Barbara Chase-Riboud

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Barbara Chase-Riboud
Barbara Chase-Riboud cropped.jpg
Barbara Chase-Riboud with her Malcolm X steles, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery.
Barbara Chase

(1939-06-26) June 26, 1939 (age 80)
EducationTemple University (B.F.A.)
Yale University (M.F.A.)
Known forSculpture, Poetry, Novels
Notable work
Sally Hemmings, The Malcolm X Steles
MovementBlack Arts Movement

Barbara Chase-Riboud (born June 26, 1939) is an American visual artist and sculptor, bestselling novelist, and award-winning poet. Chase-Riboud gained recognition as an author after the release of her book, Sally Hemings (1979), which earned the Janet Heidinger Kafka Prize in Fiction, and became an international success. It generated conversation around the book's topic of the relationship between Sally Hemings, a slave, and her master, Thomas Jefferson, who became president of the United States.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Barbara Chase was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the only child of Vivian May Chase, a histology technician, and Charles Edward Chase, a contractor.[2] Chase displayed an early talent for the arts and began attending the Fleisher Art Memorial School at the age of eight. She was suspended from her middle school after being accused, mistakenly, of plagiarising her poem "Autumn Leaves".[3][4] She attended Philadelphia High School for Girls from 1948 to 1952, graduating summa cum laude. During graduation, her text "Of Understanding" was read.[3] She continued her training at the Philadelphia Museum School of Art.[4]

In 1956 Chase received a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Tyler School at Temple University.[5] In that same year, Chase won a John Hay Whitney fellowship to study at the American Academy in Rome for 12 months.[5] There, she created her first bronze sculptures and exhibited her work.[6] During this time, she traveled to Egypt, where she discovered non-European art.[6] In 1960, Chase completed a MFA degree from Yale University School of Design and Architecture.[5][7] After completing her studies, Chase left the United States for London, then Paris.


Chase-Riboud is an acclaimed sculptor, poet, and novelist. She has worked across a variety of media throughout her long career.

Visual arts[edit]

At Temple University's Tyler School of Art, Chase studied with Boris Blai and was "instructed in sculpture, painting, graphic design, printmaking, color theory, and restoration."[3] She also studied anatomical drawing at Temple University School of Medicine[3]

Chase-Riboud's modern abstract sculptures often combine the durable and rigid metals of bronze and aluminum with softer elements made from silk or other textile material. Using the lost wax method, Chase-Riboud carves, bends, folds, and manipulates large sheets of wax prior to casting molds of the handmade designs. She then pours the metal to produce the metal-work, which melts the original wax sculpture. The finished metal is then combined with material threads, which are manipulated into knots and cords, and often serve as the base for the metal portion of her sculptures, including those in the Malcolm X Steles.[8]

In 1955, her woodcut Reba was displayed in the Carnegie Hall Gallery as a part of the exhibit It's All Yours (sponsored by Seventeen magazine).[3] This woodcut was subsequently purchased by the Museum of Modern Art.[2][3]

The Temple University yearbook Templar published fourteen of her woodcuts in 1956. She created her first direct wax-casting sculptures while at the American Academy in Rome on a John Hay Whitney fellowship in 1957. In 1958 Chase began to experiment with bronze sculptures, using Lost-wax casting techniques.[3]

Her first solo exhibition was at the Galleria L'Obelisco at the Spoleto Festival of Two Worlds in Italy in 1957. Her first museum exhibition in Europe was held at MOMA Paris in 1961. Her first solo exhibition in Paris was at the Galerie Cadran Solaire in 1966.[9]

Her first public commission was completed in 1960 for the Wheaton Plaza in Wheaton, Maryland. This fountain was formed from pressed aluminum and incorporated abstract shapes, sound and light effects to add to the visual impact of the falling water.[3]

In the late 1960s, Chase-Riboud began to garner broad attention for her sculpture. Nancy Heller describes her work as "startling, ten-foot-tall sculptures that combine powerful cast-bronze abstract shapes with veils of fiber ropes made from silk and wool".[10]

