Barakzai dynasty

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Barakzai
بارکزایی
CountryAfghanistanPrincipality of Qandahar
(1818–1855)
Afghanistan Emirate of Afghanistan
(1823–1855) (Emirate of Kabul)
(1855–1926) (Emirate of Afghanistan)

Afghanistan Kingdom of Afghanistan
(1926–1973)

Afghanistan Republic of Afghanistan
(1973–1978)
Founded1823
Founder
Current head
  • Disputed
Final ruler
TitlesEmir of Afghanistan
King of Afghanistan
President of Afghanistan
Sardar (Prince) of Afghanistan
Father of the Nation
Head of the House of Barakzai
Ruler of Kandahar
Estate(s)Afghanistan, Khyber Pashtunkhwa and Balochistan
Deposition1978 (Saur Revolution)

The Barakzai dynasty (Pashto: بارکزایی, "Sons of Barak"), also known as the Muhammadzai dynasty ("the ruling sub-clan of the Barakzai"),[1][2][3][4] ruled modern-day Afghanistan from 1823 to 1978 when the monarchy ended de jure under Musahiban Mohammad Zahir Shah and de facto under his cousin Sardar Mohammad Daoud Khan. The Barakzai dynasty was established by Dost Mohammad Khan after the Durrani dynasty of Ahmad Shah Durrani was removed from power. As the Pahlavi era in Iran, the Muhammadzai era was known for its progressivist modernity, practice of Sufism, peaceful security and neutrality in which Afghanistan was referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia".[5]

History and background

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Ancestral background

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The Barakzai claim descent from the children of Israel in a direct line through the first Israeli King Saul, whose family intermarried with the family of his successor King David.[6][7] King Saul's grandson the Prince (Malak) Afghana was grown up by King Solomon, acting as his commander in chief and Manager in the construction of the Temple Mount.[8][9] However Prince Afghana sought refuge in a place called "Takht-e-Sulaiman", where he settled as Exil Arch.[10] A direct descendant of Prince Afghana in the 37th generation called Qais heard of the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and visited him in Medinah. Qais regarded Muhammad as the awaited Moschiach and embraced Islam under him. He changed his name Qais to Abdul Rashid Pathan and married a daughter of Khalid bin Walid.[11][12][13]

Qais Abdur Rashid's descendant Sulaiman, also known as "Zirak Khan" is regarded as the forefather of the Durrani Pashtuns to whom the Barakzai also belonged, next to the Popalzai and Alakozai. It is through Sulaiman's son Barak, that the Barakzai derive their name from, because Barakzai means "children of Barak".[14]

Naming Afghanistan

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It was in honor of their ancestor Prince Afghana of Israel, whom some Muslims venerate as a Saint that the first Barakzai King Sultan Mohammed Khan and his brother Dost Mohammed Khan have named their Kingdom "Afghanistan", a fact some Afghans tried to hide because of international antisemitic sentiments that were present in the late 19th century, reaching its peak in World War II in the form of Fascism.[15]

Political background

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The Barakzai dynasty was the line of rulers in Afghanistan in the 19th and 20th centuries. Following the fall of the Durrani Empire in 1823, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmad Shah Durrani's Afghan Empire as various sons of Timur Shah struggled for supremacy. The Afghan Empire ceased to exist as a single nation state, disintegrating for a brief time into a fragmented collection of small units. Dost Mohammad Khan gained preeminence alongside his brother, Sultan Mohammad Khan in 1823. Dost Mohammad Khan would found the Barakzai dynasty in about 1837. Thereafter, his descendants ruled in direct succession until 1929, when King Amanullah Khan and his brother Inayatullah Khan abdicated and their cousin Mohammed Nadir Shah secured the throne after defeating Habibullah Kalakani. The most prominent & powerful sub-clan of the Barakzai Pashtun tribe is the Mohammadzai, of which the 1823–1973 Afghanistan ruling dynasty comes.[16]

