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Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast

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Bar
Бар
City
General view on Bar and its old cathedrals.
General view on Bar and its old cathedrals.
Flag of Bar
Flag
Coat of arms of Bar
Coat of arms
Bar is located in Vinnytsia Oblast
Bar
Bar
Coordinates: 49°04′30″N 27°40′34″E / 49.07500°N 27.67611°E / 49.07500; 27.67611
Country  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Vinnytsia Oblast.svg Vinnytsia Oblast
Raion Bar Raion
First mentioned 1401 (as Rov castle)
Magdeburg law 1540
City rights 1938
Named for Bari in Italy
Government
 • City Head Artur Anatoliyovych Tsitsyurs'ky
Area
 • Total 5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)
Population (2015)
 • Total 16,409[1]
 • Density 2,890/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 23000-23005
Area code(s) +380-4341
Sister cities Kwidzyn in Poland, Bari in Italy
Website http://www.bar-city.com.ua/

Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Italian: ˈBaːr; Latin: Barium; Ancient Greek: Βάρ; Polish: Bar; Russian: Бар ) Listeni/ˈbʌr/ is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. Population: 16,409 (2015 est.)[1]

Original Coat of Arms History Museum in Bar
Engraving of Bona Sforza in 1517
Modern Coat of Arms History Museum in Bar
View on Old Bar Fortress Walls Designed by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan in Bar
View on Old Bar Fortress Walls Designed by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan in Bar
View on Old Bar Fortress Walls Designed by Guillaume Levasseur de Beauplan in Bar
Old Picture of the Old Fortress, St. Pokrovsky Monastery and St. Anna Catholic Cathedral
Old picture with a general view onto the city of Bar
Old picture of the St. Anna Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Business District in Bar
Residential District in Bar
St. Uspensky Cathedral in Bar
Roman Catholic St Anna Cathedral in Bar
Old Bell Tower at St Pokrovsky Cathedral in Bar

Name[edit]

Bar was named for Bari in Italy by the Polish Queen Bona Sforza in 1537.[citation needed] Bar is a traditional name and a most frequently used name for the city at present time.

History[edit]

City history periods[edit]

Historical affiliations
Roman Catholic Church, 1811 and Orthodox Church, 1719 in Bar
Very Old Chernyakhov culture items found near Bar, History Museum
Ukrainian Culture Exhibition, History Museum
Bar's Life Style before World War II in 1941-1945 Exhibition, History Museum
World War II in 1941-1945 Exhibition, History Museum
Central Square
St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
St. Anna Catholic Cathedral in Bar

The city was a small trade outpost Rov (Duchy of Podolia) on the Riv River from the 13th to 15th centuries, and it was described as Rov for the first time in 1401 (from other information sources in 1425[2]). In 1537 the Polish Queen Bona Sforza renamed the settlement to Bar in 1537,[2] after her hometown of Bari in Italy and in 1630s Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan built a fortress there[2] and described Bar in his book: "Description d'Ukranie".[3]

In 1540, the Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and resisted all assaults. But during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwards.[citation needed]

In 1672 the Town of Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But the Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699.

On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was founded by the magnates Adam Krasiński, Bishop of Kamenets, Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł, Casimir Pulaski, Moritz Benyowszki and Michał Krasiński in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town fell under Russian Empire rule and was part of Podolia Governorate.

After 1922, the Town of Bar was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been part of independent Ukraine.

The city of Bar was comprehensively described in the doctorate thesis by Mykhailo Hrushevsky: Bar Community: Historical Outlines in the 15th to 18th centuries. The international conference on the Town of Bar history will be held in Bar on September 26, 2014,.[4] There is a monument of Mykhailo Hrushevsky in Bar city.

Bar was shortly described in a book titled: "Geographic Dictionary of Polish Kingdom and other Slavic places," published by Filip Sulimierski i Władysław Walewski in Warsaw in Poland in 1885.[5][6]

Bar was comprehensively described in the Histrory of towns and villages of Ukrainian SSR encyclopedia dictionary by the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences in 1972.[7][8]

Bar was also described in the Electronic Jewish Dictionaries and other information resources in Israel in 2016.[9][10][11]

The information on Bar was published in the digital encyclopedia dictionary in Russian Federation in 2016.[12]

The history of Bar is discussed in the Ukrainian mass media.[13][14]

Basketball stadium with synthetic rubber cover in Bar
Basketball stadium with synthetic rubber cover in Bar
Basketball game at basketball stadium with synthetic rubber cover in Bar
Football stadium in Bar
Football stadium in Bar
European football (soccer) game at football stadium in Bar
Sportive orientation championship in Bar
Ukrainian traditional woman's clothes show at Easter holiday in Bar
Ukrainian Easter celebration in Bar
Ukrainian Easter celebration in Bar
Ukrainian Easter celebration in Bar

Main dates in Bar history[edit]

City museum of history[edit]

All the historical facts and findings are collected and archived in the history museum in Bar, Ukraine.[15][16]

Evidences of Chernyakhov culture were found at the western part of Bar city; evidences of Trypillian culture existed at the eastern part of Bar city; evidences of Scythian culture were found at the western part of Bar city.[citation needed]

An exposition about the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and the Bar's city history attracts a number of domestic and foreign visitors A Ukrainian culture exhibit, includes exhibits on Ukrainian clothes, ceramics, coins and iron artifacts. The museum has a collection of the icons and ancient artifacts, related to the various religions in Bar.