Chase-Ribound and Betye Saar were the first African-American women to exhibit in Whitney Museum of American Art as a result of protests organized by Faith Ringgold.[11] Her piece The Ultimate Ground was displayed in the exhibition Contemporary American Sculpture.[3]

In 1971, Chase-Riboud was featured along with four other contemporaries in a documentary about African-American artists entitled Five. The segment on Chase-Riboud showed her installation in 1970 at the Betty Parsons Gallery, as well as the artist working in her studio.[12]

In 1996 Chase-Riboud was among artists commissioned for artwork at the preserved African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan. Her 18-foot bronze memorial, Africa Rising, was installed in the Ted Weiss Federal Building 1998. Chase-Riboud also wrote a poem with the same name as the sculpture.[13]

Continuing to work as a sculptor throughout her life, Chase-Riboud creates drawings and sculptures that are exhibited and collected by museums such as the Whitney Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Newark Museum, New Jersey, the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Iran, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. During September, 2013 to January 2014, she exhibited artwork spanning fifty years at The Philadelphia Museum of Art's exhibition: Barbara Chase-Riboud: The Malcolm X Steles.[14] This traveled to the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive in February 12 - April 28, 2014.

Her work is in major corporate collections and museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art, New York City; Centre Pompidou, Paris; Geigy Foundation, New York; and Lannann Foundation, Los Angeles.[13]

Literary career[edit]

Chase-Riboud has received numerous honors for her literary work, including the Carl Sandburg Prize for poetry and the Women's Caucus for Art's lifetime achievement award.[15] In 1965, she became the first American woman to visit the People's Republic of China after the revolution.[16] In 1996, she was knighted by the French Government and received the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.[17]

Published by MRG
Barbara Chase-Riboud: Malcolm X Complete catalogue cover

Chase-Riboud attained international recognition with the publication of her first novel, Sally Hemings (1979). The novel has been described as the "first full blown imagining" of Hemings and her life as a slave, including her rumored relationship with President Thomas Jefferson.[15] In addition to stimulating considerable controversy, as mainline historians then continued to deny this relationship, the book earned Chase-Riboud the Janet Heidinger Kafka Prize for the best novel written by an American woman. It sold more than one million copies in hardcover[18] and it was a Book-of-the-Month Club selection.[19] It was reissued in 1994, and in paperback in 2009, together with her novel, President's Daughter (1994), about Harriet Hemings.

She continued to write novels including Echo of Lions (1989) and Hottentot Venus: A Novel (2003). Chase-Riboud also writes and publishes poetry, including her first work Memphis & Peking (1974), edited by Toni Morrison, and her more recent publication: Everytime a Knot is Undone, a God is Released (2014).Chase-Riboud continued her literary exploration into slavery and exploitation of African people with her subsequent novels. Valide: A Novel of the Harem (1986) examined slavery in the Ottoman empire.[20] Her Echo of Lions (1989) was one of the first serious novels about the historic Amistad slave-ship revolt of 1839.

In 1994, Chase-Riboud published The President's Daughter, a work that continued the Sally Hemings story, by imagining the life of her and Jefferson's mixed-race daughter Harriet Hemings.[21] At the age of 21, Harriet left Monticello, given traveling money by Jefferson via his overseer, and went North. She settled in Washington, DC where her brother Beverley had already settled. Like him, she passed into white society. She married a white man, according to her letters to her brother Madison Hemings. He was the only one of the four surviving Hemings children who lived the remainder of his life identifying as African-American.

Chase-Riboud's most recent novel, Hottentot Venus: A Novel (2003), humanizes Sarah Baartman, a Khoikhoi woman who was exhibited naked in freak shows in 19th-century Europe.

Sally Hemings: A Novel[edit]

In 1979 she gained widespread attention and critical acclaim for her writing with her first novel Sally Hemings. It was based on the life of Thomas Jefferson's quadroon slave of that name; she was a much-younger half-sister to his late wife and was rumored to have been his concubine for years. In the Summer of 1974 Chase-Riboud had met with editor Jacqueline Onassis to discuss her plans for the work, and Onassis persuaded her to write it.[22] Based on Jefferson's biography by Fawn M. Brodie, Chase-Riboud was among those who believed that Thomas Jefferson fathered six children with Hemings. The young slave was nearly 30 years younger than the president and little had been documented about her life.