Prior the seizing of the Durrani empire by the Barakzai dynasty, Loy Qandahar was captured by the Dil Brothers, Sardar Pur Dil Khan, Sardar Kohan Dil Khan, Sardar Sher Dil Khan, Sardar Mir Dil Khan, Sardar Rahim Dil Khan, in the year 1818 and declared their independence, which lasted as an independent state until 1855, when Amir Dost Mohammad Khan unified Qandahar with Kabul.[17]

At the start of Barakzai rule over Emirate of Kabul in March 1823, the Afghans lost their former stronghold of the Peshawar Valley to the Sikh Khalsa Army of Ranjit Singh at the Battle of Nowshera. The Afghan forces in the battle were supported by Azim Khan, half-brother of Dost Mohammad Khan. During the Barakzai era, Afghanistan saw much of its territory lost to the British in the south and east, Persia in the west, and Russia in the north. There were also many conflicts within Afghanistan, including the three major Anglo-Afghan wars and the 1928–29 civil war.

Definition and Cadet Branches

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The Royal Barakzai or "Muhammadzai" are the descendants of the founder of the Barakzai dynasty the Emir ul Umara (Emir of all Emirs) Payindah Mohammed Khan, who plotted against the Durrani Imperial Family, proclaimimg himself Emir. Upon all descendants of Emir Payindah Mohammed the hereditary title Sardar (Prince) is bestowed.[18]

Seraj

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Emir Habibullah Khan, member of the Seraj cadet branch and Emir of Afghanistan

The Seraj cadet-branch are the descendants of Emir Dost Mohammed Khan, who alongside his predecessor and brother Sultan Mohammad Khan consolidated Barakzai rule in Afghanistan. The Seraj were mainly the Emirs of the first Emirate of Afghanistan that ended with the Saqqawist Coup led by Habibullah Kalakani. With support from the royal family, the Telai cadet branch killed Kalakani and re-established the second Barakzai Kingdom.

Telai

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The Telai cadet-branch are the descendants of Sultan Mohammad Khan "Telai", 2nd Emir of Afghanistan succeeding his father Payindah Mohammed Khan. The descendants of His Royal Highness Prince Yahya Khan Telai (Yahya-Khel) to whom Nadir Shah and Zahir Shah belonged were closely related to Amanullah Khan through marriages.[19]

H.M Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai (1792-1834). Regent of Kabul and of Peshawar; Son of Sardar Payendah Khan, brother of Dost Mohammad Khan.

Another Telai branch that had immense power in Afghanistan's military was that of His Royal Highness Field Marshal Prince Abdul Aziz Khan Telai and his children. Prince Abdul Aziz Telai was son of the Afghan King HM Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai and acted as a Field Marshal of the Afghan Army, preceding his grand-nephew Muhammad Nadir Shah as Minister of war under his other grand-nephew King Amanullah Khan. Prince Abdul Aziz additionally acted as Governor of Kandahar and Badakhshan. His eldest son was Prince Abdul Qayyum Khan, who acted as Governor of many central Afghan Provinces. Prince Abdul Qayyum Khan's son was the Afghan father of Physics and Royal Afghan UN ambassador Professor Prince Abdul Khalek Khan Telai, who was a Murid (religious novice) of his father in law Mir Muhammad Jan son of Mir Fazlullah Agha. Prince Abdul Khalek's descendants thus call themselves the Mir Muhammad Jan Khel and chose the surname Dakik (Persian for "Exact") after the Saur Revolution. Next to the title Sultan (Above Sardar/Prince but below Shah/King),[20] they also bear the title Mir and Sayyid to denote their descent to Muhammad through General Mir Muhammad Jan.[21][22]

Another known son of Prince Abdul Aziz was HRH Field Marshal Prince Amir Muhammad Khan Telai, who proclaimed himself Shah in exile in Peshawar contesting the rule of his rival cousin Mohammad Nadir Shah, siding with the British. His son Assadullah, whose nickname was "Sharza" became a General in the US Air Force, representing Telai interests in Washington DC.[21][22]

Another well known son of Prince Abdul Aziz was Brigade General Sardar Abdul Ghafar Khan, who acted as Commander of the Personal Royal Brigade of his cousin King Nadir Shah. It was Prince Abdul Ghafar Khan who executed the Amanist Charkhi family, who plotted against his cousin HM King Nadir Shah. These executions made by Prince Abdul Ghaffar Khan led to Ghulam Nabi Khan Charkhi's daughter convincing a Hazara Amanist called Abdul Khaliq Hazaragi to take revenge for the Charkhi family's massacre and murder HM King Nadir Shah.[21][22]

Shaghasi

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Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, and great-grandson of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai. Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain") to Dost Mohammad Khan 1856, and Sher Ali Khan. Regional Sardar, Governor of Turkistan and Balkh, and the first and only Loynaad of Afghanistan during the Barakzai dynasty.