There is an exposition about the World War II and related historical events.[15][17]

The literature data about the City of Bar history periods are collected in the research article.[18]

Old Bar Fortress historical site[edit]

The Old Bar Fortress, initially built in 1537,[19][20] and later re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan[21] in 1630s,[2] represents a historical site of growing interest for the Ukrainian tourists, foreign tourists, scientists from various universities and local people.

The Old Bar Fortress is surrounded by the old cathedrals and other religious buildings on one side as well as by the Riv River on other side. There is an old green trees park with the numerous pathways inside the fortress. The Old Bar Fortress shines in the recently installed orange lights (July, 2015) at the night time, attracting many tourists from Ukraine and abroad.

There is a plan of complete reconstruction of the Old Bar Fortress, which was proposed at the ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," which was held in Bar in September 2014.[22]

World War II period[edit]

The World War II exposition is presented at the History museum in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine, including the historical facts description, the local people life stories and the military equipment exhibition in 1941-1945.

The life of people in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine before the World War II is depicted, including the various collected artifacts, paintings, photographs. In addition, the military equipment findings, related to the war period, are also presented at the World War II Exhibition at History Museum in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine (see the photographs).

The military uniform and medals were presented by the veterans, who also shared their memories with the historians at at History Museum in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine.

The German fascists occupied the Town of Bar and killed many thousands of the Ukrainian, Russian and Jewish people in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine in 1941-1943. The German fascists met the strong resistance from the side of local population and Soviet army in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine in 1941-1943.[citation needed]

The Jewish community numbered in the tens of thousands people in Bar before World War II. There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the German fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942. [23]

There are the two big memorials, situated at the central square and at the central park, which are devoted to the World War II in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

From the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a soft humid continental climate (see the Climate chart). Bar's district is historically known as an apple tree growing region[citation needed], with the presence of both a soft humid continental climate and appropriate soil.

Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
21
 
 
2
−7
 
 
25
 
 
5
−6
 
 
47
 
 
10
2
 
 
65
 
 
18
8
 
 
106
 
 
23
13
 
 
133
 
 
27
18
 
 
395
 
 
29
22
 
 
364
 
 
30
22
 
 
169
 
 
26
17
 
 
52
 
 
20
10
 
 
53
 
 
12
3
 
 
22
 
 
4
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The winter is relatively cold and it is usually full of snow; the early spring is warm; the summer is sunny and it is characterized by the sufficient humidity levels; the autumn is cloudy and rainy, coming with Atlantic cyclones (see the Weather box).

Climate data for Bar, Ukraine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
17.3
(63.1)
22.3
(72.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.2
(90)
35.0
(95)
37.8
(100)
36.5
(97.7)
31.5
(88.7)
28.6
(83.5)
19.9
(67.8)
10.3
(50.5)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.2
(41.4)
13.4
(56.1)
20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
12.0
(53.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.1
(22.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.3
(46.9)
14.5
(58.1)
17.4
(63.3)
19.2
(66.6)
18.6
(65.5)
13.4
(56.1)
7.8
(46)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.8
(27)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−6.1
(21)
−2.2
(28)
3.7
(38.7)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.1
(57.4)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −35.5
(−31.9)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−24.2
(−11.6)
−12.7
(9.1)
−2.8
(27)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−27.2
(−17)
−35.5
(−31.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.18)
45
(1.77)
50
(1.97)
94
(3.7)
83
(3.27)
66
(2.6)
64
(2.52)
30
(1.18)
37
(1.46)
35
(1.38)
591
(23.27)
Average rainy days 7 6 9 13 14 15 15 11 12 11 12 9 134
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 70.6 114.7 171.0 248.0 255.0 266.6 260.4 195.0 133.3 57.0 40.3 1,870.8
Source #1: Gismeteo.[24]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory.[25]

People of Bar support the global climate protection initiative due to the introduction of waste management program, the optimization and creation of effective public transportation, the minimization of air pollution by industrial plants, the thermal isolation of private and public buildings, the encouragement of bicycle transportation and tourism, the support of renewable energy initiatives.[26]

Cityscape[edit]

The Bar city area is around 1387 hectares. The Bar district area is around 1102 square kilometers. The maximum altitude above the sea level is 368,8 meters.[citation needed]

The central part of the city has a number of the historical cathedrals and the modern architecture buildings. [27] There is a central square with a fountain, which is surrounded by the history museum, cinema, culture palace, trade center, modern hotel, city library, employment center building and some other governmental buildings in the downtown.

There is a sport stadium for football, basketball, volleyball in the center of the city. There is a swimming pool building not far away from the stadium. The local football team plays the football games at the stadium regularly. The pop music performances by various artists from Ukraine take place at the stadium from time to time.

The main educational institutions, including the Humanitarian-Pedagogical College and the Automobiles and Roads College are situated in close proximity to the downtown. Also, there are many secondary schools in the central district in the city.

The local market at Sobornaya Street is located on a walking distance from the downtown, with a market on Saturday and Sunday mornings.

