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Barack Obama Sr.
Baraka Obama[1]

(1934-06-18)18 June 1934[2][3]
Died24 November 1982(1982-11-24) (aged 48)
Nairobi, Kenya
  • British
  • Kenyan
Kezia Aoko
(m. 1954)
(m. 1961; div. 1964)
Ruth Baker
(m. 1964; div. 1973)
Children8, including Malik, Auma, and Barack
RelativesObama family

Barack Hussein Obama Sr. (/ˈbærək hˈsn ˈbɑːmə/;[8][9] born Baraka Obama, 18 June 1934[2][3] – 24 November 1982) was a Kenyan senior governmental economist and the father of Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States. He is a central figure of his son's memoir, Dreams from My Father (1995). Obama married in 1954 and had two children with his first wife, Kezia. He was selected for a special program to attend college in the United States and studied at the University of Hawaii where he met Stanley Ann Dunham, whom he married in 1961 following the conception of his son, Barack. Obama and Dunham divorced three years later.[10] Obama then went to Harvard University for graduate school, where he earned an M.A. in economics, and returned to Kenya in 1964. He saw his son Barack once more, when his son was about 10.

In late 1964, Obama Sr. married Ruth Beatrice Baker, a Jewish-American woman he had met in Massachusetts. They had two sons together before separating in 1971 and divorcing in 1973. Obama first worked for an oil company, before beginning work as an economist with the Kenyan Ministry of Transport. He was promoted to senior economic analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He was among a cadre of young Kenyan men who had been educated in the West in a program supported by Tom Mboya. Obama Sr. had conflicts with Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta, which adversely affected his career. He was fired and blacklisted in Kenya, finding it nearly impossible to get a job. Obama Sr. was involved in three serious car accidents during his final years; he died as a result of the last one in 1982.

Early life

Barack Obama Sr. was born in 1934[2][3] in Rachuonyo District[11] on the shores of Lake Victoria just outside Kendu Bay, British Kenya, at the time a colony and protectorate of the British Empire. He was raised in the village of Nyang'oma Kogelo, Siaya District, Nyanza Province.[12] His family are members of the Luo ethnic group.[13]

His father was Onyango (later Hussein) Obama (c. 1895–1979), and his mother was Habiba Akumu Nyanjango (c. 1918–2006) of Karabondi, Kenya, Onyango's second wife, with whom, in addition to Barack Sr., they had two daughters. After his mother left the family in 1945, the three children were raised by Onyango's third wife, Sarah Ogwel of Kogelo.[14][15] As a young man, Onyango, enlisting in the British colonial forces and visiting Europe, India, and Zanzibar where he converted from Roman Catholicism to Islam, changing his name to Hussein.[16] The Times of London, relying on statements by Obama's third wife, Sarah Ogwel Onyango Obama, 87, reported that he was jailed by the British on suspicion of supplying military information to the Kenyan independence movement and was subjected to beatings and abuse that left him with physical scars and a loathing of the British.[17][18] In his 2012 biography of President Obama, author David Maraniss states that Onyango didn't participate in the insurrections and wasn't imprisoned by the British, and continued to be trusted by white Kenyans.[19][20]

When Obama Sr. was about six years old and attending a Christian missionary school, he converted from Islam to Anglicanism when strongly encouraged by the staff, and changed his name from "Baraka" to "Barack".[1] He later became an atheist, contending that religion was mere superstition.[21]

While still living near Kendu Bay, Obama Sr. attended Gendia Primary School. After his family moved to Siaya District, he transferred to Ng'iya Intermediate School.[11] From 1950 to 1953, he studied at Maseno National School, an exclusive Anglican boarding school in Maseno.[22] The head teacher, B.L. Bowers, described Obama in his records as "very keen, steady, trustworthy and friendly. Concentrates, reliable, and out-going."[23]

In 1954 at age 20, Obama Sr. married Kezia Aoko[24] in a tribal ceremony in Kenya. They had two children, Malik (a.k.a. Roy) and Auma.[25]

College and graduate school

In 1959, the Kenyan Department of Education published Obama's monograph, entitled Otieno jarieko. Kitabu mar ariyo. 2: Yore mabeyo mag puro puothe. (English: Otieno, the wise man. Book 2: Wise ways of farming.)[26][27]

Due to his accomplishments, in 1959 Obama received a scholarship in economics through a program organized by the nationalist leader Tom Mboya. The program offered education in the West to outstanding Kenyan students.[28][29] Initial financial supporters of the program included Harry Belafonte, Sidney Poitier, Jackie Robinson, and Elizabeth Mooney Kirk, a literacy advocate who provided most of the financial support for Obama's early years in the United States.[30] Kirk and her literacy associate Helen M. Roberts of Palo Alto raised the money necessary for Obama to travel to the US.[31][32]