The Shaghasi cadet-branch is another prominent and powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, descending from the brothers of Emir Sultan Mohammed Khan and Emir Dost Mohammed Khan.[23]

Shaghasi Khel are descendants of Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain") during the reign of the Kandahari Sardars (Dost Muhammad Khan's brothers), as well as the reign of Dost Muhammad Khan 1863 - 1866 and 1868 - 1879. His father, Bazar Khan Barakzai was a local Barakzai chief, and his grandfather was Sardar Yasin Khan Omar Khanzai (Barakzai), resident of Maruf District (at that time part of Arghistan District) of Kandahar, and one of the notable Sardars of Kandahar during the reigns of Timur Shah Durrani[24][25] and brother to Muhammad of the Mohammadzai. The Shaghasi's were even more powerful than the Mohammadzai's during the ruling of Emir Sher Ali Khan - Emir of Afghanistan, and Emir Amanullah Khan - Emir of Afghanistan (February 28, 1919 – 1926), later King of Afghanistan (1926 - January 14, 1929). Prominent Afghan historian, Abdul Hai Habibi denotes that during King Amanullah Khan's reign, the former governor of Kabul was Mahmoud Khan Yawar and the later one was Ali Ahmad Khan (both Shaghasi) Barakzai. Abdul Aziz Khan (later Minister of war, and Prime Minister, Mohammad Sarwar Khan and Abdul Karim Khan were Naib -ul- Hukuma's (all of them were Shaghasi) Barakzai. In Mazar-e-Sharif and Herat Abdul Karim and Mohammad Ibrahim Khan (later Minister) were also Khan Naib -ul- Hukuma's, and Abdul Rahman and Nik Mohammad Khan were Firqa Meshar (all of them were Shaghasi) Barakzai. Abdul Karim Khan in Paktya, and Dost Mahammad Khan Nazim (later Naib Salar, Sipah

H.R.H Field Marshal Wazir Abdul Aziz Khan Shaghasi. Minister of war and interior affairs under King Amanullah Khan.

Salar, Dar-ul-Adalat, and Hakim-e-Ala) in Ghazni, Uruzgan and Kandahar

were equally (Shaghasi) Barakzai, Mohammad Alam Khan in Lugar and Kuchi and other governors were the same.[26] To the Shaghasi Khel is related King Amanullah Khan's mother H.M. Queen Sarwar Sultana Begum, Siraj ul-Khwatin, the Aliya Hazrat (b. at Kabul, 1875; d. at Istanbul, Turkey, 1965), eldest daughter of Loinab Sher Dil Khan Shaghasi, by his third wife, Benazir Begum, a lady form the Popalzai clan.[27]

Ali Ahmad Khan Shaghasi (1883–1929) who was declared Emir of Afghanistan twice in 1929 son of General H.E. Loinab Khushdil Khan, sometime Governor of Kabul and Kandahar, by his wife Sahira Begum, daughter of H.H. Amir al-Mumenin, Amir al-Kabir, Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, by his wife, a daughter of Agha Muhammad Qizilbash was also Shaghasi Barakzai.  Ali Ahmad's sister, the Ulya Mukhadara Zarin Jan Begum was the mother of Humaira Begum who was the Queen consort of Afghanistan.[28]