The modern big residential apartments buildings, made of the red and white bricks, can be found around the city.

There are the green trees park and the Riv river with many white and yellow lilies near the central district in Bar.

Photo with panoramic view

The Bar city library, which is located in a modern architecture building, has a digital library with Internet access.

Environmental issues[edit]

Bar is known as a little piece of Italy in Ukraine[28]

Climate change is a big problem, because of an impact by the increasing temperature on the local climate.

Population[edit]

Historical population[edit]

The Bar city's total population was around 3,341 in 1850, increasing to 16,442 by 2013 approximately.[29] [30]

The historical population is accurately characterized in the following chart:

Languages[edit]

The percentage of people, who know how to speak, read, write the Ukrainian language in Bar is (95.5%).[31] In real life, the local population (100.0%) primarily speaks the Ukrainian language (70.6%), the Russian language (20.0%), the Polish language (9.0%), the Italian language (0.1%), the Hebrew language (0.1%), the German language (0.1%) and the English language (0.1%). [31]

Originally, the entire population spoke the old Slavic languages mainly, however the various historical events and the increasing international trade led to the situation, when the local population was able to get the other foreign languages skills.

The Ukrainian and Russian languages are studied as the first languages and the German and English are studied as the second languages by the local young people at the secondary schools in Bar.[citation needed]

The English language is also studied at the advanced level at English Language Faculty at Humanitarian - Pedagogical College in Bar.

A big collection of the American books, textbooks, dictionaries and various magazines was donated to the central city library by Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA a few years ago.[citation needed] In addition, the numerous computers with the audio-headsets were installed and connected to the Internet at the central city library due to both the personal efforts by Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA and the Bibliomist program. Therefore, it is possible to learn the English language at the central city library in Bar.

Languages in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine
Languages Census 1980 Census 2001 Census 2013
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Ukrainian 11608 70.6% 11608 70.6% 11608 70.6%
Russian 3288 20.0% 3288 20.0% 3288 20.0%
Polish 1480 9.0% 1480 9.0% 1480 9.0%
Population 16.442 100% 16.442 100% 16.442 100%

Government and politics[edit]

Administrative issues[edit]

The Bar municipality is administratively subdivided into a number of municipal districts.[32]

Governance issues[edit]

The mayor is elected by direct public election, while the heads of other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The Mayor of Bar has the executive powers; the City Council has the administrative powers to check the mayor's decisions, and the City Assembly can accept or reject the mayor's urban development strategy, city budget and city modernization proposals each year.[32]

The City Council constitutes the executive government of the City of Bar, operating as a collegiate authority. The City Council is composed of a few respected councilors, each heading the corresponding departments and bureaus. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws, decreed by the City Assembly, are carried by the City Council.[32]

The regular election of the City Assembly by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bar, allowed to vote, can be elected as a member of the City Assembly.[32]

The mayor, city council, city assembly hold their regular meetings in the City Hall in Bar.[32]

Sister cities[edit]

Bar has a number of sister city agreements, including Bari, Kwidzyn, Rybnik.[32]

Education[edit]

Colleges and schools[edit]

There are a few educational institutions in the Bar city, for example:

  • 1. The Hrushevsky Humanitarian Pedagogical College where the students can study English language, finances, accounting, law, teaching, painting, music and other subjects;[33][34]
  • 2. The Bar College of Transport and Construction, founded by Tunik, where the students can study the modern engines and automobiles designs;[35][36]
  • 3. The Bar Professional Building Construction College, where the students study the architecture and buildings construction technologies;[37]
  • 4. The specialized music school,[38]
  • 5. A number of secondary schools;
  • 6. A city wide-screen cinema;
  • 7. A city history museum;[16]
  • 8. A contemporary art gallery.

Public libraries[edit]

There is a modern central city library in downtown, which provides the library services to the local people and the foreign visitors in Bar's district.

Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA worked on the Bibliomist program[39] to modernize the modern central city library and the one library for the young people in Bar. The Bibliomist is a part of Global Libraries initiative of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

The Bar city library was extensively renovated due to the financial support by KfW bank in Germany in June, 2015. [40]

Also, there are the two small libraries for the young readers, one is located in downtown and another one near the medical hospital in Bar. In addition, there are the libraries at the Hrushevsky Humanitarian Pedagogical College and at the Automobiles and Roads College in Bar. There is an interconnected network of small remote libraries with Internet access at the villages in Bar's district.

Religion[edit]

Bar has a lot of religious traditions. It is a center of Ukrainian culture[41] and an attractive tourist destination with a large number of old Ukrainian cathedrals and the new churches such as:

Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
Altar at St. Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
Old Icons at St. Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
Old Icons at St. Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral in Bar
St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Altar at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Old Icons at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Organ at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Interior at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Interior at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Interior at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
Interior at St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar
St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral in Bar

The Assumption Orthodox Church, built by Tymofiy Matkovsky in 1755–1757 at the same place, where the Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in 1700.[42][43][44]

The Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural achievements and one of the oldest buildings in Bar, Ukraine, which has changed, reflecting the historical developments in Ukraine over the centuries. The old altar at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is made of special wood with the metallic decorations and the religious paintings.

The Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in the early 17th century. The first written memories about the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral (the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church), which was created at the Trinity Orthodox Church place, are related to 1719.[citation needed] The interesting fact is that the new architectural design of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral was developed, and then, the actual cathedral was constructed, using the stone, in 1755 – 1757. As it is described in the historical documents in 1771 and 1783, the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral had a high altar with the Savior icon and the two other altars.

Vasyl Matkovsky was a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar on that time. In 1795–1809, Ioan Sinitsky became a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. At the same time, Fedir Batulinsky, priest (1800–1802) and Stefan Batulinsky, priest (1804–1820) conducted their religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. Pavlo Batulinsky (1838–1844) served as a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, and then he became a key owner and a cathedral bishop in Kamyanets soon after that. Vasyl Kuzminsky, as a priest in 1844–1849 and Simeon Karchevsky, as a priest in 1849–1861 worked to continue the religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. In addition, Simeon Karchevsky was a head of the Bar Orthodox Religion School at the same time. Hryhoriy Yankovsky, as a priest in 1861–1881, Ivan Korchynsky, as a priest (1881–1892), Pavlo Savluchynsky, as a priest (1892), Afanasiy Dvernytsky, as a priest (1892–) were recognized for their outstanding religious mission services at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar.

The Assumption Orthodox Church was closed for the renovation in 1838–1851. The full restoration of the Assumption Cathedral was also done in 1975. The “gold plated” domes were installed and the façade renovation works were completed at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in 2013.[citation needed]

At present time, there are the two old icons at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine: The St. Michael Myrlikiys’ky Miracle Man icon, created in Bari, Italy in the 16th century and presented by Bona Sforza; and The God’s Mother icon with the silver frame, created in the 17th century, which saved the cathedral from the fire in 1737 and 1760.

Ryabyi Serafym(Provoznyk) Simeon(Shostatsky) MissingData3 MissingData2 MissingData1 Afanasiy Dvernytsky Pavlo Savluchynsky Ivan Korchynsky Hryhoriy Yankovsky Simeon Karchevsky Vasyl Kuzminsky Pavlo Batulinsky MissingData Stefan Batulinsky Fedir Batulinsky Ioan Sinitsky Vasyl Matkovsky

Priests at Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in City of Bar in State of Ukraine 1795-2016. [45] [46] [47]

Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral and Assumption Orthodox Church

The Roman Catholic St. Michael Cathedral, built in 1550 (the soft wood); and then, it was renamed as the The Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral, re-built in 1811 (the stone); it was renovated by Y. Tamanchuk, architector in 1900 – July 26, 1906 (the red bricks)[48][49] The old altar at the St. Anna Catholic Cathedral is made of the stone and special wood with the old religious icon placed on the top of altar.

There is an organ to perform the organ music at the religious ceremonies at the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral. A number of the professional organ musicians can play the organ music at the religious ceremonies at the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral.

The Dekanat of Bar includes the following Roman Catholic Churches: Bar - parish of St. Anna; Berezivka - Parish of St. Józef; Brahyliv - parish St. Most Holy Trinity; Chemeryshke - parish St. Jan Chrzciciel; Czerniowce- Parafia St. Mikołaja B. M.; Jałtuszków- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Szkaplerznej; Kopajgród- Parafia Zesłania Ducha Świętego; Koziarówka - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusowego; Kuryłowce- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Łuczyniec - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Malczowce - Parafia Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Meżyrów - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mohylów Podolski - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mołczany- Parafia St. Wojciecha; Mytky- Parafia St. Józefa; Ozarzyńce - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Sokół- Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Śnitków - Parafia Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Tarasówka- Parafia St. Jana Nepomucena; Wendyczany - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Wierzbowiec - Parafia St.Michała Archanioła; Wilchowiec- Parafia Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Wyszczeolczydajew - Parafia Miłosierdzia Bożego; Zatoki - parish St. Antoniego Padewskiego; Zhmerynka - parish of St. Aleksego.

The Ukrainians with the Polish and Italian family roots, who belong to the Roman Catholic religion, like to visit the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral regularly. The Polish and Italian tourists visit the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral occasionally. The Polish young volunteers of the Roman Catholic religion come to Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral with the aim to help with the reconstruction and renovation works during the Summer time frequently.

Pokrovsky Monastery's Bell Tower in Bar
Polish Tourists on Bus Tour to Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery in Bar
Old Bell Tower at St Pokrovsky Monastery in Bar
Pokrovsky Monastery in Bar

The former St. Pokrovsky Monastery, which is now known as the Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery. In the beginning, the first monastery was founded by Knight Vereshagin in the woods near Semenivky not so far away from Bar. Then, the monastery was built, using the stone, in Bar in 1551. It was re-built in 1701–1781. The history of old monastery has the three periods: 1) the Orthodox period, 2) the Catholic period, 3) the Basilian period. During the newest historical period, Cyril Podolsky initiated the foundation of the St. Pokrovsky orthodox monastery for males in 1837. The monastery was re-organized for females and chaired by Sister Melitina on July 20, 1881. The red bricks cathedral with the bells was built in 1908. The monastery was closed in 1959-1995. The Benedictine Sisters-Missioners of Bar re-opened the monastery in 1996.[50]

Old Bar Fortress Walls in Bar
Green Trees Park at Old Bar Fortress in Bar
Typical Recreation Day at Central Park at Old Bar Fortress in Bar
Panoramic View on Riv River Ecopark as Seen From Old Bar Fortress in Bar

The Old Bar Fortress, initially built in 1537,[19][20] and later re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan in 1630s.[2] The Old Bar Fortress is surrounded by the old cathedrals and other religious buildings. There is an old green trees park with the numerous pathways inside the fortress.