When Obama left for the United States, he left behind his young wife, Kezia, and their baby son Malik. Kezia was pregnant, and their daughter Auma was born while her father was in Hawaii.[33] At Obama's request, Helen M. Roberts committed to watching over and financially supporting the family that he had left behind, for as long as she remained in Nairobi.[34]

University of Hawaii

In 1959, Obama enrolled at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in Honolulu as the university's first African foreign student.[35] He initially lived across the street from the university at the Charles H. Atherton branch of the YMCA at 1810 University Avenue;[35] public records from 1961 indicate he later had a residence two miles southeast of the university at 625 11th Avenue in the Kaimuki neighborhood.[36]

In 1960, Obama met Stanley Ann Dunham in a basic Russian language course at the University of Hawaii and they started dating.[35] After becoming pregnant, Dunham dropped out of the University of Hawaii after the fall 1960 semester, while Obama continued his education.[37] Obama married Dunham in Wailuku on the Hawaiian island of Maui on 2 February 1961, despite parental opposition from both families.[38][39][37][40] He eventually told Dunham about his previous marriage in Kenya, but said he was divorced—which she found out years later was not true.[35]

Their son, future US president Barack Obama II, was born in Honolulu on 4 August 1961 at the former Kapiolani Maternity and Gynecological Hospital (succeeded by the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women and Children).[35][25][10] His birth was announced in The Honolulu Advertiser and the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, with his parents' address listed as 6085 Kalanianaole Highway in the Kuliouou neighborhood of Honolulu, seven miles east of the university—the rented home of Dunham's parents, Stanley and Madelyn Dunham.[36] Soon after her son's birth, Dunham took the infant with her to Seattle, Washington, where she took classes at the University of Washington from September 1961 to June 1962.[41]

Obama Sr. continued his education at the University of Hawaii and in 1961–1962 lived one mile east of the university in the St. Louis Heights neighborhood.[42][43] He graduated from the University of Hawaii after three years with a B.A. in economics[44] and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.[45] He left Hawaii in June 1962.[46][35]

Harvard University

Obama Sr. was offered a scholarship to study in New York City,[47] but declined it.[39] In September 1962, after a tour of mainland U.S. universities, Obama Sr. traveled to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he began a graduate fellowship in economics at Harvard University. He rented an apartment in a rooming house near Central Square in Cambridge.[29][48] Meanwhile, Dunham and their son returned to Honolulu in the latter half of 1962.[41] In January 1964, Dunham filed for divorce in Honolulu which was not contested by Obama;[37][49] they were divorced on 20 March 1964, whereupon Ann Dunham was granted sole custody of their son.[10][25]

Obama was forced to leave his PhD program at Harvard University in May 1964 because of administrators' concerns over his finances and personal life, including uncertainty over the number of wives he had, but he received an M.A. in economics from Harvard in 1965.[46][29][40][50][51] In June 1964, Obama met and began dating a 27-year-old Jewish-American elementary school teacher named Ruth Beatrice Baker, the daughter of prosperous Lithuanian immigrants to the United States.[52][53][54]

Return to Kenya

Third marriage

Obama returned to Kenya in 1964 after graduating from Harvard.[55][clarification needed] Baker followed him, and they married 24 December 1964.[56] They had two sons together, Mark Okoth Obama in 1965 and David Opiyo Obama in 1968.[57] Baker and Obama separated in 1971,[58][59] and divorced in 1973.[46][29] Baker subsequently married a Tanzanian man named Ndesandjo and took his surname, as did her sons Mark and David. Mark said in 2009 that Obama had been abusive to him, his late brother David, and their mother.[25][53][54]

In Kenya, Obama Sr. reconnected with his first wife Kezia. She had two sons after his return: Abo (b. 1968) and Bernard (b. 1970), believed to be his children.[25] Barack Obama, in his memoir Dreams from My Father (1995), said that his father's family had questioned whether Abo and Bernard are Barack Sr.'s biological sons.[60]

Economics career

Obama first worked as a government economist for an oil company in Kenya.[61] In 1965, Obama published a paper entitled "Problems Facing Our Socialism" in the East Africa Journal, harshly criticizing the blueprint for national planning, "African Socialism and Its Applicability to Planning in Kenya", developed by Tom Mboya's Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. Obama considered the document to be not adequately socialist and African.[62][63] Obama served as an economist in the Kenyan Ministry of Transport. Later he was promoted to senior economist in the Kenyan Ministry of Finance.[64]