Chase-Riboud was the first writer to present a fully realized, fictional character of Sally Hemings, with a rich interior life. Finally Sally Hemings had a voice. The public accepted her portrayal of Hemings and could believe such a woman had a relationship with Jefferson. Sally Hemings was vivid as an American historical figure. Chase-Riboud's book became an international bestseller and won the Janet Heidinger Kafka Prize in fiction by an American woman.[22]

It was so popular that CBS planned to adapt it as a TV mini-series. But mainline historians who were still "guarding" Jefferson as an icon of integrity put pressure on president William Paley to end the effort.[23] No adaptation was made at the time.

But, more than 20 years later, CBS produced Sally Hemings: An American Scandal (2000), a made-for-TV mini-series that portrayed Hemings' and Jefferson's relationship. This has been widely accepted since a 1998 DNA study showed a match between a Hemings descendant and the Jefferson male line.[23][24] Although some reviewers argued about the characterization of Sally Hemings, "no major historian challenged the series' premise that Hemings and Jefferson had a 38-year relationship that produced children."[23] The series featured a beautiful actress as Sally Hemings, as historic accounts of her agreed on her beauty. It also presented African Americans of a range of skin tones, representing the many Hemings mixed-race descendants.

A rearguard of Jefferson historians has continued to deny the possibility of a relationship, but in 2000 and 2001 the Thomas Jefferson Foundation at Monticello, and the National Genealogical Society independently announced their conclusions that Jefferson had likely fathered all of Hemings' children, based on both the DNA and other historical evidence.[25][26] This historic consensus has been reflected in academic writing about Jefferson and his times. The Smithsonian Museum and Monticello collaborated on a groundbreaking exhibition in 2012 in Washington, DC: Slavery at Jefferson's Monticello, which explored Jefferson as a slaveholder and six of the major slave families. It said that Jefferson was likely the father of all Sally Hemings' children. The exhibit was seen by more than one million people.

Chase-Riboud explored the interweaving relationships between the Hemings' and Jefferson families; as Sally Hemings was a much younger half-sister of Jefferson's late wife, she was an aunt to his two daughters.

In place of civic myths that deny America's mixed-race beginnings, Chase-Riboud turns to the Hemings family to unveil the historical presence of antebellum interracial relationships and the possibilities of a post-civil rights multiracial community.[27]

Artists, poets, and writers have been thoroughly exploring the Jefferson-Hemings relationship since then.

In 1991, Chase-Riboud won an important copyright decision, Granville Burgess vs. Chase-Riboud. She had filed suit against the playwright of Dusky Sally in 1987, shortly before a production was to open at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia. She said his work infringed on her copyright for her novel Sally Hemings because it borrowed her fictional ideas. Judge Robert F. Kelly concluded that while

laws were not enacted to inhibit creativity ... it is one thing to inhibit creativity and another to use the idea-versus-expression distinction as something akin to an absolute defense -- to maintain that the protection of copyright law is negated by any small amount of tinkering with another writer's idea that results in a different expression."[28]

He also said,

the similarity between the two works is so obvious and so unapologetic that an ordinary observer can only conclude that Burgess felt he was justified in copying 'Sally Hemings,' or at least that there was no legal impediment to doing so, assuming a few modifications were made." The resulting decision constituted a significant victory for artists and writers, reinforcing protection for creative ideas even when expressed in a slightly different form."[28]

Lawsuit: Chase-Riboud v. Dreamworks[edit]

