress building in Bar is issued.
- 1576 – Stefan Batory issued a decree in which the three nearby situated suburbs were included in Bar.
- 1637 - 1648 – The arsenal of the Polish King’s artillery was established in Bar.
- August, 1648 – Maxym Kryvonis came to the power in Bar as a result of Khmelnytsky Uprising, then power in Bar was shifting from one side to another side for many times.
- 1672 – 1699 – Bar was captured by Selim I Giray, Crimean Khan from Ottoman Empire.
- November 12, 1674 – Bar and the fortress were re-captured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege.
- 1675 – 1686 (nominally until 1699) – Bar was re-captured by Ottoman Empire again.
- 1686 – 1699 – Bar was re-captured by the John III of Poland and by Ottoman Empire for many times.
- February 29, 1768 – The Bar Confederation to divide the Poland was signed in Bar.
- July 19, 1768 – 1921 After the Second Partition of Poland, the Bar was as a part of Podolia Governorate in Russian Empire.
- 1921 – 1991 – Bar was included to the former USSR.
- Since 1991 – Bar belongs to the independent State of Ukraine.
All the historical facts and findings are collected and archived in the history museum in Bar, Ukraine.  The very old Chernyakhivs'ka culture is a predecessor of the Ukrainian culture, hence the exhibition about the Chernyakhivs'ka culture, including a number of valuable historical things, is so popular among the Ukrainians. The interesting exposition about the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and Bar's city history attracts a number of domestic and foreign visitors. There is the Ukrainian culture exhibit, including the Ukrainian clothes, ceramics and iron made old things. The museum has a big collection of the old icons and ancient artifacts, related to the various religions in Bar, Ukraine, which is quite popular among the tourists. There is a well made exposition about the World War II and related historical events.  
Bar has a soft continental European climate.
|Climate data for Bar, Ukraine|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.6
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||29
|Average rainy days||7||6||9||13||14||15||15||11||12||11||12||9||134|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.9||70.6||114.7||171.0||248.0||255.0||266.6||260.4||195.0||133.3||57.0||40.3||1,870.8|
|Source #1: Gismeteo.|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory.|
The central part of the city has a number of historical cathedrals, which are surrounded by the modern buildings. 
Bar has a lot of religious traditions. It is a center of Ukrainian culture and an attractive tourist destination with a large number of old Ukrainian cathedrals and the new churches such as:
The Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural achievements and one of the oldest buildings in Bar, Ukraine, which has changed, reflecting the historical developments in Ukraine over the centuries.
The Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in the early 17th century. The first written memories about the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church, which was created at the Trinity Orthodox Church place, are related to 1719. The interesting fact is that the new architectural design of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral was developed, and then, the actual cathedral was constructed, using the stone, in 1755 – 1757. As it is described in the historical documents in 1771 and 1783, the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral had a high altar with the Savior icon and the two other altars.
Vasily Matkovs’ky was a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine on that time. In 1795–1809, Ioan Sinits’ky became a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. At the same time, Fedir Batulins’ky, priest (1800–1802) and Stefan Batulins’ky, priest (1804– - 1820) conducted their religious missions at the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. Pavlo Batulins’ky (1838–1844) served as a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine, and then he became a key owner and a cathedral bishop in Kam’yanets soon after this. Vasiliy Kuz’mins’ky, priest (1844–1849) and Simeon Karchevs’ky, priest (1849–1861) worked to continue the religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine. In addition, Simeon Karchevs’ky was a head of the Bar Orthodox Religion School at the same time. Grigory Yankovs’ky, priest (1861–1881), Ivan Korchins’ky, priest (1881–1892), Pavlo Savluchins’ky, priest (1892), Afanasiy Dvernits’ky, priest (1892–) were recognized for their outstanding religious mission services at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, Ukraine.
It is necessary to note that the Assumption Orthodox Church was closed for the renovation in 1838–1851. The full restoration of the Assumption Cathedral was also done in 1975. The “gold plated” domes were installed and the façade renovation works were completed at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in 2013.
At present time, there are the two old icons at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine: 1. The St. Michael Myrlikiys’ky Miracle Man icon, created in Bari, Italy in the 16th century and presented by Bona Sforza; and 2. The God’s Mother icon with the silver frame, created in the 17th century, which saved the cathedral from the fire in 1737 and 1760.
2. The Rome Catholic St. Michael Cathedral, built in 1550 (the soft wood); and then, it was renamed as the St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral, re-built in 1811 (the stone); it was renovated by Y. Tamanchuk, architector in 1900 – July 26, 1906 (the red bricks)  
The Dekanat Bar includes the following Roman Catholic Churches: Bar - Parafia St. Anny; Berezówka - Parafia St. Józefa; Brahiłów- Parafia St. Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Czemeryskie- Parafia St. Jana Chrzciciela; Czerniowce- Parafia St. Mikołaja B. M.; Jałtuszków- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Szkaplerznej; Kopajgród- Parafia Zesłania Ducha Świętego; Koziarówka - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusowego; Kuryłowce- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Łuczyniec - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Malczowce - Parafia Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Meżyrów - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mohylów Podolski - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mołczany- Parafia St. Wojciecha; Mytky- Parafia St. Józefa; Ozarzyńce - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Sokół- Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Śnitków - Parafia Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Tarasówka- Parafia St. Jana Nepomucena; Wendyczany - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Wierzbowiec - Parafia St.Michała Archanioła; Wilchowiec- Parafia Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Wyszczeolczydajew - Parafia Miłosierdzia Bożego; Zatoki - Parafia St. Antoniego Padewskiego; Zhmerynka - Parafia św. Aleksego.