List of Barakzai rulers

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Principality of Qandahar (1818-1855)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Sardar Sher Dil Khan1818July 1828Sardar Sher Dil Khan son of Sardar Payendah Khan, grand son of Sardar Jamal Khan Barakzai.
Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai' son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, grand son of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Barakzai
Sardar Pur Dil Khan18281830Sardar Pur Dil Khan' son of Sardar Payendah Khan, grand son of Sardar Jamal Khan Barakzai.
Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai' son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, grand son of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Barakzai
Sardar Kohan Dil Khan1792-185518181855Sardar Kohan Dil Khan' son of Sardar Payendah Khan, grand son of Sardar Jamal Khan Barakzai.Acted as King of Qandahar.[29] Son of Sardar Payendah Khan. Was also Regent of Bamiyan and military regent of Kashmir. Was buried at the shrine of Hz. Ge Baba in Qandahar, used as mausoleum for the Qandahari Kings.
Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai' son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, grand son of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Barakzai
Sardar Muhammad Sadiq Khan18551855Son of Sardar Kohan Dil Khan, grand son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai. was in 1838 regent of FarahBarakzai
Dost Mohammad Khan1855Unified the principality of Qandahar with the Emirate of Kabul to Emirate of Afghanistan.Barakzai

Emirate of Afghanistan
(Emirate of Kabul 1823–1855)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Sultan Mohammad Khan
  • Mohammad Khan Telai
1792–183418231826
(resigned)
Regent of Kabul and of Peshawar; Son of Sardar Payendah Khan, brother of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiSultan Mohammad Khan Telai of Afghanistan
Dost Mohammad Khan
(1st reign)
  • Amir al-Mu'minin, Amir-i Kabir
23 December 1792 – 9 June 1863Summer 18266 August 1839
(deposed)
Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai' son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, grand son of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Sardar Payendah Khan, grand son of Sardar Jamal Khan Barakzai
Forged campaigns to re-unite Afghanistan which was divided due to the civil wars between the sons of Timur Shah Durrani. Reign disputed from 1839 to 1842 by Shah Shuja Durrani in the First Anglo-Afghan War
BarakzaiDost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Akbar Khan
  • Amīr Akbar Khān, Mohammad Akbar Khān
1816–1847May 18421843Shaghasi Shir Mohammad Khan' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Dost Mohammad Khan, grand son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai
BarakzaiAkbar Khan of Afghanistan
Dost Mohammad Khan
(2nd reign)
  • Amir al-Mu'minin, Amir-i Kabir
23 December 1792 – 9 June 186318439 June 1863Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai' son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, grand son of Sardar Yasin Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Sardar Payendah Khan, grand son of Sardar Jamal Khan Barakzai
Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain") 1856.
Returned to the throne after the British and Shah Shuja were defeated in the First Anglo-Afghan War. Coined the term "Afghanistan" after an alliance with the British. Went on to defeat the remaining powers inside Afghanistan[30], reunifying the country after a brutal civil war lasting 70 years from 1793 to 1863 by the time of his death
BarakzaiDost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(1st reign)
1825 – 21 February 18799 June 1863May 1866
(deposed)
Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Dost Mohammad Khan, grad son of Sardar Payendah Khan
BarakzaiSher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Afzal Khan1815 – 7 October 1867May 18667 October 1867Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiMohammad Afzal Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Azam Khan1820–18707 October 186721 August 1868Son of Dost Mohammad KhanBarakzaiMohammad Azam Khan of Afghanistan
Sher Ali Khan
(2nd reign)
1825 – 21 February 18799 September 186821 February 1879Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Dost Mohammad Khan, grand son of Sardar Payendah Khan.
