Barabbas // or Jesus Barabbas (a Hellenization of the Aramaic bar abba בר אבא, literally "son of the father" or "Jesus, son of the Father" respectively) is a figure mentioned in the accounts of the Passion of Christ, in which he is an insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover feast in Jerusalem, instead of releasing Jesus.
According to all four canonical gospels there was a prevailing Passover custom in Jerusalem that allowed or required Pilate, the praefectus or governor of Judea, to commute one prisoner's death sentence by popular acclaim, and the "crowd" (ochlos), "the Jews" and "the multitude" in some sources, were offered a choice of whether to have either Barabbas or Jesus released from Roman custody. According to the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and the account in John, the crowd chose Barabbas to be released and Jesus of Nazareth to be crucified. Pilate is portrayed as reluctantly yielding to the insistence of the crowd. A passage found only in the Gospel of Matthew has the crowd saying (of Jesus), "Let his blood be upon us and upon our children."
Matthew refers to Barabbas only as a "notorious prisoner". Mark and Luke further refer to Barabbas as one involved in a stasis, a riot. Robert Eisenman states that John 18:40 refers to Barabbas as a lēstēs ("bandit"), "the word Josephus always employs when talking about Revolutionaries".
Three gospels state that there was a custom at Passover during which the Roman governor would release a prisoner of the crowd's choice; Mark 15:6, Matthew 27:15, and John 18:39. Later copies of Luke contain a corresponding verse (Luke 23:17), although this is not present in the earliest manuscripts, and may be a later gloss to bring Luke into conformity.
The custom of releasing prisoners in Jerusalem at Passover is known as the Paschal Pardon, but this custom (whether at Passover or any other time) is not recorded in any historical document other than the gospels, leading some scholars to question its historicity.
Barabbas's name appears as bar-Abbas in the Greek texts of the gospels. It is derived ultimately from the Aramaic בר-אבא, Bar-abbâ, "son of the father". Some ancient manuscripts of Matthew 27:16–17 have the full name of Barabbas as "Jesus Barabbas" and this was probably the name as originally written in the text. Early church father Origen was troubled by the fact that his copies of the gospels gave Barabbas' name as "Jesus Barabbas" and declared that since it was impossible he could have had such a holy name, "Jesus" must have been added to Barabbas' name by a heretic. It is possible that later scribes, copying the passage, removed the name "Jesus" from "Jesus Barabbas" to avoid dishonour to the name of Jesus the Messiah.
Abba has been found as a personal name in a 1st-century burial at Giv'at ha-Mivtar, and Abba also appears as a personal name frequently in the Gemara section of the Talmud, dating from AD 200–400. It could be argued that these findings support "Barabbas" being used to indicate the son of a person named Abba or Abbas (a patronymic).[original research?]
The story of Barabbas has special social significance because it has historically been used to lay the blame for the crucifixion of Jesus on the Jews, and to justify antisemitism—an interpretation, known as Jewish deicide, dismissed by Pope Benedict XVI in his 2011 book Jesus of Nazareth, in which he translates "ochlos" in Matthew as "crowd", rather than to mean the Jewish people.
This practice of releasing a prisoner is said by Magee and others to be a literary creation of Mark, who needed to have a contrast to the true "son of the father" in order to set up an edifying contest, in a form of parable.
Dennis MacDonald, in The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark, notes that an episode similar to the one that occurs in Mark—of a crowd picking one figure over another figure similar to the other—occurred in The Odyssey, where Odysseus entered the palace disguised as a beggar and defeated his wife's suitors to reclaim his throne. MacDonald suggests Mark borrowed from this section of The Odyssey and used it to pen the Barabbas tale, only this time Jesus – the protagonist – loses to highlight the cruelty of Jesus' persecutors. However, this theory is rejected by other scholars.
According to historian Max Dimont, the story of Barabbas as related in the gospels lacks credibility from the Roman standpoint, as it presents the Roman authority, Pontius Pilate, backed by overwhelming military might, being cowed by a small crowd of unarmed civilians into releasing a prisoner condemned to death for insurrection against the Roman Empire. A Roman governor who had done that could have faced execution himself.
However, Richard Wellington Husband noted how the Paschal Pardon of Barabbas could have reasonably and legally occurred. According to scriptural text, the words used to describe Barabbas' imprisonment ("δέσμιος") only meant "one who is bound", and therefore did not necessarily indicate that he had already been legally convicted. This indicates that Barabbas was just being kept under guard until his trial occurred. Husband also pointed out that under Roman law the crimes, for which Barabbas was accused, carried a death penalty not a prison sentence. Husband concludes, "Barabbas was not in prison, therefore, as a punishment for his crime…It could not be the case that Barabbas had already been convicted, and was now awaiting punishment, for Pilate would then have lost the power to release him. Nor did the Romans allow an interval between conviction and execution, according to a ruling quoted by Theodosius from Gratianus." Since the law would have required Barabbas to be put to death immediately upon conviction, it can presumed that he was merely awaiting conviction thus making the story of Barabbas credible from the Roman standpoint.