3. The former St. Pokrovsky Monastery, which is now known as the Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery. In the beginning, the first monastery was founded by Knight Vereshagin in the woods near Semenivky not so far away from Bar, Ukraine. Then, the monastery was built, using the stone, in Bar, Ukraine in 1551. It was re-built in 1701–1781. The history of old monastery has the three periods: 1) the Orthodox period, 2) the Catholic period, 3) the Basilian period. During the newest historical period, Cyril Podolsky initiated the foundation of the St. Pokrovsky orthodox monastery for males in 1837. The monastery was re-organized for females and chaired by Sister Melitina on July 20, 1881. The red bricks cathedral with the bells was built in 1908. The monastery was closed in 1959-1995. The Benedictine Sisters-Missioners of Bar re-opened the monastery in 1996.
5. The Greek-Catholic church, opened in 1996.
6. The Holy Trinity Brailiv Monastery, made of red bricks, is in the process of construction under the management by Viktor Terlets'ky, priest and under the patronage by Simeon, Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Mogyliv-Podil's'ky at Garmaky near Bar, Ukraine since December 10, 2002. The St. Trinity Brailiv Monastery is intended for the females.
7. The St. Michael Orthodox Church in the beginning of the Bunyakovsky Street is being re-built. The idea is to re-create the old St. Michael church, which was built at this place a few hundreds years ago. Mr. Pogrebnyak, businessman is a main sponsor of construction works.
The old historical castles in Bar, Ukraine require more investments.
In agreement with the Enciclopaedia Vocabulary by Andreevsky I E (editor) published in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1891, the total population was 13761 people, and the Jewish population was 51% of total population in 1891 in Bar. In 1900 in Bar, the total population included: 7865 Jewish people, 2803 Orthodox people, 765 Catholic people. The historical fact is that the Jewish community was around the ten thousands people in Bar before the World War II. There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942.  Of course, the old synagogues were fully destroyed during the World War II, hence they could be rebuilt in the case of funds availability from the Ukrainian, American and Israel Jewish communities in the future. The re-building of synagogues is one of the important tasks for the city authorities.   
There is a green trees park at the old fortress on the Riv river banks in the center of Bar, Ukraine. It is possible to find the numerous acacias, pines, maples and some other sorts of trees. 
There is a stadium, where a local football (soccer) team plays the games with other Ukrainian teams.
There is a modern library in Bar. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA worked on the Bibliomist program to modernize the central library. The Bibliomist is a part of Global Libraries initiative of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).
There are a few educational institutions in the Town of Bar, for example: the Humanitarian Pedagogical College named after Mikhail Grushevsky, where the students can study the English language and other subjects;, the Automobiles and Roads College, founded by Tunik; the Buildings Construction College; the specialized music school, a cinema and a contemporary art gallery.
There are several industrial companies in the Town of Bar, for instance, the Bar Industrial Machinery Plant.
On the relatively short distance from Bar, there is a big natural gas compressor station, which pumps the natural gas over the transcontinental Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline and the Union pipeline to the Polish, German and other European customers,.
There is a modern Air Traffic Control Center with the beyond-visual-range-radar nearby, which provides air traffic control services in the English language for aircraft in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine. There is also an airport, which helicopters and light airplanes can use.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2014)|
The local medical clinic and hospital provide a wide range of medical services to the people in Bar, Ukraine.  The local doctors respect the well established medical treatment approaches and traditions within the medical school by Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov.     The complex medical treatments are done in collaboration with the doctors from the medical clinics in Vinnytsia, Kyiv and other places. The medical qualifications by the doctors are constantly monitored and improved during the courses, seminars and consultations with the professors from the Vinnytsia National Medical University named after the Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov in Vinnytsia, Ukraine.  
There is an inter-city bus station in the center of Bar. The distance from Town of Bar to the City of Vinnytsia is 68 km.
- Danylo Nechay, a Ukrainian Cossack military commander and political activist, was born in Bar in 1612.
- Viktor Bunyakovsky, noted as a mathematician of the 19th century, was born in the city in 1804.
- Joseph Barondess, a writer, a labor leader and a political figure in New York City's Lower East Side Jewish community in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century, was born in Bar in 1867.
- Batsheva Katznelson, an Israeli politician, who served as a member of the Knesset for the General Zionists between 1951 and 1955, was born in Bar in 1897.
- Jacobo Timerman was born in Bar in 1923, and became internationally renowned as an editor and journalist in Argentina.
- Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky wrote a few of his well-known writings while living in Bar. His house is a place of interest for the Ukrainian and foreign tourists and it is under reconstruction.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bar, Ukraine.|
- Encyclopedia of Ukraine
- Bar castle
- "Bar, a town of Russia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Bar, Russia". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- The murder of the Jews of Bar during World War II, at Yad Vashem website.
||Khmelnitsky Ukraine||Vinnytsia Ukraine||Kyiv Ukraine|
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|Chernivtsi Ukraine||Mogilev-Podolskiy Ukraine||Odessa Ukraine|