Mohammad Yusof Khan Shaghasi' son of Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Shaghasi, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). 1874
BarakzaiSher Ali Khan of Afghanistan
Mohammad Yaqub Khan1849 – 15 November 192321 February 187912 October 1879
(deposed)
Sardar Attaullah Khan Shaghasi' son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, grand son of Bazar Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Sher Ali Khan, grand son of Dost Mohammad Khan
Deposed during the Second Anglo-Afghan War
BarakzaiMohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Ayub Khan
1857 – 7 April 191412 October 187931 May 1880
(deposed)
Ghazi Khoshdil Khan Shaghasi' son of Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"), and the second commander in the Battle of Maiwand. Later Kamkainaab, Loynaad, Governor of Kabul, Balkh and Kandahar during the reigns of Sher Ali Khan, Habibullah Khan, and Amanullah Khan.
Son of Sher Ali Khan, grand son Dost Mohammad Khan.
Defeated in the Battle of Kandahar against Abdur Rahman Khan and exiled at the end of the Second Anglo-Afghan War
BarakzaiMohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan
Abdur Rahman Khan
  • the Iron Amir
1840/44 – 1 October 190131 May 18801 October 1901Sardar Mohammad Sarwar Khan Shaghasi (Baba)' son of Sardar Attaullah Khan Shaghasi, gran son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain").
Son of Mohammad Afzal Khan, grand son of Dost Mohammad Khan
BarakzaiAbdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan
Habibullah Khan3 June 1872 – 20 February 19191 October 190120 February 1919Mohammad Shah Khan Shaghasi' son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, gran son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain") when Habibullah Khan was still a Crown prince.
Nazim Dost Mohammad Khan Shaghasi' son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, gran son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). Later Nazim (Leading Commander of Central Afghanistan), Nayabsalar (Lieutenant General), Sepahsalaar (General), the first Dar-ul-Adalat (Minister of Justice), Hakim-e-Ala (Great Governor) of Ghazni, Uruzgan and Kandahar during the reigns of Abdur Rahman Khan, Habibullah Khan, and Amanullah Khan.
Son of Abdur Rahman Khan, grand son of Mohammad Afzal Khan
BarakzaiHabibullah Khan of Afghanistan
Nasrullah Khan1874–192020 February 191928 February 1919
(deposed)
Khwaja Mohammad Khan Shaghasi' son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, gran son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain") when Nasrullah Khan was Hakim (Governor) of Qalaat.
Nazim Dost Mohammad Khan Shaghasi' son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, gran son of Shaghasi Mirdaad Khan Barakzai, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). Later Nazim (Leading Commander of Central Afghanistan), Nayabsalar (Lieutenant General), Sepahsalaar (General), the first Dar-ul-Adalat (Minister of Justice), Hakim-e-Ala (Great Governor) of Ghazni, Uruzgan and Kandahar during the reigns of Abdur Rahman Khan, Habibullah Khan, and Amanullah Khan.
Son of Abdur Rahman Khan, grand son of Mohammad Afzal Khan
BarakzaiNasrullah Khan of Afghanistan
Amanullah Khan1 June 1892 – 25 April 196028 February 19199 June 1926Yawar Mahmoud Khan Shaghasi' son of Mohammad Shah Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). Later the first Yawar Awal (Vice president), and Governor of Kabul during the reign of Amanullah Khan.
Son of Habibullah Khan, grand son of Abdur Rahman Khan
BarakzaiAmanullah Khan of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1929)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Amanullah Khan1 June 1892 – 25 April 19609 June 192614 January 1929
(abdicated)
Yawar Mahmoud Khan Shaghasi' son of Mohammad Shah Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). Later the first Yawar Awal (Vice president), and Governor of Kabul during the reign of Amanullah Khan.
Son of Habibullah Khan, grand son of Abdur Rahman Khan
BarakzaiAmanullah Khan of Afghanistan
Inayatullah Khan20 October 1888 – 12 August 194614 January 192917 January 1929
(deposed)
Abdul Habib Khan Shaghasi' son of Mohammad Shah Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Sardar Amir Mohammad Shaghasi, as his Işik Aqasi (Minister of the Royal Court "Chemberlain"). Later Minister of Education during the reign of Amanullah Khan.
Son of Habibullah Khan, grand son of Abdur Rahman Khan
BarakzaiInayatullah Khan of Afghanistan

