Baramulla district

Coordinates: 34°11′53″N 74°21′49″E / 34.1980°N 74.3636°E / 34.1980; 74.3636
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baramulla district
Varmul district
District of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India
Gulmarg ski resort in Baramulla district, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Gulmarg ski resort in Baramulla district, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Interactive map of Baramulla district
Baramulla district lies in the Kashmir division (neon blue) of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (shaded tan) in the disputed Kashmir region.[1]
Baramulla district lies in the Kashmir division (neon blue) of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (shaded tan) in the disputed Kashmir region.[1]
Coordinates: 34°11′53″N 74°21′49″E / 34.1980°N 74.3636°E / 34.1980; 74.3636
Administering countryIndia
  1. Uri
  2. Baramulla
  3. Tangmarg
  4. Pattan
  5. Boniyar
  6. Wagoora
  7. Zaingeer (Sopore)
  8. Rohama
  9. Kreeri
  10. Watergam
  11. Sopore
  12. Dangiwacha
  13. Dangerpora
  14. Khoie (Panzipora)
  15. Kunzer
  16. Kawarhama
 • District MagistrateMinga Sherpa (IAS)
 • District of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India4,190 km2 (1,620 sq mi)
 • Urban
63.56 km2 (24.54 sq mi)
 • Rural
4,179.44 km2 (1,613.69 sq mi)
 • District of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India1,008,039
 • Density240/km2 (620/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
 • OfficialKashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, Dogri, English[4][5]
 • Main spokenKashmiri
 • Other spokenPahari, Gujari
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationJK05

Baramulla district or Varmul (in Kashmiri) is one of the 20 districts in the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir in the disputed Kashmir region.[1] Baramulla town is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district covered an area of 4,588 km2 (1,771 sq mi) in 2001,[6] but it was reduced to 4,243 km2 (1,638 sq mi) at the time of 2011 census.[2] In 2016, the district administration said that the area was 4,190 km2 (1,620 sq mi).[7] Muslims constitute about 98% of the population.


The name Baramulla, meaning "Boar's Molar Place,"[8] is derived from two Sanskrit words Varaha (Boar) and Mula. According to Hindu texts, the Kashmir Valley was once a lake called Satisaras, the lake of Parvati (consort of Shiva). Hindu texts state that the lake was occupied by a demon, Jalodbhava, until Lord Vishnu assumed the form of a boar and struck the mountain with his molar at Baramulla (ancient Varahamula). He bored an opening in it where the lake water flowed out.[9]


Ancient and medieval[edit]

The city of Baramulla, from which the district derives its name, was founded by Raja Bhimsina in 2306 BCE.

A number of prominent visitors have travelled to Baramulla. These include the Chinese visitor Heiun T'Sang and the British historian, Moorcraft. Mughal emperors had a special fascination for Baramulla. As the gateway of the Kashmir Valley, Baramulla was a stopping place for them during their visits to the valley. Jahangir also stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620 CE.

From the very beginning, Baramulla has been a religious center. The construction of Hindu Teerth and Buddhist Vihars made the city sacred to people of both religions. In the 15th century, the noted Muslim saint, Syed Janbaz Wali, visited the valley along with his companions in 1421 CE. He chose Baramulla as the centre of his mission and was buried here after death. His shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the Valley. In 1620, the sixth Sikh Guru Shri Hargobind visited the city. Baramulla thus became an abode of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Sikhs living in harmony and contributing to a rich composite culture.[10]

It was the oldest and the most important town in the north of princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. In the later centuries, until 27 October 1947, it was the 'Gateway of Kashmir Valley' by the Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road. It became a part of Union of India when the Maharaja, under duress of invasion by Pakistani tribal forces, signed the instrument of accession on 26 October 1947, which was accepted by India the next day. Actual area of district Baramulla according to 2018 survey by the centre for remote sensing and gis is 2204.06 km2.[citation needed]

Pakistani tribal invasion (1947)[edit]

After the Partition of India in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh chose to remain independent, not joining either India or Pakistan.

A large number of tribals from Pakistan attacked Kashmir under the code name "Operation Gulmarg," intending to seize Kashmir. The invading tribals started moving along Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road on 22 October 1947 with Pakistani army men in plain clothes. Muzaffarabad fell on 24 October 1947. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October. There they stayed for several days looting, raping, and killing residents; burning and plundering homes and businesses; and desecrating and vandalising shrines and temples. They could have reached Srinagar, just 50 km away, and captured its airfield, which was not defended at all. They raped and killed European nuns (only one survived) at Baramulla's St. Joseph convent and Christian nurses at the missionary hospital. This looting, raping, murder and abduction of girls continued for several days.[11] It is said that the suffering of Baramulla saved the rest of Kashmir, because airplanes carrying Indian troops airlifted from Delhi on the morning of 27 October could land at Srinagar airfield while the invaders were still at Baramulla.