In 1970, Obama was in a serious automobile accident, and was hospitalized for nearly a year. In December 1971, he traveled to Hawaii for a month.[65] There he visited with his ex-wife Ann Dunham and American son Barack II, who was nearly 10. The visit was the last time the boy saw his father.[39] During his trip, Obama took his son to his first jazz concert, a performance by the pianist Dave Brubeck.[66]

His son recalled Obama giving him his first basketball:

I only remember my father for one month my whole life, when I was 10. And it wasn't until much later in life that I realized, like, he gave me my first basketball and it was shortly thereafter that I became this basketball fanatic. And he took me to my first jazz concert and it was sort of shortly thereafter that I became really interested in jazz and music. So what it makes you realize how much of an impact [even if it's only a month] that they have on you. But I think probably the most important thing was his absence I think contributed to me really wanting to be a good dad, you know? Because I think not having him there made me say to myself, "You know what? I want to make sure my girls feel like they've got somebody they can rely on."[67]

Final years and death

Grave of Barack Obama Sr. in home of Sarah Onyango Obama in village Nyang'oma Kogelo in Siaya County, Kenya, 19 August 2016

According to Barack II's memoir, Obama's continuing conflict with Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta destroyed his career.[68] He came under suspicion after Tom Mboya was assassinated in 1969, as he had been a protege of the ruler. Kenyatta fired Obama, who was blacklisted in Kenya and found it impossible to get work. By the time Obama visited his son in Hawaii in 1971, he had a bad leg from the 1970 accident.[69]

Obama later lost both legs in a second serious automobile accident, and subsequently lost his job. His life deteriorated as he struggled with poverty and drinking. During his final decade, he never recovered his former social or economic standing. His friend Philip Ochieng, a journalist of the Kenya newspaper Daily Nation, has described Obama's difficult personality and drinking problems.[citation needed] In 1982, Obama had a relationship with Jael Otinyo and with her fathered his last son, named George Obama. George was raised by his mother, who later remarried; his stepfather cared for him as well.[25] Six months after George's birth, Obama died in a car crash in Nairobi. He was interred in his native village of Nyang'oma Kogelo, Siaya District.[15][23] His funeral was attended by ministers Robert Ouko, Peter Oloo-Aringo, and other prominent political figures.[11]