Saqqawist Emirate and the 1928–1929 civil war

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ali Ahmad Khan1883 – 11 July 192917 January 1929.
23 June 1929
9 February 1929.
3 July 1929
Son of Ghazi Khoshdil Khan Shaghasi, grand son of Loynab Shir Dil Khan Shaghasi.
Declared twice as King; rose in opposition to Kalakāni during the 1928–29 civil war; captured and executed
BarakzaiAli Ahmad Khan of Afghanistan
Amanullah Khan1 June 1892 – 25 April 1960March 1929Son of Habibullah Khan, grand son of Abdur Rahman Khan
Former King; returned to Afghanistan to contest the throne during the 1928–29 civil war; eventually retreated back into British India;[31] See also Amanullah loyalism
BarakzaiAmanullah Khan of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Afghanistan (restored; 1929–1973)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mohammed Nadir Shah9 April 1883 – 8 November 193315 October 1929[32]8 November 1933Great-nephew of Dost Mohammed Khan
Assassinated by Abdul Khaliq Hazara[33]
BarakzaiMohammed Nadir Shah of Afghanistan
Mohammed Zahir Shah
  • the Father of the Nation
    (from 2004) [34]
15 October 1914 – 23 July 20078 November 193317 July 1973
(deposed)
Son of Mohammed Nadir Shah
Deposed by first cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan in the 1973 coup d'état
BarakzaiMohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan

Republic of Afghanistan (1973-1978)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan1909–197817 July 197328 April 1978Prince of the Barakzai Dynasty as great grandson of Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai
De jure no monarch, but de facto continuation of an authoritarian Barakzai Leadership
Murdered in the Saur Revolution
BarakzaiHis Royal Highness Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan of Afghanistan

Heads of the House of Barakzai since 1973

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Languages

[edit]
Predigree of King Dost Mohammad Khan of Afghanistan. Figure shows the branching of the Abdal dynasty into the Popal (founder of the Popalzai; in figure spelled 'Fofal'), Barak (founder of the Barakzai), and Alako (founder of the Alakozai) line (the fourth branch Achakzai is missing).

The principal language of the Barakzai is Pashto. Formerly, Persian was used as the language for records and correspondence; until the late nineteenth century tombstones were also inscribed in Persian.[citation needed] The language of the Barakzai tribes in Pishin, Quetta, Gulistan and Dukki (District. Loralai) is just like the language spoken in Kandahar. Those who have settled away from Pishin speak local languages (Pushto), such as Multani or Saraiki in Multan, Hindko in Hazara, Urdu in Bhopal and Sindhi in Sindh. Barakzai, a dialect of Pashto, is the language spoken by Harnai Barakzai.[35][36][37]

Religion

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The Barakzai are adherents to the Sunni Sufi branch of Islam, following mostly the Hanafi school of Jurispudence and Maturidi school of theology. In the history Sardar Ata Mohammad Khan Barakzai, another brother of Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai, acting as Governor of Kashmir under Shah Shuja Durrani issued coins in honor of the Sufi Saint Nund Rishi and renovated his shrine.[38] Some Barakzai including the Mir Muhammad Jan Khel sub-cadet branch of the Telai (known by the surname Dakik) are Islamic Scholars following the Hanbali school of jurispudence and Athari school of Theology.[39] The Mir Muhammad Jan Khel are venerated as successors (Emir/Mir) of their ancestor Muhammad's family (Ahlul-Bayt) according to the Sayyid ul Sadatiyya Line of Imamate with a significant international fellowship.[40]

Custodianship of the Hazrat Ali Mazar

[edit]

As Sufis the Barakzais are devotees of Muhammad's cousin and son in law Ali ibn Abi Talib, who according to Afghans is buried in Mazar Sharif. The Emirs and Kings acted as custodians of the "Hazrat Ali Mazar". Kings who are buried in the Hazrat Ali Shrine Complex are the following:[41]

It is because of this emphasis made by the Barakzai that some claim that the Mosque in the Afghan Flag stands for the Hazrat Ali Mazar.

Anti-fundamentalism

[edit]

Although many Barakzai were practicing the faith of Islam, and integrating conservative Sharia Law in their legal system, they were known for their Anti-Fundamentalist policies, regarding them as politically motivated in the first line. Abdur Rahman Khan's Chief Justice and Naqib al Ashraf Sayyid Mir Fazlullah Agha (father of Sayyid Mir Muhammad Jan) contributed essentially to the definition of the conservative ratio legis of the Emirate of Afghanistan, that was later adopted in the Kingdom. Sayyid Mir Fazlullah Agha was especially supsicious towards Fundamentalist Shiite Movements, whom he regarded as fundamentalist proxies of the Shiite Qajar Dynasty. He was also credited for anti-corruption enforcement and rule of law in Afghanistan by forcing Abdur Rahman Khan to adhere to the Law despite being a King.[42] Under Prince Daoud Khan's regime, Fundamentalists were regarded as political enemies of the regime, being suppressed next to Communists.