Greek Catholic Church
Altar at Greek Catholic Church

The Greek-Catholic church, opened in a newly reconstructed cathedral in 1996. The new altar at the Greek Catholic Cathedral is made of wood with the metallic decorations.

Holy Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar

The Holy Trinity Brailiv Monastery, made of red bricks, is in the process of construction under the management by Viktor Terletsky, priest and under the patronage by Simeon, Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Bar (former Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Mohyliv-Podilsky) at Harmaky near Bar since December 10, 2002. The St. Trinity Brailiv Monastery is intended for the females only.

St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar
St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar
St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar
St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar
St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar
St. Trinity Brailiv Orthodox Cathedral at Brailiv Monastery in Bar

The St. Michael Orthodox Church in the beginning of vulytsia Bunyakovska is being re-built. The idea is to re-create the old St. Michael church, which was built at this place a few hundreds years ago. Mr. Pogrebnyak, businessman is a main sponsor of construction works.

The old historical castles in Bar require more investments.[51]

The Synagogue The Bar's Jewish people community is well known for its contributions to the social, cultural, financial, economical and political fields in the Ukrainian society and abroad. The information on the Bar's Jewish people community is collected at various resources.[9][10][11][52]

According to the Encyclopaedia Vocabulary by Andreevsky I E (editor) published in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1891,[30] the total population was 13,761 people, and the Jewish population was 51% of total population in 1891 in Bar. In 1900 in Bar, the total population included: 7865 Jewish people, 2803 Orthodox people, 765 Catholic people. The Jewish community was some of the tens of thousands people in Bar before the World War II (5720 people in 1926).[11] There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942.[23] A special commemoration ceremony is usually organized in connection with the Holocaust Memorial Day in Bar, Ukraine on January 27 every year.[53][54]

The old synagogues were fully destroyed during World War II.[55] [56] [57] [58] [59]

World War II Memorial
World War II Memorial
World War II Memorial
Blossoming lilacs
Religion in Bar (2014),[55][60][61]
Christianity
  
97%
No Religion
  
1.5%
Judaism
  
1%
Islam
  
0.1%
Others/unspecified
  
0.4%
Panoramic View on Central Square in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Music Concert in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 1 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 2 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 3 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 4 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 5 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 6 Performed in Bar
Ukrainian Traditional Song no 7 Performed in Bar
Football Stadium in Bar
Ecopark at Riv River
Humanitarian-Pedagogical College
Humanitarian-Pedagogical College
Humanitarian-Pedagogical College Named after Hrushevsky
Podil's'ky Krai Newspaper Headquarter
"Podilsky Krai" newspaper main office
Bicycle Ecotourism around Old Castles
Modern Architecture Building in Downtown
Modern and Old Architectures Buildings at Central Square
High-rise building in Downtown
Bar-Vinnytsia Intercity Bus Shuttle at Bus Station in Bar
Horse Riding in Bar
Horses Riding in Bar
Tourists from Odessa on bicycle tour at Old Bar Fortress in Bar
Hunting Dogs Official Competition in Bar
Hunting Dogs Official Competition in Bar
Hunting Dogs Official Competition in Bar
Panoramic View on Bar from Riv river
Polish Culture House in Bar
Ukrainian Guinness Book Sign Points to Distances from Bar to Big Cities around the World

The Baptist Church was established in Bar in 1990s. The red-bricks cathedral is in a process of construction at the end of Bunyakovsky Street in Bar since 2000.

The Evangelist Church is situated in a small building in Bar since the beginning of 1990s.

Culture[edit]

Ukrainian culture[edit]

The Ukrainian culture is created on the base of the old Slavic culture. The Ukrainian culture was strongly influenced by the Italian, Polish and Russian cultures.

The Ukrainian traditional songs, dances, paintings, poetry and literature are present in Bar.

Notable tourist destinations include the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral, St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral, St. Pokrovsky Orthodox Cathedral, old fortress, central park with the old green trees, Ukrainian music/dances folk festivals, history museum, central city library, etc. in Bar.

The ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," was held in Bar in September 2014.

Polish culture[edit]

There is the Polish House, where the Polish cultural events are conducted. The Polish House was officially opened on May 22, 2016. [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70]

Science[edit]

A number of scientists have lived and/or worked in Bar, including:

1. physicist and mathematician Viktor Bunyakovsky, who created the scientific school in the physics and mathematics, and

2. medical doctor Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, who created the scientific school in the medicine.

