Barcaldine, Queensland

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Barcaldine
Queensland
QLD Town of Barcaldine in June 1962.jpg
Barcaldine, 1962
Barcaldine is located in Queensland
Barcaldine
Barcaldine
Coordinates23°33′20″S 145°17′20″E / 23.5555°S 145.2888°E / -23.5555; 145.2888Coordinates: 23°33′20″S 145°17′20″E / 23.5555°S 145.2888°E / -23.5555; 145.2888
Population1,422 (2016 census)[1]
 • Density1.9069/km2 (4.9389/sq mi)
Established1885
Postcode(s)4725
Elevation266.9 m (876 ft)
Area745.7 km2 (287.9 sq mi)
Time zoneAEST (UTC+10:00)
Location
LGA(s)Barcaldine Region
State electorate(s)Gregory
Federal Division(s)Maranoa
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
30.0 °C
86 °F
16.2 °C
61 °F
497.7 mm
19.6 in
Localities around Barcaldine:
Ilfracombe Aramac Jericho
Ilfracombe Barcaldine Jericho
Ilfracombe Blackall Blackall

Barcaldine (/bɑːrˈkɔːldɪn/)[2] is a rural town and locality in the Barcaldine Region in Queensland, Australia.[3][4] In the 2016 census, Barcaldine had a population of 1,422 people.[1] This is the administrative centre of the Barcaldine Region. Barcaldine played a major role in the Australian labour movement.

Geography[edit]

Barcaldine is Central West Queensland, approximately 520 kilometres (320 mi) by road west of the city of Rockhampton. The town is situated on Lagoon Creek, which flows into the Alice River approximately five kilometres south of the Barcaldine. Major industries are sheep and beef cattle rearing. The streets in Barcaldine are named after different types of trees.[5]

History[edit]

Barcaldine lay on the traditional tribal lands of the Iningai. Iningai (also known as Yiningay, Muttaburra, Tateburra, Yinangay, Yinangi) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken by the Iningai people. The Iningai language region includes the landscape within the local government boundaries of the Longreach Region and Barcaldine Region, particularly the towns of Longreach, Barcaldine, Muttaburra and Aramac as well as the properties of Bowen Downs and catchments of Cornish Creek and Alice River.[6]

The town takes its name from a sheep station called Barcaldine Downs, which was established in 1863 by Donald Charles Cameron, whose family property in Ayrshire, Scotland, which was named for Barcaldine, Argyll and Bute, Scotland.[7][8] Cameron had been a slaveholder in British Guiana.[9]

The first lots were sold in 1885 and within a year several buildings were under construction. By the end of 1886 the town had been surveyed.[10] The Central Western railway line to Barcaldine opened on 8 November 1886.[11] Barcaldine Post Office opened on 13 November 1886.[12] Barcaldine State School opened on 4 July 1887.[13][14]

St Joseph's Catholic Primary School was opened in 1896 by Sisters of Mercy, specifically Sister Mary Muredach McMullen (superior), Sister Mary Catherine Cleary, and Sister Mary Fayne, with the assistance of lay teacher Catherine Lobie. The original building had two storeys with the sisters living upstairs and the classrooms downstairs. In 1906 a new school building was erected to accommodate the school's 195 students. The current school building opened on 21 October 1962.[14][15][16][17]

In the 2011 census, the town of Barcaldine had a population of 1,316 people,[18] while the locality had a population of 1,655 people.[19] The current Barcaldine Public Library opened in 2016.[20]

Labour movement[edit]

Tree of Knowledge marker in Barcaldine
The Tree of Knowledge, 1997

Barcaldine played a significant role in the Australian labour movement and the birth of the Australian Labor Party. In 1891, it was one of the focal points of the 1891 Australian shearers' strike, with the Eureka Flag flying over the strike camp. The landmark Tree of Knowledge, under which the strikers met, stood outside the railway station. In 2006, persons unknown poisoned the tree with the herbicide Roundup, which led to its demise.

One of the first May day marches in the world took place during the strike on 1 May 1891 in Barcaldine. The Sydney Morning Herald reported that of the 1,340 men that took part, 618 were mounted on horses. Banners carried included those of the Australian Labor Federation, the Shearers' and Carriers' Unions, and one inscribed 'Young Australia'. The leaders wore blue sashes and the Eureka Flag was carried. The Labor Bulletin reported that cheers were given for "the Union", "the Eight-hour day", "the Strike Committee" and "the boys in gaol". It reported the march:

In the procession every civilised country was represented doing duty for the Russian, Swede, French, Dane etc., who are germane to him in other climes, showing that Labor's cause is one the world over, foreshadowing the time when the swords shall be turned into ploughshares and Liberty, Peace and Friendship will knit together the nations of the earth.