In 1997, Chase-Riboud settled a suit against DreamWorks for $10 million on charges of copyright infringement of her novel.[29] The author claimed that the screenplay for Steven Spielberg's film Amistad (1997) plagiarized her novel on the topic.[30][31] It was finally established that David Franzoni, the sole credited screenwriter on Amistad, had spent three years, beginning in 1993, writing a script based on Chase-Riboud's book, Echo of Lions. This was under an option held by Dustin Hoffman's Punch Productions. Franzoni claimed he had never read Chase-Riboud's book, which she had sold to Dustin Hoffman's production company. Burt Fields, DreamWorks main lawyer, was at the same time unbeknownst to Chase-Riboud's attorneys a stockholder, lawyer and board member of Punch Productions who did not recuse himself from the suit, but on the contrary managed to have Punch Productions dropped from the original complaint and Franzoni was never obliged to testify under oath." He may have carried over some of his thinking to his screenplay for Amistad.[32] When Chase-Riboud filed a second suit against DreamWorks in France, the dispute was quickly settled out of court for an undisclosed amount days before the 1998 Oscar nominations were announced.[33]


Chase-Riboud's first work of poetry, From Memphis & Peking (1974), was edited by Toni Morrison and published to critical acclaim.[12] Her poetry volume, Portrait of a Nude Woman as Cleopatra, (1987), won the Carl Sandburg Award in 1988.[20] In 1994, Chase-Riboud published Roman Egyptien, poetry written in French.[21] In 2014, she published Everytime a Knot is Undone, a God is Released: Collected and New Poems 1974-2011.[34]

Marriage and family[edit]

In Paris, Chase met Marc Riboud, a photographer who was part of the Magnum group. They married in 1961 on Christmas Day inside a church.[35] The couple had two sons together, David Charles (b. 1964) and Alexis Karol (b. 1967).[36] They traveled extensively in Russia, India, Greece and North Africa.[6]

Years later they divorced. In 1981, Chase-Riboud married her second husband, Sergio Tosi, an art publisher and expert.[16]

Legacy and honors[edit]

Selected works[edit]


  • Last Supper (1958)[3]
  • Bullfighter (1958)[3]
  • Malcolm X (1970)
  • Why Did We Leave Zanibar (1971)[40]
  • Confession for Myself (1973)
  • Cleopatra's Cape (1973)
  • Africa Rising (1998)
  • Mao's Organ (2008)


  • Sally Hemings: A Novel (1979). ISBN 978-0-312-24704-1/reprinted in paperback, 2009
  • Valide: A Novel of the Harem (1986). ISBN 978-0-688-04334-6
  • Echo of Lions (1989). ISBN 978-0-688-06407-5
  • The President's Daughter (1994). ISBN 978-0-345-38970-1/reprinted in paperback, 2009
  • Hottentot Venus: A Novel (2003). ISBN 978-0-385-50856-8