Economy[edit]

Industrial corporations[edit]

The economy includes the ten main sectors such as the agriculture, building construction industry, machine design industry, information technologies (IT) industry, food processing industry, wood processing industry, public utilities industry, domestic/international trade, transportation services industry, financial services industry, tourism industry, education industry.[71]

Industrial companies in Bar include the Bar Industrial Machinery Plant.[72]

The food processing industry is represented by the Pfanner apple juice international firm, which exports the concentrated apple juice to Austria mainly.[73][74][75] There is the Barchanka big bottled mineral water company.[76] There is the Solodka Planeta cakes producing company.[77] There are the milk processing factory, the meat processing factory, and the fish processing factory in Bar.

The IT industry includes a number of small IT services companies (the software design) and Internet providing companies (the optical/wireline/wireless access to the Internet). There are few computer shops in the city.

The financial industry is represented by a number of Ukrainian banks, which provide the corporate finance services and the personal finance services in the city.[78] There are a few insurance companies offices in Bar.

There are several big trade centers such as the Econom food trade chain,[79] the Gusi-Lebedi electronics/furniture trade chain,[80] big market, hundreds of medium & small shops and drugstores.

The tourism industry includes several comfortable hotels and motels.

A relatively short distance from Bar, there is a natural gas compressor station, which pumps natural gas over the transcontinental Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline and the Union pipeline to the Polish, German and other European customers,.[81][82]

Governmental organizations[edit]

There is an Air Traffic Control Center with the beyond-visual-range-radar nearby, which provides air traffic control services in the English language for aircraft in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine.[83] There is also an airport, which helicopters and light airplanes can use.

Panoramic view of Bar made from an aircraft

Healthcare[edit]

History[edit]

The Jewish community hospital for 10 patient places, headed by Dr. Mareinis, licensed medical doctor, was in operation in Bar, Ukraine before 1920. Also, there were the three small medical hospitals for 15-20 patient places in Yaltushkov, Man'kovka and Kopaigorod villages in Bar's district before 1920.[84]

The medical hospital with 25 patient places was functional in Bar, Ukraine before 1940, but it is necessary to note a grim historical fact that Dr. Shamis, licensed medical doctor and Dr. Burstein, licensed medical doctor, including their Jewish families, were killed by German fascists in Bar, Ukraine at an occupation period during the World War II in 1940-1945.[84]

On August 1, 1945, the medical hospital of 70 patient places and with 72 medical workers was re-opened in Bar, Ukraine. The therapeutic, infectious, maternity, gynecologic, surgical, children's and x-ray diagnostic departments operated at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine on that time.[84]

Present time[edit]

Presently, the medical clinic and hospital provide a wide range of medical services to the patients in Bar.[84][85]

The ambulance department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was opened on February 1, 1955. The tuberculosis treatment department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was established on November 30, 1970. The blood transfusion department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was in operation since October 1, 1973. The medical clinics was opened in Bar, Ukraine on April 7, 1986. The psychoneurological department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was founded on April 4, 1989. The children's, therapeutic, neurologic, resuscitation departments at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine are situated in a new building, which was built in 1992.[84]

Around 10,000 patients undergo the medical treatments at the medical hospital, and around 210,000 patients visit the medical clinic in Bar, Ukraine every year.[84]

The medical school was established by Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov.[86][87][88][89]

Complex medical treatments are done in collaboration with the doctors from the medical clinics, universities and institutions in Vinnytsia, Kyiv and other places.[90]

The Vinnytsia National Medical University named after the Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov in Vinnytsia, Ukraine.[90][91]

Recreation[edit]

Green Trees at City Park at Old Fortress
Ukrainian Folk Festival in 2013
Ukrainian Folk Festival with Ukrainian Cultural Traditions Presentation in 2013.

There is a green trees park at the old fortress on the Riv river banks in the center of Bar, Ukraine, with acacias, pines, maples and other sorts of trees.[20][citation needed]

It is possible to see the blossoming lilacs and roses flowers around Bar during spring, summer and autumn.

There are the Ukrainian traditional dancing and music clubs, functioning at the Culture Palace and at the Humanitarian Pedagogical College in downtown.

Fishing is available from the boats at Riv river during the Spring, Summer, Autumn seasons.

Bicycle tourism is very popular among the local people, the tourist groups from the Ukrainian cities as well as the European cities.[citation needed]

There is a stadium at downtown, where the local football (soccer), basketball and volleyball teams play the games.

Sport[edit]

Football (soccer)[edit]

There is a big football stadium with the natural grass at downtown, where the local football (soccer) team plays the regular games in Bar. The "Kolos" football team from Bar has played in Vinnytsia region in Ukraine for many years.

Basketball[edit]

There is a modern open-air basketball stadium with the synthetic rubber cover, which was built at downtown in Bar in 2015. Also, there is the all-seasons basketball arena in Bar. The local basketball team, "Regina-Basket Bar" plays in Bar.[92]

Volleyball[edit]

There is a volleyball playground near the football stadium in Bar, where the local volleyball team competes with the teams from other Ukrainian cities.

Swimming[edit]

There is a modern swimming pool near the football stadium in Bar, which is in a process of modernization.

The junior football, basketball and volleyball players are trained and educated by the experienced coaches at all the stadiums in Bar.