Local government[edit]

Shire Hall at Barcaldine, circa 1920

In 1892, the local government area of Barcaldine Division was established, by separating it from the Kargoolnah Division which had its headquarters in Blackall. Since then, Barcaldine has been the headquarters of local government in the area, commencing with the Barcaldine Divisional Board, which became the Barcaldine Shire Council in 1903, and then the Barcaldine Regional Council in 2008. The initial local government meetings were held in a building in Oak Street, which burned down in 1896. A shire hall was then constructed in 1898 on the south-east corner of Ash and Beech Streets, which eventually became too small. In February 1912 a new larger shire hall was opened and that building (somewhat modified and extended) is still in use today and is heritage-listed.[21]

Hydrotherapy[edit]

The artesian water at Barcaldine is full of minerals. A bore had been constructed in 1887, but was unsuitable for the water needs of the steam locomotives and so the water was let run to waste. By 1891, a local doctor observed that water contained soda and potash which he believed would have health benefits. In 1907, a swimming pool using the artesian water was built by the Barcaldine Shire Council, along with baths and showers for therapeutic use.[22] Although Barcaldine was being promoted as a spa town into the mid 1930s, interest in "taking the waters" declined after that period as medical opinion became increasingly doubtful of the benefits of mineral waters, favouring drugs and physiotherapy as better treatments.[23]

War memorial[edit]

Barcaldine War Memorial, 1928

The Barcaldine War Memorial was unveiled by Queensland Governor, Matthew Nathan, on 21 May 1924.[24]

Population[edit]

At the 2016 census, Barcaldine had a population of 1,422.

2019 Guinness World Record[edit]

On 26 May 2019, Barcaldine set a world record for a 9.5-kilometre (5.9 mi) line of 868 motorhomes, caravans, campervans and fifth wheelers outside the town, beating the previous record of 672 vehicles in Italy in 2003.[25]

Locality amalgamation[edit]

On 22 November 2019 the Queensland Government decided to amalgamate the localities in the Barcaldine Region, resulting in five expanded localities based on the larger towns: Alpha, Aramac, Barcaldine, Jericho and Muttaburra. Barcaldine was expanded to incorporate Barcaldine Downs, Evora, Grant (all except for the eastern corner), Home Creek, Ingberry (southern part), Moombria, Narbethong (all except for the north-eastern corner), Patrick, Saltern Creek, and Tara Station.[26][27][28]

Heritage listings[edit]

St Peter's Anglican Church, 2010

Barcaldine has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Barcaldine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
34.5
(94.1)
33.2
(91.8)
30.0
(86.0)
26.0
(78.8)
22.8
(73.0)
22.6
(72.7)
24.9
(76.8)
28.7
(83.7)
32.2
(90.0)
34.5
(94.1)
35.7
(96.3)
30.1
(86.2)
Average low °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
22.6
(72.7)
20.8
(69.4)
16.7
(62.1)
12.3
(54.1)
9.0
(48.2)
7.9
(46.2)
9.4
(48.9)
13.3
(55.9)
17.4
(63.3)
20.3
(68.5)
22.2
(72.0)
16.3
(61.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 86.5
(3.41)
78.0
(3.07)
60.0
(2.36)
36.3
(1.43)
30.6
(1.20)
24.3
(0.96)
22.8
(0.90)
15.8
(0.62)
16.0
(0.63)
28.9
(1.14)
40.1
(1.58)
64.1
(2.52)
503.6
(19.83)
Average rainy days (≥ 1mm) 6.0 5.5 4.2 2.5 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.9 3.1 4.0 5.3 40.4
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[34]

Facilities[edit]

Barcaldine has a bowls, tennis clubs, a combined racecourse and showground near the golf course, a historical and folk museum, swimming pool and visitor information centre.[35]

Barcaldine Regional Council operates a library at 71 Ash Street.[36]

The Barcaldine branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms at the corner of Maple and Ash Streets.[37]

Education[edit]

Barcaldine Prep-12 State School is a government primary and secondary (Early Childhood-12) school for boys and girls at Gidyea Street (23°33′32″S 145°17′38″E / 23.5588°S 145.2940°E / -23.5588; 145.2940 (Barcaldine Prep-12 State School)).[38][39] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 284 students with 29 teachers (27 full-time equivalent) and 22 non-teaching staff (16 full-time equivalent).[40] It includes a special education program.[38]

St Joseph's Catholic Primary School is a Catholic primary (Prep-6) school for boys and girls at 23 Willow Street (23°33′22″S 145°17′10″E / 23.5562°S 145.2862°E / -23.5562; 145.2862 (St Joseph's Catholic Primary School)).[38][41] In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 26 students with 5 teachers (4 full-time equivalent) and 3 non-teaching staff (2 full-time equivalent).[40]

Wanpa-rda Matilda Outback Education Centre is an Outdoor and Environmental Education Centre at the corner of Ash & Willow Streets (23°33′13″S 145°17′13″E / 23.5535°S 145.2870°E / -23.5535; 145.2870 (Wanpa-rda Matilda Outback Education Centre)).[38][42]

Cultural references[edit]

