Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto
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|Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto|
|Comune di Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto|
|Province / Metropolitan city||Messina (ME)|
|• Mayor||Roberto Materia|
|• Total||58.89 km2 (22.74 sq mi)|
|Elevation||60 m (200 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2008)|
|• Density||710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Sebastian|
|Saint day||20 January|
Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto (Italian: [bartʃelˈloːna ˈpottso di ˈɡɔtto]; Sicilian: Baccialona Pizzaottu) is a town and comune of about 50,000 inhabitants in the north coast of Sicily, Italy, 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Messina towards Palermo. It belongs to the Province of Messina.
Barcellona was founded in 1522, during the Spanish dominance of the island. It was merged with Pozzo di Gotto (founded in 1463) in 1836.
Origins and etymology
This Tyrrhenian town has a similar geographic position to the Catalan city on the Mediterranean. Barcelona lies south of the foothills of the Pyrenees, overlooking the Mediterranean sea; Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto lies in the plain that slopes to the north close to the lush hills and the chain of Peloritani mountains, overlooking the Gulf of Patti in the Tyrrhenian Sea on the part near the Aeolian Islands in a portion of coast between the Milazzo peninsula to the east and to the west promontory of Tindari.
The most creditable hypothesis for the roots to its name lies in the domination of the Crown of Aragon (1282–1516) and then in the five hundred year history of Spanish Sicily (1516–1713), flowing together with the Kingdom of Naples under the jurisdiction of the Crown of Spain. The same analogy have identified the first conquerors from County of Aragon and County of Barcelona.
The oldest part of the town, Pozzo di Gotto, owes its name to the digging of a well for irrigation in cultivated lands located between the rivers Idria and Longano, belonging to Nicholas Goto as described in Vulgar Latin in a document dated 1463: " ... Nicolao de Gotho, ..., in quo Puzzo de Gotho ...". In 1571 Pozzogottesi obtained from the Grand Court of the Archbishop of Messina permission to elect their chaplain stationed in Saint Vitus no longer depend from Archpriest of Milazzo. Gained recognition, has advanced the redemption request to the Court of Madrid against the oppressive power of Milazzo under whose jurisdiction Pozzo di Gotto depended politically and physically by providing a distant hamlet, a bond that will be permanently discontinued 22 May 1639, and ratified by royal decree Viceroy under the reign of Philip IV of Spain, assumes the title "Libera et Realis Civitas Putei de Gotho". The village in the west of the river Longano in turn under the jurisdiction of Castroreale and had already followed the example of the neighboring community, rebelling against the jurors castrensian doing in the Church to recognize its independence. Notarial deeds dating back to 1522 in Castroreale report the name of the district or hamlet of "Barsalona", a name likely to be attributed to the presence in the baptismal books of Pozzo di Gotto the name of "Graziosa Barsalona", on the other hand is supported the thesis that the name of the location has been given by Iberian sailors having recognizing the remarkable similarity of the two territories.
The autonomy of the village of Barcellona was accepted by the Sicilian Parliament, recognized by the King on 15 May 1815 and ratified in Wien 28 February 1823, by King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. The administrative union decreed 5 January 1835, comes into force on 1 June 1836 at the behest of King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, deciding that the new municipality formed by the merger of the two ancient districts bore the full name of Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto. Are discarded by the King all the advanced options of names derived from the word "Longano", receiving the unanimous appreciation, on the other hand the initial goodwill will turn into hatred and resentment towards the monarch as a result of criminal actions undertaken throughout the province, especially in Milazzo and Messina, which earned him the nickname of "King Bomb". The city soon established covered a certain role with significant contributions to the definitive expulsion of the House of Bourbon from the province and the whole of Sicily and increasingly effective input in all the events included in the process of unification of constituting Kingdom of Italy.
In the area corresponding to the current municipal area were found the following settlements:
- Settlement and Necropolis placed the Bronze Age and Iron Age in Maloto locality.
- Settlement and Necropolis certifiable around the tenth century BC in Pizzo Lando.
- Settlement and Necropolis of ancient Greek or Hellenistic evaluated in the eighth century BC in Oliveto locality.
- Settlement and Necropolis Sicano Greek estimated at around the sixth and fifth centuries BC in Sant'Onofrio locality.
- 265 BC - Battle of Longano between the army of Hieron (Hiero II) of Syracuse and Mamertines under the command of the leader Cione. The exact assignment of the place in the absence of identifiable cause remains earthquakes or floods or diversion of water courses, there are several hypotheses that place the event along the courses of the rivers bordering the "Mela" or "Patrì", and other in the vicinity of the mythical city: "Longane" (Rodì Milici) or "Abacena" (Tripi), however settlements related to the same conflict.
- 1757 Flood torrent Longano and consequent start construction of the ramparts during the reign of King Charles III.
- 1783 Seismic event, known as the southern Calabrian earthquake in 1783 causes considerable damage.
- 1846 Flood Longano stream.
- 1848 Riots Revolutionaries. The Austrians forced to leave the city, Sicilian Revolution in 1848.
- During the 1854 Crimean War rampant in Europe coming from India by British ships, a violent epidemic cholera which soon transcends the boundaries of Alps and upsets the whole of the peninsula, reaching high rates of mortality in the provinces of Messina and Palermo.
- 1860 - July 20 The population supports the Battle of Milazzo (1860) for the conquest of the Castle Fortress (Milazzo Castle) for the expulsion of the House of Bourbon.
- 1866 Confiscation of the property of many religious orders in the city.
- 1872 Flood Longano stream.
- 1908 Event disastrous earthquake, known as the Messina earthquake in 1908 makes serious damage.
- 1943 - 15 August Anglo-American Bombing have caused 74 victims.
- 2008 Flood Longano stream.
- 2011 - November 22, Flood and flooding of the river Longano serious damage. At the same time the weather event affected the territory of Milazzo and the fraction of Caldera with the flooding of the river Mela and the town of Saponara with muddy landslides that have caused 3 victims.
Traditions and folklore
The procession of Varette which takes place on Friday, when for parade through the streets of the city at the same time two processions consist of twenty-six Vare depicting the mysteries of the Passion, Easter Rites included in the "Santa Sumana".
- Giuseppa Bolognara Calcagno (1846–1884), freedom fighter of the Risorgimento
- Emilio Fede (1931–), journalist
- Carmelo Freni (1934-) journalist, writer, director
- Emilio Isgrò (1937–), artist
- Leonardo Vitale (1941–1984), Mafia pentito
- Francesca Chillemi (1985–), Miss Italia 2003