Barasat

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Barasat
City
Streets of Barasat
Streets of Barasat
Barasat is located in West Bengal
Barasat
Barasat
Location in West Bengal, India
Barasat is located in India
Barasat
Barasat
Barasat (India)
Coordinates: 22°43′N 88°29′E / 22.72°N 88.48°E / 22.72; 88.48Coordinates: 22°43′N 88°29′E / 22.72°N 88.48°E / 22.72; 88.48
CountryIndia
StateWest Bengal
DistrictNorth 24 parganas
RegionGreater Kolkata
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyBarasat Municipality[1]
 • ChairmanTapas Mukherjee[2]
 • MPKakali Ghosh Dastidar
 • MLAChiranjeet Chakraborty
Area
 • Total34.06 km2 (13.15 sq mi)
Elevation
11 m (36 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total278,235
 • Density8,200/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
700124, 700125, 700126, 700127
Telephone code+91 (0) 33
Vehicle registrationWB 25, WB 26
Lok Sabha constituencyBarasat
Vidhan Sabha constituencyBarasat
Websitenorth24parganas.nic.in

Barasat (/ˈbɑːrəˌsʌt/) is a city and a municipality of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of Barasat Sadar subdivision. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). Located in the Ganges delta, Barasat is a regional transportation hub as a rail and road junction. National Highway 12 (formerly NH 34/ Krishnanagar Road towards North Bengal), NH 112 (formerly NH 35/ Jessore Road, leading to the Bangladesh border at Petrapole), Taki Road and Barrackpore-Barasat Road (both are part of SH 2) are the main connectivity links to the city.

History[edit]

During the Mughal Empire period, Sankar Chakraborty (a commander of the zamindar Pratapaditya and king of Jessore in present-day Bangladesh) came to Barasat, Kolkata in 1600 and established himself. In 1700, Hazarat Ekdil Shah moved to the town and was known as a social reformer. His tomb, in Kazipara, is a pilgrimage site for the Muslim community. Pratapaditya made his way to Kolkata from Jessore; Sirajudullah went to Kolkata from Murshidabad via Barasat on a road which became two national highways.

Under the British Raj, East India Company officials from Calcutta (Kolkata) made Barasat a weekend retreat and built houses with gardens. Warren Hastings built his villa in the heart of Barasat and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was the town's first Indian deputy magistrate.

Indigo cultivation was a major industry and indigo merchants were known for their inhumane treatment of farmers. Titumir, a farmer, fomented a revolution against indigo merchants in Barasat. Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, Pyari Charan Sarkar and Kalikrishna Mitra were known for social reformation in the town, including women's education and widow remarriage. During the early nineteenth century, Barasat Cadet College trained new recruits and cadets from Europe; the college closed in 1811.[3][4]

From 1834 to 1861, Barasat was the seat of Barasat District. The district became a subdivision of the Twenty-four Parganas district in 1861,[3] and Barasat is the headquarters of North 24 Parganas district.[5]

Geography[edit]

Cities, towns and locations in Barasat subdivision, North 24 Parganas
M: municipal town, CT: census town, R: rural/ urban centre, H: historical centre
Owing to space constraints in the small map, the actual locations in a larger map may vary slightly

Location[edit]

Barasat is located in eastern India's Ganges Delta. The Bangladesh border, at Petrapole, is 70–80 kilometres (43–50 mi) from the city.

Its average elevation is 11 metres (36 ft). The nearest river is the Ganges, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) to the west, and it is on the Gangetic plain.

Area overview[edit]

The area covered in the map alongside is largely a part of the north Bidyadhari Plain. located in the lower Ganges Delta.[6] The area is flat. It is a little raised above flood level and the highest ground borders the river channels.[7] 54.67% of the people of the densely populated area lives in the urban areas and 45.33% lives in the rural areas.[8]

Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the subdivision. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map.

Climate[edit]