  1. ^ Chase-Riboud 1, Basualdo 2, Rub 3, DuBois Shaw 4, Handler Spitz 5, Barbara 1, Carlos 2, Timothy 3, Gwendolyn 4, Ellen 5 (2013). Barbara Chase-Riboud: The Malcolm X Series. New Haven, CT: The Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press. pp. 109–118. ISBN 978-0-87633-246-7.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b Smith, Jessie C. 1991. "Barbara Chase Riboud", in Notable Black American Women, p. 177 (Gale Cengage).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Barbara Chase-Riboud; John Vick (10 February 2015). Everytime a Knot is Undone, a God is Released: Collected and New Poems 1974-2011. Seven Stories Press. pp. 262–. ISBN 978-1-60980-595-1.
  4. ^ a b Chase-Riboud, Barbara (2013). The Malcolm X Steles. Philadelphia Museum of Art. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-87633-246-7.
  5. ^ a b c "Barbara Chase-Riboud: Awards and Degrees", Michael Rosenfeldt Art, Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Smith, Jessie C. 1991. "Barbara Chase Riboud," in Notable Black American Women, p. 178 (Gale Cengage).
  7. ^ Selz, Peter (1999). Barbara Chase-Riboud, sculptor. Janson, Anthony F. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp. 17–28. ISBN 0810941074. OCLC 40820940.
  8. ^ Barbara Chase-Riboud : the Malcolm X steles. Chase-Riboud, Barbara,, Basualdo, Carlos, 1964-, Rub, Timothy,, Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois, 1968-, Spitz, Ellen Handler,, Vick, John. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 21–31. ISBN 9780300196405. OCLC 858949783.CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ Selz, Peter &, Janson, Anthony F. (January 1, 1999). Barbara Chase-Riboud, Sculptor. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0810941074. OCLC 40820940.
  10. ^ Heller, Nancy G. (1987). Women Artists: An Illustrated History, p. 191 (Cross River Press).
  11. ^ Hine, Darlene Clark (2005). Black Women in America (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195156775.
  12. ^ a b Chase-Riboud (2013). The Malcolm X Steles. p. 114.
  13. ^ a b c "African Burial Ground Commissioned Artwork", General Services Administration
  14. ^ Barbara Chase-Riboud : the Malcolm X steles. Chase-Riboud, Barbara,, Basualdo, Carlos, 1964-, Rub, Timothy,, Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois, 1968-, Spitz, Ellen Handler,, Vick, John. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 109–119. ISBN 9780300196405. OCLC 858949783.CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ a b c "Imagining Sally Hemings". Frontline. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
  16. ^ a b "Barbara Chase-Riboud". Voices from the Gap: Women Artists and Writers of Color. The University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
  17. ^ a b "People", International Herald Tribune, March 23, 1996.
  18. ^ a b "Barbara Chase-Riboud". African American Literature Book Club., LLC. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
  19. ^ "Chronology: History of a Secret", PBS Frontline, Jefferson's Blood, 2000
  20. ^ a b c d Chase-Riboud (2013). The Malcolm X Steles. p. 116.
  21. ^ a b c Chase-Riboud (2013). The Malcolm X Steles. p. 117.
  22. ^ a b Chase-Riboud (2013). The Malcolm X Steles. p. 115.
  23. ^ a b c "The History of a Secret". Jefferson's Blood. PBS Frontline. May 2000. Retrieved June 20, 2011.Quote: "More than 20 years after CBS executives were pressured by Jefferson historians to drop plans for a mini-series on Jefferson and Hemings, the network airs Sally Hemings: An American Scandal. Though many quarreled with the portrayal of Hemings as unrealistically modern and heroic, no major historian challenged the series' premise that Hemings and Jefferson had a 38-year relationship that produced children.
  24. ^ Foster, EA; Jobling MA, Taylor PG, Donnelly P, de Knijff P, Mieremet R, Zerjal T, Tyler-Smith C (1998). "Jefferson fathered slave’s last child," Nature 396 (6706): 27–28. doi:10.1038/23835. PMID 9817200.
  25. ^ "Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account", Monticello Website, Thomas Jefferson Foundation. Retrieved June 22, 2011. Quote: "Ten years later [referring to its 2000 report], TJF and most historians now believe that, years after his wife’s death, Thomas Jefferson was the father of the six children of Sally Hemings mentioned in Jefferson's records, including Beverly, Harriet, Madison and Eston Hemings."
  26. ^ Helen F. M. Leary, National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 89, No. 3, September 2001, pp. 207, 214–218. Quote: Leary concluded that "the chain of evidence securely fastens Sally Hemings' children to their father, Thomas Jefferson."
  27. ^ Salamishah Tillet, "Chap. One: Freedom in a Bondsmaid's Arms", in Sites of Slavery: Citizenship and Racial Democracy in the Post–Civil Rights Imagination, Duke University Press, 2012, p. 28.
  28. ^ a b Cohen, Roger. "Judge Says Copyright Covers Writer's Ideas of a Jefferson Affair", The New York Times, August 15, 1991.
  29. ^ Weinraub, Bernard. "Filmmakers Of 'Amistad' Rebut Claim By Novelist", New York Times, December 4, 1997
  30. ^ "The second Amistad case: 'Outright Plagiarism' or 'Who Owns History?' Chase-Riboud v. Dreamworks, Inc., 1998". The Legal Information Institute. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved February 27, 2008.
  31. ^ "DreamWorks publicly accused by Chase-Riboud of plagiarism of 'Black Mutiny'", Variety, December 4, 1997.
  32. ^ Kim Musters, "The Studios Aging Bulls," Vanity Fair, April 1998.
  33. ^ "'Amistad' Libel Case Settled," Variety, February 10, 1998.
  34. ^ Everytime a Knot is Undone, a God is Released at Penguin Random House.
  35. ^ Basualdo, Carlos; Art., Philadelphia Museum of; Archive., University Art Museum and Pacific Film (2013-01-01). Barbara Chase-Riboud: The Malcolm X Steles. Philadelphia Museum of Art. ISBN 9780300196405. OCLC 877816644.
  36. ^ page, yolanda williams (2007). Encyclopedia of African American and Women Writers. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0313334290.
  37. ^ Weeks, Linton (October 2, 2004). "Red-Letter Day For Black Authors: Hurston/Wright Awards Honor 9". Washington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  38. ^ "Awards for Women in the Arts 2007" (PDF). College Art Association Committee on Women in the Arts and the Women's Caucus for Art. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  39. ^ "Alain Locke Awards: Conversation with Barbara Chase-Riboud". Detroit Institute of Arts. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  40. ^ Selz, Peter (2009). "Retrospective: Reflections on Barbara Chase-Riboud". Callaloo. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 32: 879–881. JSTOR 27743064.