The Working Man's Paradise: an Australian Labour novel, was written by William Lane under the pseudonym John Miller in 1892, inspired by the events of the 1891 Shearers' Strike in Barcaldine. This story shows a contrast between the 'haves' and the 'have nots' (slum dwellers and the wealthy citizens) and depicts the conflict between the squatters and pastoral workers. The preface of the book states, 'The scene is laid in Sydney because it is not thought desirable, for various reasons, to aggravate by a local plot the soreness existing in Queensland'.[43]

Barcaldine features in Hail Tomorrow: a play in four acts, written by Vance Palmer in 1947. The full length play's conflict centres about the Queensland shearers' strike of 1891.[44][45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Barcaldine (SSC)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 20 October 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005). Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3
  3. ^ "Barcaldine - town in Barcaldine Region (entry 1587)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Barcaldine - locality in Barcaldine Region (entry 47073)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Barcaldine - Queensland - Australia - Travel - smh.com.au". www.smh.com.au. Archived from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  6. ^ "Iningai". State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Barcaldine - locality (entry 47073)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  8. ^ "Barcaldine and Barcaldine Shire". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  9. ^ Fernandes, C. Island Off the Coast of Asia: Instruments of statecraft in Australian foreign policy (Melbourne: Monash University Publishing, 2018), 15.
  10. ^ "Barcaldine and Barcaldine Shire". Queensland Places. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  11. ^ Kerr, John (1990), Triumph of narrow gauge : a history of Queensland Railways, Boolarong Publications, ISBN 978-0-86439-102-5
  12. ^ Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Premier Postal Auctions. Retrieved 10 May 2014.
  13. ^ "Opening and closing dates of Queensland Schools". Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  14. ^ a b Queensland Family History Society (2010), Queensland schools past and present (Version 1.01 ed.), Queensland Family History Society, ISBN 978-1-921171-26-0
  15. ^ "The Western Champion". The Western Champion And General Advertiser For The Central-western Districts. IX, (210). Queensland, Australia. 28 January 1896. p. 7. Retrieved 5 August 2019 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  16. ^ "THE SISTERS OF MERCY". The Capricornian. XLVIII, (39). Queensland, Australia. 29 September 1923. p. 30. Retrieved 5 August 2019 – via National Library of Australia.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  17. ^ "History". St Joseph's Catholic Primary School. Archived from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  18. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Barcaldine". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 29 February 2016. Edit this at Wikidata
  19. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Barcaldine". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 29 February 2016. Edit this at Wikidata
  20. ^ "Queensland Public Libraries Statistical Bulletin 2016-2017" (PDF). Public Libraries Connect. November 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Barcaldine Shire Hall & Offices (entry 601274)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  22. ^ Griggs, Peter (2013), 'Taking the waters': mineral springs, artesian bores and health tourism in Queensland, 1870-1950, Cambridge University Press, p. 164, retrieved 16 January 2017
  23. ^ Griggs, Peter (2013), 'Taking the waters': mineral springs, artesian bores and health tourism in Queensland, 1870-1950, Cambridge University Press, pp. 168–169, retrieved 16 January 2017
  24. ^ "Barcaldine War Memorial". Monuments Australia. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
  25. ^ Larkins, Damien; Gordon, Krystal (24 October 2019). "Epic outback queue of motorhomes smashes world record". ABC News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Recent place name decisions". Queensland Government. 22 November 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  27. ^ "Proposed Locality Boundaries and Names: Barcaldine Regional: Alpha, Aramac, Barcaldine, Jericho and Muttaburra" (PDF). Queensland Government. 17 May 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Locality Boundaries and Names: Barcaldine Regional Council: Alpha, Aramac, Barcaldine, Jericho and Muttaburra" (PDF). Queensland Government. 17 May 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  29. ^ "Barcaldine War Memorial Clock (entry 600018)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Shearers' Strike Camp Site, Barcaldine (entry 600019)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Tree of Knowledge (entry 600021)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Barcaldine Masonic Temple (entry 600020)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  33. ^ "St Peter's Anglican Church and Hall (entry 600022)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  34. ^ "BARCALDINE POST OFFICE". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  35. ^ "Barcaldine". Centre for the Government of Queensland. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  36. ^ "Libraries". Barcaldine Regional Council. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
  37. ^ "Branch locations". Queensland Country Women's Association. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  38. ^ a b c d "State and non-state school details". Queensland Government. 9 July 2018. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  39. ^ "Barcaldine Prep-12 State School". Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  40. ^ a b "ACARA School Profile 2017". Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  41. ^ "St Joseph's Catholic Primary School". Archived from the original on 12 March 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Wanpa-rda Matilda Outback Education Centre". Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  43. ^ Lane, William (1892). "The workingman's paradise : an Australian labour novel / by 'John Miller' (William Lane) ; with an introduction by Michael Wilding". State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  44. ^ Palmer, Vance (1947). "Hail tomorrow : a play in four acts / by Vance Palmer". State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  45. ^ Phillips, AA (1948). "Hail Tomorrow: A Play in Four Acts [Book Review]". Meanjin. 7 (1): 1–2 – via Informit.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hoch, Isabel (1996), More than a school : a history of St. Joseph's, Barcaldine 1896-1996, St. Joseph's School, ISBN 978-0-646-28097-4

External links[edit]