|Archipelago||Leeward Islands, Lesser Antilles|
|Area||160.56 km2 (61.99 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||38 m (125 ft)|
Antigua and Barbuda
|Largest settlement||Codrington (pop. 1,252)|
|Population||1,638 (as of 2011)|
|Density||10.2 /km2 (26.4 /sq mi)|
Barbuda is an island in the Eastern Caribbean, and forms part of the state of Antigua and Barbuda. It has a population of about 1,638 (at the 2011 Census), most of whom live in the town of Codrington.
Barbuda is located north of Antigua, in the middle of the Leeward Islands. To the south are the islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, and to the west and north west are Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Barts, and St. Martin.
The Ciboney were the first to inhabit the island of Barbuda in 2400 BC, but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the island when Christopher Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English, who formed a colony in 1666.
In 1685 Barbuda was leased to brothers Christopher and John Codrington, who had founded the town of Codrington. The Codrington family produced food on their land in Barbuda, and also transported slaves as labour for their sugarcane plantations on Antigua. There was more than one slave rebellion at Codrington during the 1740s, during which slaves rose against managers. All the slaves were freed in 1834.
Barbuda was for a time used by the Codringtons as a "nursery" for slaves.
In 1719, Codrington and the island of Barbuda had its first census (of both people and livestock), conducted by Sir William Codrington (1715–1790).
The first map of Barbuda was made in the second half of the 18th century. At that time there were substantial buildings in the Highland area, a castle in Codrington, a fort at River, now known as the Martello Tower, and houses at Palmetto Point, Coco Point, and Castle Hill. The map shows eight catching pens for holding captured runaway slaves, indicating that this was a serious problem. There were several defensive cannon gun battery units around the island perimeter. There was a large plantation in the Meadow and Guava area and another large plantation in the Highlands area.
On November 1, 1981, the island gained its independence as an integral part of Antigua and Barbuda, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. In a 1989 election the Barbuda Independence Movement received too few votes to qualify for a seat in the national parliament.
Points of interest
Barbuda is home to the Frigate Bird Sanctuary, which is located in the Codrington Lagoon. Other points of interest include Highland House (the 18th-century home of the Codrington family) and the Indian Cave, which contains ancient Amerindian petroglyphs.
Barbuda's climate and geography is conducive to tourism. Many tourists are attracted by the island's beaches. Activities include a bird sanctuary, swimming, snorkeling, fishing, and caving. Only two operating resorts are located on the island, the rest are abandoned after poor management, difficult infrastructure and hurricane damage.
The total land area is 160.56 km2. The capital and largest city is Codrington, with an estimated population of 1,000. The island is mostly coral limestone with little topographical variation. The "highlands" area on the eastern side of the island has hills rising to 125 ft (38 m), but the majority of the island is very flat, with many lagoons in the northwest corner.
The climate is classified as tropical marine which means that there is little seasonal temperature variation. In January and February, the coolest months, the average daily high temperature is 27 °C (81 °F). While in July and August, the warmest months, the average daily high is 30 °C (86 °F).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barbuda.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barbuda.|