Further reading[edit]

  • Darlene Clark Hine, Elsa Barkley Brown, and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (eds), "Barbara Chase-Riboud", Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1993.
  • Basulado, Carlos and BCR. Barbara Chase-Riboud: The Malcolm X Steles Catalogue, 2013 (Philadelphia Museum of Art & Yale University Press). ISBN 978-0-87633-246-7 PMA, & ISBN 978-0-300-19640-5 Yale
  • Dawson, Emma Waters. "Witnesses and Practitioners: Attitudes toward Miscegenation in Barbara Chase-Riboud's Sally Hemings." In Dolan Hubbard (ed.), Recovered Writers/Recovered Texts. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1997, 1–14.
  • Farrington, Lisa E. Creating Their Own Image: The History of African-American Women Artists. 2004 (Oxford University Press)
  • Heller, Nancy. Women Artists: An Illustrated History, 1987 (Cross River Press)
  • Janson, H. W., History of Art, 1995. (Harry N. Abrams, Inc.)
  • Lewis, Samella. ART: African American, 1990 (Hancraft Press)
  • McKee, Sarah. "Barbara Chase-Riboud (1939- )." Contemporary African American Novelists: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. 82-87.
  • Rushdy, Ashraf H. A. "Representing the Constitution: Embodiments of America in Barbara Chase-Riboud's Echo of Lions." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 36.4 (1995 Summer): 258-80.
  • Rushdy, Ashraf H. A. "'I Write in Tongues': The Supplement of Voice in Barbara Chase-Riboud's Sally Hemings", Contemporary Literature 35.1 (Spring 1994): 100–35.
  • Russell, John. "Review of Sally Hemmings. " New York Times, September 5, 1979.
  • Salviati, Yvette. "La 'Barque secréte' d'un demi-dieu: Thomas Jefferson dans La Virginienne." Mythes, Croyances et Religions dans le Monde Anglo-Saxon 5 (1987): 163–86.
  • Selz, Peter, and A. Janson, Barbara Chase-Riboud: Sculptor, 1999 (Harry N. Abrams, Inc.). ISBN 978-0-8109-4107-6
  • Simmons, Charitey. "Thomas Jefferson: Intimate History, Public Debate." Chicago Tribune, July 3, 1979.
  • Smith, Carney. Notable Black American Women, 1991 (Gale Cengage). ISBN 978-0-8103-4749-6
  • Barbara Chase-Riboud, Callaloo. 2009 (Johns Hopkins University Press). ISSN 0161-2492
  • Trescott, Jacqueline. "The Hemmings Affair: The Black Novelist and Jefferson's Mistress." Washington Post, June 15, 1979.

Related links[edit]