Transport[edit]

Air transportation[edit]

There is a small airport for the light business jets and helicopters, which is equipped with all kinds of navigation devices and systems in Bar. At the same location, there is a big beyond-visual range radar, which provides the air traffic control and navigation services in Ukrainian, Russian and English languages for various airplanes and helicopters.

Railway transportation[edit]

There is a railway station nearby. The distance from the center of Bar to the Bar railway station is 7 km (4.3 mi).[93][94]

Automobile transportation[edit]

There is an inter-city bus station in the center of Bar. The distance from Bar to Zhmerynka is 30 km. The distance from Bar to Shargorod is around 60 km. The distance from Bar to Vinnytsia is 68 km (42 mi). The distance from Bar to Kiev is 311 km. The distance from Bar to Odessa is around 492 km. The distance from Bar to Kharkov is around 762 km.

Media[edit]

Print media[edit]

The main local newspaper is Barchany (name for the city residents),[95] which discusses local news mostly.

The other newspaper is Podolsky Krai,[96][97] which provides information on local news and developments.

Electronic media[edit]

There is an optical cable TV station with the modern digital electronic equipment and multiple satellite antennas to produce the local / international news programs for many thousands of householders.

Cuisine[edit]

Many cities provide the encyclopedic information on the cuisine, created in the course of history. The Ukrainian cuisine has formed and evolved in the historical process of the food selection and preparation through many centuries.[98]

Bar's traditional cuisine includes pork, beef, chicken, fish, potato, grains, rice, mushrooms and various vegetables. Bar's cuisine, includes borsch or Ukrainian red soup with meat, beets, cabbage, mushrooms; the Ukrainian ukha soup with the fish; the Ukrainian "shi" soup with sauerkraut; Ukrainian varenyky with meat, potato and cheese; the Ukrainian holubtsi with pork and beef, rice, carrot; the Ukrainian kotleta-po-Kyivs'ky with the pork and beef meet, the Ukrainian pork and beef sausages; Ukrainian smoked pork and beef sausages; Ukrainian shashlyk with pork and beef meat prepared on an open fire; grilled chicken with red pepper sauce; grilled duck with apples and black pepper; Ukrainian pierogi with meat, apples, and cherries; Ukrainian pizza with meat, vegetables and cheese.[99][100]

Potato with mushrooms, or macaroni and cheese, or pasta with cheese, or "dranniky" with grated potato and onions, or rice with green peas are normally provided as the garnish.

Bar's Jews have their own cuisine, based on the fish, chicken and vegetables products mainly. Stuffed pike from Riv river, cooked in the oven and liverwurst is also eaten.

A glass of red wine, a glass of white wine, a glass of champagne, cognac, whiskey and vodka are preferred by the locals during the holiday time.[citation needed]

The Kyivs'ky cake or the Napoleon cake or the Prague cake with a cup of the cappuccino coffee or a cup of the black/green tea are considered as the desserts-of-choice among the locals in Bar.[citation needed]

There are many restaurants and cafes, which serve the Ukrainian traditional food, tea, coffee in the city.

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the Statistics Department, there are the following ethnic groups in the city (see the diagram).[101] Bar population has the White, Asian, Black, Yellow, Mixed, Arab and other ethnic groups. Bar is also considered to be a cosmopolitan city.





Circle frame.svg

Ethnic groups in 2005[101]

  White (94%)
  Asian (1%)
  Black (1%)
  Mixed (2%)
  Arab (1%)
  Other (1%)

Notable people[edit]

Old Ukrainian Dresses Exhibition, History Museum
Old Ukrainian Ceramics Exhibition, History Museum
Old Ukrainian Ceramics Exhibition, History Museum
Old Roman and Ukrainian Metal Coins Exhibition, History Museum
Old Ukrainian Ceramics Exhibition, History Museum

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Bar is twinned with:[32][unreliable source?]

City/Town County / District / Region / State Country
Kwidzyn POL Kwidzyn flag.svg, POL Kwidzyn COA.svg Pomeranian POL województwo pomorskie flag.svg, POL województwo pomorskie COA.svg Poland Poland, Herb Polski.svg
Rybnik POL Rybnik flag.svg, POL Rybnik COA.svg Silesian POL województwo śląskie flag.svg, POL województwo śląskie COA.svg Poland Poland, Herb Polski.svg
Bari Flag of Bari.svg, Bari-Stemma.png Apulia Flag of Apulia.svg, Coat of Arms of Apulia.svg Italy Italy, Emblem of Italy.svg