Royal standards

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National flags

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Coat of arms

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Private standards

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Current role

[edit]

After the fall of the Taliban in the year 2001, negotiations about the re-establishment of the Kingdom of Afghanistan were held, including negotiations about the re-installation of His Majesty Zahir Shah as Shah. However, pressure from the side of Ethnic Tajiks who threatened to revolt against Zahir Shah and pressure from the government of Pakistan on the question of the Durand Line, forced Zahir Shah to renounce his claim to the throne, he accepted the title of Baba-e-Millat (transl.Father of the Nation), which weakened his political role.[43][44]

Since then Prince Ali of the Seraj cadet branch and Prince Nadir Naeem of the Yahya-Khel of the Telai cadet branch ran for Presidency of Afghanistan in 2009 and 2014.[45][46]

After the Fall of Kabul in 2021 Prince Raphael Dakik of the Mir Muhammad Jan-Khel of the Telai cadet branch, assessed the re-establishment of the Barakzai Dynasty through lobbyistical measures in an experiment called "Royal Afghan Government in Exile" (RAGE). Next to Swiss Politicians especially from the Swiss People's Party, Senior WEF-Officials and Research experts on lobbying, anti-corruption and diplomacy some of his special envoys are former US Congressmen including Steve Watkins and Curt Weldon.[47][48]