Benjamin Urrutia, co-author of The Logia of Yeshua: The Sayings of Jesus, agrees with a well known theory in biblical scholarship as presented for instance by Hyam Maccoby, which says that Yeshua Bar Abba or Jesus Barabbas must be none other than Jesus of Nazareth, and that the choice between two prisoners is a fiction. Maccoby concludes that some of the acts attributed to Barabbas must then historically have been committed by Jesus, a view shared by Peter Cresswell. Urrutia opposes the notion that Jesus may have either led or planned a violent insurrection. Jesus, in this view, must have been the planner and leader of the Jewish nonviolent resistance to Pilate's plan to set up Roman Eagle standards on Jerusalem's Temple Mount. The story of this successful resistance is told by Josephus—who does not say who the leader was, but does tell of Pilate's crucifixion of Jesus just two paragraphs later in a passage whose authenticity is heavily disputed.
Art and literature
- In Spanish, barrabás is a colloquial word for a bad or naughty person.
- Barabbas, a 1950 novel by Pär Lagerkvist.
- Barabbas, a 1953 Swedish film adaptation of the 1950 novel directed by Alf Sjöberg.
- Barabbas, a 1961 film adaptation of the 1950 novel, directed by Richard Fleischer and starring Anthony Quinn as Barabbas.
- In the 1961 film King of Kings, Barabbas is portrayed by Harry Guardino the leader of the Zealots and a friend of Judas Iscariot.
- In the 1965 film The Greatest Story Ever Told, Barabbas is portrayed by Richard Conte.
- Barabbas is portrayed by Stacy Keach in the 1977 miniseries Jesus of Nazareth.
- Barabbas is portrayed by Pietro Sarubbi in Mel Gibson's 2004 film The Passion of the Christ.
- Barabbas, a 2012 TV adaptation of the 1950 novel, directed by Roger Young and starring Billy Zane as Barabbas
- In The Liars' Gospel, a 2012 novel by Naomi Alderman, Barabbas is one of the protagonists and Alderman depicts Barabbas rather than Jesus as the man who summons fishermen.
- The Belgian comics character Professor Barabas is named after the biblical character.
- Fulton Oursler, in his novel, The Greatest Story Ever Told, portrays Barabbas as a friend of St. Joseph, who was the husband of Mary and the stepfather of Jesus. Joseph's friend, originally known as Samuel, is a member of a group dedicated to the overthrow of Roman rule. Samuel, acquainted with the story of Jesus' birth, tells Joseph that he is choosing the name "Jesus Barabbas."
- Jason Eady released a song titled "Barabbas" ahead of his upcoming self-titled album in early 2017.
- Evans, Craig A. (2012-02-06). Matthew. Cambridge University Press. pp. 452–. ISBN 9780521812146. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Mark 15:6-15". biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "Luke 23:13-25". biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- "John 18:38-19:16". biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Matthew 27:25.
- Matthew 27:16.
- Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19.
- Contemporaries combining insurrection and murder in this way were sicarii, members of a militant Jewish movement that sought to overthrow the Roman occupiers of their land by force (Eisenman 177-84, et passim).
- Brown (1994), pp. 793–95.
- Robert L. Merritt, 'Jesus Barabbas and the Paschal Pardon', Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 104, No. 1 (Mar., 1985), pp. 57-68
- Cunningham, Paul A. "The Death of Jesus: Four Gospel Accounts". Center for Christian-Jewish Learning at Boston College.
- Evans, Craig A. (2012). Matthew (New Cambridge Bible Commentary). Cambridge University Press. p. 453. ISBN 978-0521011068.
- Dimont, Max I. (1992). Appointment in Jerusalem. e-reads.com. ISBN 978-1585865468.
- Warren, William (2011). "Who Changed the Text and Why? Probable, Possible, and Unlikely Explanations". The Reliability of the New Testament: Bart Ehrman and Daniel Wallace in Dialogue. Fortress Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0800697730.
- Brown (1994), pp. 799-800.
- Pope Benedict XVI (2011). Jesus of Nazareth. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
- "Pope Benedict XVI Points Fingers on Who Killed Jesus". March 2, 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-28.
While the charge of collective Jewish guilt has been an important catalyst of anti-Semitic persecution throughout history, the Catholic Church has consistently repudiated this teaching since the Second Vatican Council.
- Alward, Joseph F. "Jesus and Barabbas". Retrieved 2012-09-28.
- Brown (1994), pp. 811–14
- Husband, Richard Wellington (1917-01-01). "The Pardoning of Prisoners by Pilate". The American Journal of Theology. 21 (1): 110–116.
- Peter Cresswell, Jesus The Terrorist, 2009
- Peter Cresswell, The Invention of Jesus: How the Church Rewrote the New Testament, 2013
- Urrutia, Benjamin. "Pilgrimage", The Peaceable Table (October 2008)
- (Spanish) barrabás in the Diccionario de la Real Academia.
- Holland, Tom (6 September 2012). "The Liars' Gospel by Naomi Alderman – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Van Hooydonck, Peter, "Willy Vandersteen: De Bruegel van het Beeldverhaal", Standaard Uitgeverij, 1995.
- Fulton Oursler, The Greatest Story Ever Told at 80-83 (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1954).
- Brown, Raymond E. (1994) The Death of the Messiah, Vol. 1. New York: Doubleday