  • Otieno jarieko (Otieno, the Wise Man: A Series of Readers to Follow the Luo Adult Literacy Primer) (in Luo). Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, Eagle Press. 1959. OCLC 694566336.
  • "Problems facing our socialism: another critique of Sessional Paper No. 10" (PDF). East Africa Journal. 2 (4). Nairobi: 26–33. July 1965. ISSN 0012-8309. Retrieved 6 May 2011.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Jacobs (2011), p. 26: Her brother Baraka, as she [Hawa Auma] recalls, converted to Christianity when he was about six years old and changed his name to the more Christian-sounding Barack because the Christian missionaries at the early schools that he attended insisted that he do so.
  2. ^ a b c Maraniss (2012), p. 65: He had been born inside the euphorbia hedges of the K'obama homestead on 18 June 1934.
  3. ^ a b c Liberties (2012), p. 202: The age of the father is questionable since most of the documents Barack Hussein Obama filled out during his United States student visa was 18 June 1934; however, Obama II's book Dreams of My Father states his birth date was 18 June 1936. Check out Immigration and Naturalization Service records, and those documents also indicate the birth date to be 18 June 1934, thereby making Obama Sr. twenty-seven at the birth of Obama II instead of the annotated twenty-five on the birth certificate.
  4. ^ Fornek, Scott; Good, Greg (9 September 2007). "The Obama family tree" (PDF). Chicago Sun-Times. pp. 2B–3B. Retrieved 22 March 2008.
  5. ^ Crilly, Rob (22 August 2008). "Life is good in my Nairobi slum, says Barack Obama's younger brother". The Times. London. p. 37. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  6. ^ Pflanz, Mike (21 August 2008). "Barack Obama is my inspiration, says lost brother". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
  7. ^ "The President's Kin" (PDF). New York. 23 November 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  8. ^ Sally H. Jacobs. The Other Barack. PublicAffairs. 2011. Excerpt at NPR.org Retrieved 16 September 2011. Quote: "The Old Man had also been called Barack, but his was a working man's name, with the emphasis on the first syllable."
  9. ^ Interview of Sally H. Jacobs by John Batchelor. Archived 18 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine The John Batchelor Show. 16 July 2011 (19:10–19:50). Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  10. ^ a b c Cejka, T. Diane (30 November 2011). "Obama Immigration Records FOIA Requests". H. S. Mathers. p. 115. Retrieved 25 September 2015 – via Scribd.
  11. ^ a b c Oywa, John; Olwenya, George (14 November 2008). "Obama's dad and his many loves". The Standard. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
  12. ^ Ombour, Joe (4 November 2008). "Obama's father and the origin of Muslim name". The Standard. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  13. ^ Jackson, Paul (22 February 2022), "Roots", Pride in prejudice, Manchester University Press, doi:10.7765/9781526156730.00004, ISBN 9781526156730, retrieved 24 May 2023
  14. ^ Powell, Kimberly (2008). "Ancestry of Barack Obama". New York: About.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
  15. ^ a b Reitwiesner, William Addams (2008). "Ancestry of Barack Obama". Washington, D.C.: wargs.com (William Addams Reitwiesner Genealogical Services). Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  16. ^ Hudson-Koster, Mickie (8 December 2011), "Obama, Barack, Sr.", African American Studies Center, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195301731.013.49673, ISBN 978-0-19-530173-1, retrieved 24 May 2023
  17. ^ MacIntyre, Ben; Orengoh, Paul (3 December 2008). "Beatings and abuse made Barack Obama's grandfather loathe the British". The Times. No. 69497. London. p. 6. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  18. ^ "Dec. 12, 1963 – Kenya Gains Independence". The Learning Network. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  19. ^ JAMES FALLOWS The Making of the President 'Barack Obama,' by David Maraniss, The New York Times, 14 June 2012
  20. ^ David Maraniss BARACK OBAMA The Story Simon & Schuster
  21. ^ Obama, Barack (16 October 2006). "My spiritual journey". Time. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2008. My father was almost entirely absent from my childhood, having been divorced from my mother when I was 2 years old; in any event, although my father had been raised a Muslim, by the time he met my mother he was a confirmed atheist, thinking religion to be so much superstition.
  22. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 418.
  23. ^ a b Oywa, John (4 November 2008). "Tracing Obama Snr's steps as a student at Maseno School". The Standard. Nairobi. Retrieved 8 November 2008. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Fascinating story of Obama family". The Standard. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Foreman, William (4 November 2009). "Obama's half brother: our father was abusive; new novel 'Nairobi to Shenzhen' is patterned in part on Barack Obama, Sr". Today.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  26. ^ Bade, David W. (2000). "Books in African languages in the Melville J. Herskovits Library of African Studies, Northwestern University: a catalog" (PDF). Evanston, Ill.: Program of African Studies, Northwestern University. p. 304 (#3729). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  27. ^ Spak, Kara (7 December 2010). "Obama's African sales appeal on exhibit". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 20. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  28. ^ Dobbs, Michael (30 March 2008). "Obama overstates Kennedys' role in helping his father". The Washington Post. p. A1. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  29. ^ a b c d Jacobs, Sally (21 September 2008). "A father's charm, absence". Boston Globe. p. 1A. Retrieved 14 August 2009. ... Pake Zane, 66, who attended the University of Hawaii with Obama and had not publicly discussed their 1974 conversation until now. Zane was astonished at the transformation in his once vibrant friend, who had been divorced by his third wife a year before.
  30. ^ "Tom Mboya Archives", Library, Stanford University
  31. ^ Shachtman, Tom (2009). Airlift to America. St. Martin's Press. pp. 4–9. ISBN 978-0-312-57075-0.
  32. ^ Seccombe, Mike (27 August 2009). "Unlikely Events Recall Story of This President". Vineyard Gazette. Martha's Vineyard, MA.