Envoys of Prince Raphael's Project Afghan Royal Government in Exile (ARGE) were invited in an Ambassador conference in Vaduz, Liechtenstein, which attracted media attention. Although Prince Raphael's Private Office shares a strong relationship with the Princely House of Liechtenstein, RAGE was not yet accredited as an official government by Liechtenstein's foreign ministry in order to avoid international clashes of interest.[49]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Martin, Mike (2014). An Intimate War: An Oral History of the Helmand Conflict, 1978–2012. Oxford University Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0199387984. Retrieved 26 July 2016. In Pushtun folklore, Barak, Alak and Popol were brothers who went their separate ways to found tribes in their own namesake with the addition of the—zai (son of) suffix, for example, Barakzai.
  2. ^ Ende in Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society, p. 259
  3. ^ Herbe in All in the family, Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in Middle Eastern Monarchies, p. 199
  4. ^ Ahmed in Afghanistan Rising Islamic Law and Statecraft Between the Ottoman and British Empires, p. 23
  5. ^ "Meine Grossmutter, die afghanische Prinzessin". 14 January 2022.
  6. ^ Kharnam, Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia 2005, publisher Global Vision, ISBN 978-8182200623, page 20
  7. ^ Socio-economic Behaviour of Pukhtun Tribes By Dipali Saha, Dipali Saha – 2006 – 282 pages – Page 124
  8. ^ The people of India By Herbert Risley, W. Crooke – 1999 – 472 pages – Page 64.
  9. ^ Illustrations of prophecy, By Joseph Lomas Towers – 1796 – 799 pages – page 590.
  10. ^ Tadhkirat al-Muluk: A Manual of Safavid Administration, Translated by V. Minorsky, Publisher: Gibb Memorial Trust; 2nd edition (December 1, 1980) Language: English, ISBN 978-0906094129, Paperback: 360 pages.
  11. ^ Niamatullah’s history of the Afghans, Volume 1, Niʻmat Allāh, Nirod Bhusan Roy, Santiniketan Press, 1958.
  12. ^ Settling the frontier: land, law and society in the Peshawar valley, 1500-1900, Robert Nichols, Robert Nichols (PhD.), Oxford University Press, 2001 – 321 pages.
  13. ^ Imperial gazetteer of India, Volume 5, Sir William Wilson Hunter, Great Britain. India Office, Clarendon Press, 1908.
  14. ^ Alikozai in a Conside History of Afghanistan, p. 355, Trafford 2013
  15. ^ Journal of the United Service Institution of India, United Service Institution of India 1880, p. 71
  16. ^ "Afghanistan". CIA. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  17. ^ Trousdale, William B. (8 March 2021). Kandahar in the Nineteenth Century. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-44522-2.
  18. ^ Balland, D. "BĀRAKZĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.
  19. ^ Hadi in Afghan Experiences, Greenville 2016
  20. ^ Buyers in Royal Ark, Afghanistan, Glossary
  21. ^ a b c Buyers in Royal Ark, Chapter: Telai III
  22. ^ a b c Adamek in Who is Who in Afghanistan
  23. ^ Balland, D. "BĀRAKZĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.
  24. ^ Hotak, Muḥammad Maʻṣūm (2008). Afghan Shaghasis (in Pashto). Translated by Zaki Hotak. Kandahar: Allama Rashad Publication Institute.
  25. ^ Popalzai, Azizuldin Wakili (1967). Timur Shah Durrani (in Dari). Vol. 2 (2 ed.). Kabul: History Association. pp. 686–695.
  26. ^ Habibi, Abdul Hai (1984) [1363]. Constitutionalism movements in Afghanistan (in Dari) (1 ed.). Kabul: Governmental press. p. 197.
  27. ^ Sistani, Abd. Azam (2012). Three Research Articles about the Three Historical Families of Kandahar (in Dari). Sweden. pp. 183–185.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  28. ^ Maʻṣūm., Hotak, Muḥammad (2008). Afghan Shaghasis. Allama Rashad Publication Institute. OCLC 244246756.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, Band 9. Altenburg 1860, S. 636.
  30. ^ Most notably Herat (see Herat campaign of 1862–63) and Qandahar.
  31. ^ "Amanullah Hungry in Flight to India". The New York Times. 26 May 1929. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  32. ^ "Nadir Khan is Elected Amir of Afghanistan". The New York Times. 18 October 1929. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  33. ^ "King of Afghanistan Is Slain at Kabul; Stable Boy Won Throne by Military Skill". The New York Times. 9 November 1933. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  34. ^ "The late King was always fondly referred to by all Afghans, cutting across ethnic boundaries, as "Baba-e-Millat" or 'Father of the Nation', a position given to him in the country's Constitution promulgated in January 2004, about two years after the collapse of Taliban rule. The title of the 'Father of the Nation' dissolves with his death." "Last King of Afghanistan dies at 92". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  35. ^ Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan By Rizwan Hussain Page 16
  36. ^ page 64 India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, J.N. Roy And B.B. Kumar, Astha Bharati (Organization)
  37. ^ Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India[usurped], Khyber.org (retrieved 30 January 2008)
  38. ^ Suri, Sohan Lal, `L/mdat-ut-Twankh. Lahore, 1885-89
  39. ^ Official website of Prince Sayyid Raphael Dakik
  40. ^ David Damrel in Forgotten Grace
  41. ^ "Mazar-e Sharif, Afghanistan". ArchNet. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  42. ^ Tazkare Khwanadane Hazrat Eshan(genealogy of the family of Hazrat Eshan)(by author and investigator:Muhammad Yasin Qasvari Naqshbandi company:Edara Talimat Naqshbandiyya Lahore)p. 313
  43. ^ Gilles (2005). "The Return to Political Fragmentation". Afghanistan: Revolution Unending, 1979–2002, p.330
  44. ^ Grossmann in Inside the Pentagon: EXILED AFGHAN KING CONTESTS OTHER FACTIONS FOR POWER IN U.N. TALKS, Vol 17 No. 47
  45. ^ "Sardar Muhammad Nadir Naeem - king's grandson withdraws". 17 March 2014.
  46. ^ "Presidential candidate: Afghan Prince Seraj wants to revitalise tribes - WELT". 17 November 2011.
  47. ^ Desrochers, Daniel (11 December 2023). "Kansas Republican Watkins, ousted amid voter fraud charges, returns to Congress as lobbyist". Kansas City Star. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  48. ^ Private Office sayyidraphaeldakik.com
  49. ^ https://www.vaterland.li/liechtenstein/politik/nicht-anerkannter-sondergesandter-fuer-afghanischen-prinzen-art-550793
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