Barasat has a tropical climate similar to the rest West Bengal. The region experiences a monsoon from early June to mid-September. The climate is dry in winter (mid-November to mid-February) and humid in summer. January is the coldest month and May is the hottest month in Barasat. Months of July and August produces most rainfall in Barasat.[9]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106.0)
43.3
(109.9)
43.7
(110.7)
43.9
(111.0)
39.9
(103.8)
38.4
(101.1)
38.9
(102.0)
39.0
(102.2)
34.9
(94.8)
32.5
(90.5)
43.9
(111.0)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
33.5
(92.3)
37.4
(99.3)
38.5
(101.3)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
35.9
(96.6)
35.0
(95.0)
35.3
(95.5)
35.1
(95.2)
32.9
(91.2)
29.8
(85.6)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
29.2
(84.6)
33.5
(92.3)
35.3
(95.5)
35.3
(95.5)
33.8
(92.8)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90.0)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90.0)
30.1
(86.2)
27.0
(80.6)
31.6
(88.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
23.6
(74.5)
28.0
(82.4)
30.4
(86.7)
30.9
(87.6)
30.4
(86.7)
29.4
(84.9)
29.3
(84.7)
29.2
(84.6)
28.1
(82.6)
25.0
(77.0)
21.2
(70.2)
27.1
(80.8)
Average low °C (°F) 14.1
(57.4)
17.8
(64.0)
22.4
(72.3)
25.3
(77.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.8
(80.2)
26.5
(79.7)
26.4
(79.5)
26.0
(78.8)
24.1
(75.4)
19.7
(67.5)
15.2
(59.4)
22.6
(72.7)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.6
(63.7)
20.4
(68.7)
21.5
(70.7)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.4
(75.9)
23.8
(74.8)
20.6
(69.1)
15.4
(59.7)
11.8
(53.2)
10.4
(50.7)
Record low °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.2
(45.0)
10.0
(50.0)
16.1
(61.0)
17.9
(64.2)
20.4
(68.7)
20.6
(69.1)
22.6
(72.7)
20.6
(69.1)
17.2
(63.0)
10.6
(51.1)
7.2
(45.0)
6.7
(44.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 10.4
(0.41)
20.9
(0.82)
35.2
(1.39)
58.9
(2.32)
133.1
(5.24)
300.6
(11.83)
396.0
(15.59)
344.5
(13.56)
318.1
(12.52)
180.5
(7.11)
35.1
(1.38)
3.2
(0.13)
1,836.5
(72.30)
Average rainy days 1.1 1.7 2.2 3.4 7.0 12.8 17.7 16.9 13.9 7.4 1.3 0.5 85.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 61 54 51 62 68 77 82 83 82 75 67 65 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.9 211.9 229.4 240.0 232.5 135.0 105.4 117.8 126.0 201.5 216.0 204.6 2,234
Mean daily sunshine hours 6.9 7.5 7.4 8.0 7.5 4.5 3.4 3.8 4.2 6.5 7.2 6.6 6.1
Average ultraviolet index 7 9 11 12 12 12 12 12 11 9 7 6 10
Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun 1971–2000)[10][11][12]Weather Atlas[13]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[14]
Climate data for Kolkata (Dumdum Airport) 1981–2007, extremes 1939–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.5
(90.5)
37.3
(99.1)
40.6
(105.1)
42.8
(109.0)
43.1
(109.6)
43.7
(110.7)
39.2
(102.6)
37.7
(99.9)
36.8
(98.2)
36.8
(98.2)
36.0
(96.8)
33.0
(91.4)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
29.0
(84.2)
33.3
(91.9)
35.5
(95.9)
35.6
(96.1)
34.3
(93.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.7
(90.9)
32.8
(91.0)
32.2
(90.0)
29.9
(85.8)
26.8
(80.2)
31.7
(89.1)
Average low °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
16.6
(61.9)
21.3
(70.3)
24.7
(76.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.5
(79.7)
26.3
(79.3)
26.4
(79.5)
25.9
(78.6)
23.8
(74.8)
19.0
(66.2)
14.0
(57.2)
21.9
(71.4)
Record low °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
6.1
(43.0)
12.1
(53.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.6
(63.7)
19.2
(66.6)
20.1
(68.2)
21.1
(70.0)
21.7
(71.1)
15.7
(60.3)
11.7
(53.1)
6.1
(43.0)
5.0
(41.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 12.4
(0.49)
23.3
(0.92)
31.3
(1.23)
55.2
(2.17)
156.5
(6.16)
293.0
(11.54)
347.4
(13.68)
344.1
(13.55)
305.5
(12.03)
161.9
(6.37)
17.5
(0.69)
8.8
(0.35)
1,757
(69.17)
Average rainy days 1.0 1.7 2.2 3.5 7.0 12.6 17.1 16.9 13.2 6.8 1.3 0.5 83.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 08:30 IST) 75 71 67 71 73 79 83 83 81 75 70 72 75
Source: India Meteorological Department[15][16]

Barasat has a tropical climate similar to the rest West Bengal. The region experiences a monsoon from early June to mid-September. The climate is dry in winter (mid-November to mid-February) and humid in summer. January is the coldest month and May is the hottest month in Barasat. Months of July and August produces most rainfall in Barasat.[9]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 Indian census, Barasat had a total population of 278,235; 140,882 (51%) were males and 137,613 (49%) females, and 22,605 were under age six. The literacy rate was 89.69 percent of the population over age six (229,279 people).[17] The town's population increased from 237,783 in 2001. The literacy rate that year was 77 percent, higher than the national average of 59.5 percent. Of the literate population, 54 percent were male and 46 percent female.[18] Barasat was part of the Kolkata Urban Agglomeration in the 2011 census.[19] In Barasat, 87% people are Hindus, 12% are Muslims and 1% people are from other religions (Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism etc.).[17]

Guidemap of some famous Kali Puja in Barasat

Economy[edit]

Cotton weaving is Barasat's major industry, and the town is a trade centre for rice, legumes, sugarcane, potatoes, and coconuts.[20] Now it is becoming a shopping destination with various malls including all major brands and multiplexes.