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Hrushevsky, M., Etnographic data about Bar's population until XVIII century, Readings of Nestora-Letopistsa Historical Society, Kyiv, Ukraine, vol. VI, 1892.
  • Hrushevsky, M., Organization of management in Bar Starostvo, Readings of Nestora-Letopistsa Historical Society, Kyiv, Ukraine, vol. IX, 1895.
  • Hrushevsky, M., Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII, St. Vladimir University Publishing House, Bol'shaya-Vasil'kovskaya, Building no. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-12-004335-6, pp. 1 – 623, 1996.
  • Podolynnyi A., Town of Bar, Mayak Publishing House, Odessa, Ukraine, 1990, pp. 1 – 62.
  • Kozak O., Jaltuchowski M., Mesnyankin E., Bakalets' O., Nawrocki S., Petrina M., Neptunsky B., Sharovatova L., Lozinsky I. (editors), Bar: Key to Eastern Podillya, AMJ Marketing, Uslugi reklamowo-marketingowe, Marcin Jadach, 82-200 Malbork, ul. Jagiellonska 2/27, Poland, ISBN 978-83-927080-8-7, pp. 1 – 71, 2009.
  • Bondarczuk I., Nawrocki S., Jaltuchowski M., Telega J., Czornyj A., Bodnarczuck S., Mejdbrajer S. (editors), Bar, Wykonawca: Max, Joanna Moroczek, 86-200 Stronno, ul. Topolowa 9, Poland, pp. 1 – 91, 2001.
  • Storozhuk A., Podil's'ky Bar and its Suburbs: History and Present (Events. Features. Facts), Humanitarian - Pedagogical College, Bar, Ukraine, UDK 94 (477.44), pp. 1 – 282, 2010.
  • Jaltuchowski M. P., Lozinsky I., Lozinsky O., Siroklin O., Perun I., Bitko N., Welcome to Town of Bar at Podill'ya Region, "Papirus" Publishing House, 2005.
  • Jaltuchowski M. P., Magdeburg Right and Self - Administration in Bar and its Surrounding Districts in XVI - Beginning of XX Centuries, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 8 – 11, 2011.
  • Mesnyankin E. I., Role of Bona Sforza and Bernard Pretvich in Adaptation of Magdeburg Right in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 15 – 19, 2011.
  • Batih M. I., Bar Monastery of Fathers Vasyliyan and Bar Vasyliyan School, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 93 – 97, 2011.
  • Kharitonova I. V., Historical Centers of Spiritual Life in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 104 – 115, 2011.
  • Khilins'ka L. V., Regional Humanitarian College in History of Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 116 – 122, 2011.
  • Filipova S. M., History of Development of Bar District Library, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 138 – 142, 2011.
  • Savchuk P. N., History and Present of Bar Humanitarian - Pedagogical College named after M. Grushevsky, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 149 – 151, 2011.
  • Kryzhanivsky O. A., Matyushenko O. M., Rehabilitation Center for Young People with Disabilities in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 152 – 155, 2011.
  • Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 1 – 337, 2011.
  • Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan, Description of Ukraine, 1650; Kravets Ya. (translator), Kamenyar Publishing House, Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-7745-0300-3, pp. 1 – 301, 1990.
  • Tsytsyurs'ka V. A., The restoration project of the fortress in the town Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 24–42, September 2014.
  • Esiunin S., The Town of Bar in Mogilev District in the early twentieth century, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 75–81, September 2014.
  • Klimchuk A. A., Fathers Jesuits in Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 81–85, September 2014.
  • Khikhlach B. M., The Basilians in Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 86–93, September 2014.
  • Malinovsky Yu. L., Bar monastery in space and time, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 93–95, September 2014.
  • Kharitonova I. V., Basilian school as part of religion-spiritual life in Bar at XVI - XIX centuries, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 96–101, September 2014.
  • Gal'chak S. D., Role by representatives of Ukrainian intelligent people in birth of regional history studies in Vinnytsia region, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 127–132, September 2014.
  • Moroz V. S. and Moroz V. S., Roman coin on the Podillia and South-Eastern Volyn', ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 162–169, September 2014.
  • Kyrilyuk L. A., Bar's district library: Library in context of community life, II International Conference "Bar Land from Prism of Centuries", Bar, Ukraine, pp. 359–361, May 17, 2008.
  • Kyrilyuk L. A., Phenomenon of Bar's district library: Transformation of classical library into innovative organization, which intensifies social - economical development of territorial communities, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 176–180, September 2014.
  • Kryzhanivsky A., Western European tradition of the Sforza dynasty in the era of the Italian renaissance and its influence on the formation of social and cultural formations on land of Podolian the first half of the XVI century, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 190–196, September 2014.
  • Mesnyankin E. I., Bona Sforza and renaissance age in Podil'sky district, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 198–201, September 2014.
  • Koval' N. O., The figure of Queen Bona Sforza in the history of Bar land in Podill'ya, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 207–209, September 2014.
  • Zelenen'ka I. A., Bar's school of modern Ukrainian poetry, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 291–300, September 2014.
  • Pen'kova N. O., Ethnical-psychological features of Bar's land images creation and their pedagogical potential (going from literature by Podolyans), ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 322–329, September 2014.
  • Dmytrienko M. F., Mosunov M. M., Bakalets' O. A. (editors), Proceedings of the ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar-Kyiv, Ukraine, September 2014, Rogal's'ka І. О. Publisher, Khmel'nyts'ke Shose 145, Vinnytsia, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 1–348, 2014.
  • Bar, City in Podol'skoy Gubernii, Encyclopedia Dictionary by Brokgauz and Efron, vol. 86 (82 vols. and 4 additional vols.), St. Petersbourg, Russia, 1890—1907.
  • Bar, vol. VII, Big Soviet Encyclopedia, Soviet Encyclopedia Publishing House, Moscow, Russia, 1969—1978.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 49°04′30″N 27°40′34″E / 49.07500°N 27.67611°E / 49.07500; 27.67611