Charles Chevenix Trench writes in his The Frontier Scouts (1985):

In October 1947... tribal lashkars hastened in lorries - undoubtedly with official logistic support - into Kashmir... at least one British Officer, Harvey-Kelly took part in the campaign. It seemed that nothing could stop these hordes of tribesmen taking Srinagar with its vital airfield. Indeed nothing did, but their own greed. The Mahsuds in particular stopped to loot, rape and murder; Indian troops were flown in and the lashkars pushed out of the Vale of Kashmir into the mountains. The Mahsuds returned home in a savage mood, having muffed an easy chance, lost the loot of Srinagar and made fools of themselves.

Tom Cooper of Air Combat Information Group wrote:[12]

...the Pathans appeared foremost interested in looting, killing, ransacking and other crimes against the inhabitants instead of a serious military action.

Biju Patnaik (who later became Chief Minister of Odisha) piloted the first plane to land at Srinagar airport that morning. He brought 17 soldiers of 1-Sikh regiment commanded by Lt. Col. Dewan Ranjit Rai.

"...The pilot flew low on the airstrip twice to ensure that no raiders were around... Instructions from PM Nehru’s office were clear: If the airport was taken over by the enemy, you are not to land. Taking a full circle the DC-3 flew ground level. Anxious eye-balls peered from inside the aircraft – only to find the airstrip empty. Nary a soul was in sight. The raiders were busy distributing the war booty amongst them in Baramulla."

In the words of Gen Mohammad Akbar Khan (Brigadier-in-Charge, Pakistan, in his book War for Kashmir in 1947): "The uncouth raiders delayed in Baramulla for two (whole) days for some unknown reason."[13]

It took two weeks for the Indian army to evict the raiders from Baramulla. Joined by Pakistani regular troops, they had become well-entrenched.

Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah spoke in the UN Security Council on 5 February 1948 thus: "...the raiders came to our land, massacred thousands of people — mostly Hindus and Sikhs, but Muslims, too — abducted thousands of girls, Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims alike, looted our property and almost reached the gates of our summer capital, Srinagar..."

Recent years[edit]

Roads have been improved and road network has grown considerably in Baramulla town since 1947. New schools and colleges have started and better facilities for education have been created. More bridges on Jhelum river have been constructed or planned to connect the old town on the north bank of the river with the new town on the south bank. Decongestion of the old town has been attempted by moving some residents to houses in the new town.

The most recent development has been creation of railway connectivity with Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund and the planned connectivity with Banihal and Jammu.


Baramulla district comprises sixteen tehsils: Pattan, Uri, Kreeri, Boniyar, Tangmarg, Sopore, Watergam Rafiabad, Rohama, Dangiwacha, Bomai, Dangerpora, Khoie(Panzipora), Wagoora, Kunzer, Kwarhama and Baramulla.

This district consists of 26 blocks: Uri, Rohama, Rafiabad, Zaingeer, Sopore, Boniyar, Baramulla, Tangmarg, Singhpora, Pattan, Wagoora, Kunzer, Paranpillian, Bijhama, Norkhah, Narwav, Nadihal, Kandi Rafiabad, Hardchanum, Tujjar Sharief, Sangrama, Sherabad Khore, Lalpora, Wailoo, Khaipora and Chandil Wanigam. Pattan tehsil is the largest tehsil of the district Baramulla and was later split to form a separate Kreeri tehsil.

Pattan Town is situated in the centre of the district between Srinagar and Baramulla cities and is surrounded by villages like Palhalan, Nihalpora Hanjiwera Zangam, Sherpora, Sonium and Yall.[14] Each block consists of a number of panchayats.


Baramullah district has seven assembly constituencies: Uri, Rafiabad, Sopore, Sangrama, Baramulla, Gulmarg and Pattan.[15]


Historical population
1901 155,387—    
1911 174,661+12.4%
1921 193,132+10.6%
1931 215,286+11.5%
1941 238,136+10.6%
1951 261,935+10.0%
1961 285,734+9.1%
1971 374,175+31.0%
1981 490,057+31.0%
1991 638,634+30.3%
2001 843,892+32.1%
2011 1,008,039+19.5%
† 1951 and 1991 populations are estimated
Source: Census of India[16]
Religion in Baramulla district (2011)[3]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

According to the 2011 census Baramulla district had a population of 1,008,039,[3][17][18] or 1,015,503,[19] roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus[20] or the US state of Montana.[21] This gives it a ranking of 443rd in India (out of a total of 640).[18] Of the total population, 542,171 (53.4%) were males and 473,332 (46.6%) were females, the sex ratio being 885 females for every 1,000 males[18] (this varies with religion), a decrease from 905 in 2001 census, and much lower than the national average of 940. The sex ratio for children in 0 to 6 year age group was even less at 866.