About 32,00,000 people commute daily from around the city to Barasat. Fifty-eight trains transport commuters from 24 stations in the town's Sealdah-Bangaon section and 32 trains carry commuters from 30 stations in the Seadah-Hasnabad section.[21]

House of Warren Hastings, Barasat

Administration[edit]

Closed gate with an arch reading "Circuit House"
Front gate of Barasat Circuit House, a government guest house

Although Barasat Municipality was established on 1 April 1869, it had no independent existence until 1882. It was controlled by the magistrate office (and its magistrate), without a chairman. In 1882, Barasat Municipality was formed and a local government was created. Barasat Association, a citizen organization, donated land for the construction of municipal buildings.

Barasat is divided into 29 mouzas. There were originally four wards, later increasing to 18. After surrounding panchayats were incorporated in 1995, the number of wards increased to 32. In 2015, before the municipal election, the number of wards increased to 35.[5] Barasat is part of the Kolkata Metropolitan Area, for which the KMDA is the statutory planning and development authority.[22] The KMDA manages the area's infrastructure development.[23]

The district court handles local and national cases. The Barasat police have a jurisdiction of 4.6 square kilometres (1.8 sq mi), and serves a population of 417,663 in the Barasat municipal area. There are two police outposts (in Barasat and Badu), and a women's police station (in KNC Road, near Barasat Govt College) in the town.[24]

Zilla Parishad (district council)[edit]

The Zilla Parishad of North 24 Parganas was founded on 26 June 1986, with the north–south bifurcation of the 24 Parganas district. The highest tier of the three-tier panchayati raj system, its headquarters are at Barasat. It has six riverine panchayat samitis in the Sundarbans, which has a saline tract on one side and rich alluvial tracts of the Ichamati River basin and industrial belt of Barrackpore on the other side. Its territory extends on the east to the Bangladesh border.[25]

Notable residents[edit]

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay was the deputy magistrate of 24 Parganas during the 19th century. Graves Haughton became a cadet in 1808, and received his first commission on 13 March 1810 from Barasat cadet institution. Haughton was fluent in Indian (Hindustani) languages, and received the sword of merit and a monetary award from the Barasat institution. He studied regional languages at the College of Fort William in Calcutta, receiving seven medals, three degrees of honor and monetary awards for proficiency in Arabic, Persian, Hindustani (Hindi), Sanskrit and Bengali. Haughton was a lieutenant, a noted orientalist, a Knight of The Royal Guelphic Order, a member of the Asiatic Society and a published author.[26][27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Barasat Municipality". Archived from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  2. ^ Official District Administration site Archived 15 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Hunter, William Wilson (1885). The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Trübner & co. p. 123.
  4. ^ Wheeler, Mortimer (1935). The Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press (CUP). p. 161.
  5. ^ a b "Barasat" (PDF). jnnurmwestbengal.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 13. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  7. ^ LSS O’Malley (2009). Bengal District Gazetteers: 24 Parganas. p 1-4. ISBN 9788172681937. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  8. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2013, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4b. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 21 January 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Barasat climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Barasat weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Station: Calcutta (Alipur) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 161–162. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M237. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Climate and monthly weather forecast Kolkata, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  14. ^ "Normals Data: Kolkata/Alipore - India Latitude: 22.53°N Longitude: 88.33°E Height: 6 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Station: Calcutta (Dumdum) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  16. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  17. ^ a b "2011 Census – Primary Census Abstract Data Tables". West Bengal – District-wise. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  19. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Constituents of Urban Agglomeration Having Population Above 1 Lakh. Census of India 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  20. ^ "Barasat | India". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  21. ^ Dey, Teesta. "The Suburban Railway Network of Kolkata: A Geographical Apprisal" (PDF). eTraverse, the Indian journal of spatial science, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authoity, Annual Report 2010-11". 1/1 Kolkata Metropolitan Area Map. KMDA. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  23. ^ "Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority, Annual Report 2010-11". 1 / 2 Role of KMDA. KMDA. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  24. ^ "North 24 Parganas Dist. Police". Know Your Police Station. District Police. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Barasat Zilla Parishad". north24parganas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  26. ^ Dictionary of National Biography
  27. ^ http://odnb2.ifactory.com/view/article/12611[permanent dead link]

External links[edit]