  33. ^ Rice, Xan (6 June 2008). "'Barack's voice was just like his father's—I thought he had come back from the dead'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  34. ^ Jacobs, Sally H. (2011). The Other Barack. PublicAffairs. pp. 72–73, 90–91, 129–130. ISBN 978-1-58648-793-5.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Maraniss, David (24 August 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  36. ^ a b Hoover, Will (9 November 2008). "Obama's Hawaii boyhood homes drawing gawkers". The Honolulu Advertiser. p. A1. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  37. ^ a b c Ripley, Amanda (9 April 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 10 April 2008. (online)
    Ripley, Amanda (21 April 2008). "A mother's story". Time. Vol. 171, no. 16. pp. 36–40, 42. ("Raising Obama" cover story) (print)
  38. ^ Jones, Tim (27 March 2007). "Barack Obama: mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  39. ^ a b c Meacham, Jon (23 August 2008). "On his own". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010. (online)
    Meacham, Jon (1 September 2008). "On his own". Newsweek. 152 (9): 26–36. ("Special Democratic Convention issue") (print)
  40. ^ a b Salsberg, Bob (29 April 2011). "Files suggest elder Obama forced to leave Harvard". The Arizona Republic. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 May 2011. President Barack Obama's father was forced to leave Harvard University before completing his PhD in economics because the school was concerned about his personal life and finances, according to newly public immigration records.
  41. ^ a b Dougherty, Phil (10 February 2009). "Barack Obama moves to Seattle in August or early September 1961". Seattle: HistoryLink. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  42. ^ Griffin, John (22 June 1962). "First UH African graduate gives view on E-W Center". The Honolulu Advertiser. An off-campus resident himself (St. Louis Heights) Obama thinks it's a mistake to have the East-West students in dormitories.
  43. ^ Brannon, Johnny (10 February 2007). "Hawai'i's imperfect melting pot a big influence on young Obama". The Honolulu Advertiser. p. 1A. Retrieved 21 January 2011. The elder Obama lived first at the Atherton YMCA on University Avenue and later moved to St. Louis Heights.
  44. ^ "President Obama's connection to UH Economics". Honolulu: Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  45. ^ "U.S. Presidents share a Phi Beta Kappa connection". Focus News. Washington, D.C.: Phi Beta Kappa Society. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
  46. ^ a b c Sanders, Edmund (17 July 2008). "So alike and yet so different". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009. Obama's worsening drinking binges strained his career and marriage. "He would pass out on the doorstep," said Leo Odera Omolo, a former drinking buddy and friend of the family. "Ruth would complain he's getting out of hand." The couple divorced in the early 1970s.
  47. ^ One source says the scholarship was for New York University:
    Meacham, Jon (23 August 2008). "On his own". Newsweek. Retrieved 14 November 2008.;
    others say it was for the New School for Social Research, e.g.:
    Maraniss, David (22 August 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
    Ripley, Amanda (9 April 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
  48. ^ "Kenya student wins fellowship". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 20 June 1962. p. 7. A 1962 graduate, he leaves next week for a tour of Mainland universities before entering Harvard in the fall.
  49. ^ Merida, Kevin (14 December 2007). "The ghost of a father". The Washington Post. p. A12. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  50. ^ Jacobs (2011), p. 159.
  51. ^ Harvard alumni directory (14th ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Alumni Association. 1970. p. 1240. ISSN 0895-1683.
    "Harvard alumni directory, vol. 1". Harvard Alumni Directory (17th ed.). Boston, Mass.: Harvard Alumni Association: 904. 1986. ISSN 0895-1683.
  52. ^ Jacobs (2011), pp. 160–161.
  53. ^ a b Jacobs, Andrew (4 November 2009). "An Obama relative living in China tells of his own journey of self-discovery". The New York Times. p. A10. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  54. ^ a b Demick, Barbara (5 November 2009). "Obama's half brother describes abuse". Los Angeles Times. p. A32. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  55. ^ Jacobs (2011), p. 165.
  56. ^ Jacobs (2011), p. 177.
  57. ^ Ochieng, Philip (1 November 2004). "From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found". The EastAfrican. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
  58. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 126: [Ann Dunham]: "Later, when he came to visit us in Hawaii that time, he wanted us to come live with him. But I was still married to Lolo then, and his third wife had just left him, and I just didn't think ..."
  59. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 216: [Auma Obama]: "She left when I was twelve or thirteen, after the Old Man had had a serious car accident. He had been drinking, I think, and the Old Man was in the hospital, almost a year, and Roy and I lived on our own. When the Old Man finally got out of the hospital, that's when he went to visit you and your mum in Hawaii."
  60. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 335
  61. ^ "Obama's father forced out at Harvard". Politico. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  62. ^ Cohen, David William (2004). The risks of knowledge : investigations into the death of the Hon. Minister John Robert Ouko in Kenya, 1990. Ohio University Press. p. 182.
  63. ^ Smith, Ben; Ressner, Jeffrey (15 April 2008). "Long-lost article by Obama's dad surfaces". Politico. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  64. ^ Fornek, Scott (9 September 2007). "Barack Obama Sr.: 'Wrestling with ... a ghost'". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 4B. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
  65. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 62–71, 216.
  66. ^ "Kennedy Center honoree Brubeck's ties to Obama". New England Cable News. 6 December 2009. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  67. ^ BarackObama.com (21 November 2011). "Dinner with Barack: Two Teachers, an Army Veteran, a Small Business Owner, and The President". Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2011 – via YouTube.
  68. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 214–216.
  69. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 64–71, 212–219.