The district has a population density of 305 inhabitants per square kilometre (790/sq mi).[18] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 20.34%.[18] Baramula has a literacy rate of 66.93%.[18] with male literacy 77.35% and female literacy 55.01%. Total literate in Baramula district were 571,348 of which males and females were 352,289 and 219,059 respectively.

Baramulla town is the largest town in the district and the fourth most-populous town in the state, with a population of 167,986 as per 2011 census.

Sex Ratio in Baramula District in 2011 Census.[3]
(no. females per 1,000 males)
Religion (and population) Sex Ratio
Muslim (pop 959,185)
Hindu (pop 30,621)
Sikh (pop 14,770)
Other (pop 3,463)
Total (pop 1,008,039)
Baramula district: religion, gender ratio, and % urban of population, according to the 2011 Census.[3]
Hindu Muslim Christian Sikh Buddhist Jain Other Not stated Total
Total 30,621 959,185 1,497 14,770 140 29 7 1,790 1,008,039
3.04% 95.15% 0.15% 1.47% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 0.18% 100.00%
Male 28,099 495,434 965 9,078 115 17 4 1,021 534,733
Female 2,522 463,751 532 5,692 25 12 3 769 473,306
Gender ratio (% female) 8.2% 48.3% 35.5% 38.5% 17.9% 41.4% 42.9% 43.0% 47.0%
Sex ratio
(no. of females per 1,000 males)
90 936 551 627 753 885
Urban 16,378 157,176 536 7,865 80 7 7 451 182,500
Rural 14,243 802,009 961 6,905 60 22 0 1,339 825,539
% Urban 53.5% 16.4% 35.8% 53.2% 57.1% 24.1% 100.0% 25.2% 18.1%

Languages of Baramulla district (2011 census)[22]

  Kashmiri (82.11%)
  Pahari (9.88%)
  Gojri (3.45%)
  Hindi (1.58%)
  Punjabi (1.26%)
  Others (1.72%)

The most widely spoken language is Kashmiri (82.11% of the population according to the 2011 census), but there are also speakers of Pahari (9.88%), Gujari (3.45%), Hindi (1.58%) and Punjabi (1.26%).[22][23]

Geography and climate[edit]

The district is spread from Srinagar district and Ganderbal district in the east to the line of control in the west, and from Kupwara district in the north and Bandipore district in the northwest to Poonch district in the south and Badgam district in the southwest. Baramulla has cool climate under Köppen climate classification. In winter, generally between December and February, snowfall occurs. Gulmurg is popular destination for tourist all over world.

Baramulla city is located on the banks of Jhelum river at the highest point of the river. The old town lies on the north (right) bank of the river and the new town lies on the south (left) bank. They are connected by five bridges, including a suspension bridge connecting Gulnar park with Dewan Bagh.


Baramulla has a district civil hospital and a district veterinary hospital with facilities such as radiology (x-ray) and ultrasonography. The hospital has been shifted to a new building with 300 beds in Kanthbagh in March 2013, ( In the Land of Ushkara Baramulla) which was in construction for two decades. St.Joseph's Hospital & Nursing School run by Christian Missionary Nuns[24] Baramulla district hospital is also the associated hospital of the Government Medical College, Baramulla. There are smaller hospitals in other towns of the district and primary health centres at villages in the district. Primary Health Center Ushkara near Jamia Masjid Ushkara under Block Sheeri.



  1. ^ a b The application of the term "administered" to the various regions of Kashmir and a mention of the Kashmir dispute is supported by the tertiary sources (a) through (d), reflecting due weight in the coverage. Although "controlled" and "held" are also applied neutrally to the names of the disputants or to the regions administered by them, as evidenced in sources (f) through (h) below, "held" is also considered politicized usage, as is the term "occupied," (see (i) below).
    (a) Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories.";
    (b) Pletcher, Kenneth, Aksai Chin, Plateau Region, Asia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 16 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "Aksai Chin, Chinese (Pinyin) Aksayqin, portion of the Kashmir region, at the northernmost extent of the Indian subcontinent in south-central Asia. It constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India to be part of the Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir state.";
    (c) "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6 C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
    (d) Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute betw een India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
    (e) Talbot, Ian (2016), A History of Modern South Asia: Politics, States, Diasporas, Yale University Press, pp. 28–29, ISBN 978-0-300-19694-8 Quote: "We move from a disputed international border to a dotted line on the map that represents a military border not recognized in international law. The line of control separates the Indian and Pakistani administered areas of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir.";
    (f) Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "... China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
    (g) Bose, Sumantra (2009), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, pp. 294, 291, 293, ISBN 978-0-674-02855-5 Quote: "J&K: Jammu and Kashmir. The former princely state that is the subject of the Kashmir dispute. Besides IJK (Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir. The larger and more populous part of the former princely state. It has a population of slightly over 10 million, and comprises three regions: Kashmir Valley, Jammu, and Ladakh.) and AJK ('Azad" (Free) Jammu and Kashmir. The more populous part of Pakistani-controlled J&K, with a population of approximately 2.5 million. AJK has six districts: Muzaffarabad, Mirpur, Bagh, Kodi, Rawalakot, and Poonch. Its capital is the town of Muzaffarabad. AJK has its own institutions, but its political life is heavily controlled by Pakistani authorities, especially the military), it includes the sparsely populated "Northern Areas" of Gilgit and Baltistan, remote mountainous regions which are directly administered, unlike AJK, by the Pakistani central authorities, and some high-altitude uninhabitable tracts under Chinese control."
    (h) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 166, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2 Quote: "Kashmir’s identity remains hotly disputed with a UN-supervised “Line of Control” still separating Pakistani-held Azad (“Free”) Kashmir from Indian-held Kashmir.";
    (i) Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, p. 10, ISBN 978-1-84904-621-3 Quote:"Some politicised terms also are used to describe parts of J&K. These terms include the words 'occupied' and 'held'."
  2. ^ a b District Census Handbook Baramulla, Part A (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). July 2016. p. 11. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
    District Census Handbook Baramulla, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 16 June 2014. p. 22. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e C-1 Population By Religious Community – Jammu & Kashmir (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  4. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. 27 September 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  5. ^ "Parliament passes JK Official Languages Bill, 2020". Rising Kashmir. 23 September 2020. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Divisions & Districts", Jamu & Kashmir Official Portal, 2012, retrieved 21 November 2020
  7. ^ "About District Baramulla". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  8. ^ The economy of Jammu & Kashmir. Radha Krishan Anand & Co., 2004. 2004. ISBN 9788188256099. Retrieved 1 July 2010. ... meaning in Sanskrit a boar's place.[citation needed] Foreigners who visited this place pronounced ... The place was thus named as Baramulla meaning 12 bores.
  9. ^ Kashmir and its people: studies in the evolution of Kashmiri society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. 2004. ISBN 9788176485371. Retrieved 1 July 2010. That the valley of Kashmir was once a vast lake, known as "Satisaras," the lake of Parvati (consort of Shiva), is enshrined in our traditions. There are many mythological stories connected with the desiccation of the lake, before the valley was fit for habitation. The narratives make it out that it was occupied by a demon 'Jalodbhava,' till Lord Vishnu assumed the form of a boar and struck the mountain at Baramulla (ancient Varahamula) boring an opening in it for the water to flow out.
  10. ^ Baramulla: District Profile Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ The Story of Kashmir Affairs - A Peep into the Past Archived 2014-06-18 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Tom Cooper (29 October 2003), Indo-Pakistani War, 1947-1949, Air Combat Information Group, archived from the original on 13 June 2006, retrieved 11 April 2012
  13. ^ 27 October 1947: Dakota in my dell ~ FRONTLINE KASHMIR Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Statement showing the number of blocks in respect of 22 Districts of Jammu and Kashmir State including newly Created Districts Archived 10 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine dated 2008-03-13, accessed 2008-08-30
  15. ^ "ERO's and AERO's". Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  16. ^ "A-2 Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901". Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  17. ^ Baramula Population Census 2011, Baramula, Jammu and Kashmir literacy sex ratio and density
  18. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  19. ^ Census of India 2011, Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : Jammu & Kashmir. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India (Report).
    Annexure V, Ranking of Districts by Population Size, 2001 - 2011 (Report).
  20. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Cyprus 1,120,489 July 2011 est.
  21. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Montana 989,415
  22. ^ a b C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Jammu & Kashmir (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  23. ^ S.C. Bhatt; Gopal Bhargava (2005). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories. ISBN 9788178353562. Retrieved 1 July 2010. As most of these Hindi albeit Gujari speakers have been shown as concentrated in Baramulla, Kupwara, Punch, Rajouri and Doda districts, their Gujar identity becomes obvious. The number of Punjabi speakers in 1961, 1971 and 1981 Census Reports, actually reflects the number of Sikhs who have maintained their language and culture, and who are concentrated mainly in Srinagar, Badgam, Tral, Baramulla (all in Kashmir region), Udhampur and Jammu.
  24. ^ "Finally, Baramulla hospital to be shifted to new building". The Tribune. Kashmir. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2018.

External links[edit]