|Seat||Barcelona City Hall|
|• Body||Barcelona City Council|
|• Mayor||Ada Colau (Barcelona en Comú)|
|• City||102.15 km2 (39.44 sq mi)|
|• Urban||803 km2 (310 sq mi)|
|Elevation (AMSL)||12 m (39 ft)|
|• Rank||2nd (Spain)|
|• Density||15,991/km2 (41,420/sq mi)|
barceloní, -ina (ca)
'barcelonés, -esa (es)
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+34 (E) 93 (B)|
|INE code||08 0193|
|City budget (2014)||€2.5 billion|
|Official language||Catalan and Spanish|
|Main festitivity||La Mercè|
|Patron saint||Eulalia of Barcelona|
Barcelona (//, Catalan: [bəɾsəˈlonə], Spanish: [barθeˈlona]) is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and Spain's second most populated city, with a population of 1.6 million within its administrative limits. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 4.7 million people, being the sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area, and Milan. It is the largest metropolis on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres (1,680 ft) high.
Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural center and a major tourist destination. Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments.
Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, economic, trade fair and cultural centers, and its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. It is a major cultural and economic center in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world (before Zürich, after Frankfurt) and a financial center. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion; it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europe's third and one of the world's most successful as a city brand. In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, but it has since been in a full recession with declines in both employment and GDP per capita, with some recent signs of the beginning of an economic recovery. Since 2011 Barcelona is a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles above 35 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network and a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe.
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Main sights
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Religion
- 7 Economy
- 8 Government and administrative divisions
- 9 Education
- 10 Culture
- 11 Transport
- 12 International relations
- 13 Other sights
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as , in Ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn; and in Latin as Barcino, Barcilonum and Barcenona.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, and Barchenona.
Barcelona's name is usually abbreviated as 'Barna'. Foreigners often erroneously abbreviate Barcelona as 'Barça', the popular name of Barcelona football club. Spaniards also use 'BCN', often written 'Bcn' or 'bcn', which actually corresponds to the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is also referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, and Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona.
The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear. Around the actual neighborhood of Raval have been found remains of an early settlement, including different tombs and a hut from 5.500 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends. The first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the Third century BC.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum (Roman military camp) centerd on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall (Plaça de Sant Jaume). Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district, probably as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco (modern Tarragona), but it may be gathered from later writers that it gradually grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins; some from the era of Galba survive.
Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum MUHBA; the typically Roman grid plan is still visible today in the layout of the historical center, the Barri Gòtic (Gothic Quarter). Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343. The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, becoming for a few years the capital of all Hispania. After being conquered by the Arabs in the early 8th century, it was conquered in 801 by Charlemagne's son Louis, who made Barcelona the seat of the Carolingian "Hispanic March" (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona.
The Counts of Barcelona became increasingly independent and expanded their territory to include all of Catalonia, although on 6 July 985, Barcelona was sacked by the army of Almanzor. The sack was so traumatic that most of Barcelona's population was either killed or enslaved. In 1137, Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged in dynastic union by the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV and Petronilla of Aragon, their titles finally borne by only one person when their son Alfonso II of Aragon ascended to the throne in 1162. His territories were later to be known as the Crown of Aragon, which conquered many overseas possessions and ruled the western Mediterranean Sea with outlying territories in Naples and Sicily and as far as Athens in the 13th century. The forging of a dynastic link between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile marked the beginning of Barcelona's decline. The Bank of Barcelona, probably the oldest public bank in Europe, was established by the city magistrates in 1401. It originated from necessities of the state, as did the Bank of Venice (1402) and the Bank of Genoa (1407).
The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 united the two royal lines. Madrid became the center of political power whilst the colonisation of the Americas reduced the financial importance (at least in relative terms) of Mediterranean trade. Barcelona was a center of Catalan separatism, including the Catalan Revolt (1640–52) against Philip IV of Spain. The great plague of 1650–1654 halved the city's population.
In the 18th century, a fortress was built at Montjuïc that overlooked the harbour. In 1794, this fortress was used by the French astronomer Pierre François André Méchain for observations relating to a survey stretching to Dunkirk that provided the official basis of the measurement of a metre. The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum, was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. Much of Barcelona was negatively affected by the Napoleonic wars, but the start of industrialization saw the fortunes of the province improve.
During the Spanish Civil War, the city, and Catalonia in general, were resolutely Republican. Many enterprises and public services were "collectivised" by the CNT and UGT unions. As the power of the Republican government and the Generalitat diminished, much of the city was under the effective control of anarchist groups. The anarchists lost control of the city to their own allies, the Communists and official government troops, after the street fighting of the Barcelona May Days. The fall of the city on 26 January 1939, caused a mass exodus of civilians who fled to the French border. The resistance of Barcelona to Franco's coup d'état was to have lasting effects after the defeat of the Republican government. The autonomous institutions of Catalonia were abolished, and the use of the Catalan language in public life was suppressed. Barcelona remained the second largest city in Spain, at the heart of a region which was relatively industrialised and prosperous, despite the devastation of the civil war. The result was a large-scale immigration from poorer regions of Spain (particularly Andalusia, Murcia and Galicia), which in turn led to rapid urbanisation. The city gained vitality in 1992 when it hosted the Olympic games.
Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea, on a plain approximately 5 km (3 mi) wide limited by the mountain range of Collserola, the Llobregat river to the southwest and the Besòs river to the north. This plain covers an area of 170 km2 (66 sq mi), of which 101 km2 (39.0 sq mi) are occupied by the city itself. It is 120 kilometres (75 miles) south of the Pyrenees and the Catalan border with France.
Tibidabo, 512 m (1,680 ft) high, offers striking views over the city and is topped by the 288.4 m (946.2 ft) Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower that is visible from most of the city. Barcelona is peppered with small hills, most of them urbanised, that gave their name to the neighbourhoods built upon them, such as Carmel (267 m), Putget (181 m) and Rovira (261 m). The escarpment of Montjuïc (173 m), situated to the southeast, overlooks the harbour and is topped by Montjuïc castle, a fortress built in the 17–18th centuries to control the city as a replacement for the Ciutadella. Today, the fortress is a museum and Montjuïc is home to several sporting and cultural venues, as well as Barcelona's biggest park and gardens.
The city borders on the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs to the north; the Mediterranean Sea to the east; El Prat de Llobregat and L'Hospitalet de Llobregat to the south; and Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Sant Just Desvern, Esplugues de Llobregat, Sant Cugat del Vallès, and Montcada i Reixac to the west. The municipality includes two small sparsely-inhabited exclaves to the north-west.
Its average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. The average annual temperature of the sea is about 18 °C (64 °F). In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically ranges from 7 to 17 °C (45 to 63 °F) during the day, 2 to 10 °C (36 to 50 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 13 °C (55 °F). In the warmest month – August, the typical temperature ranges from 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). Generally – the summer / "holiday" season lasts about six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November – are transitional; sometimes the temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 14 °C (57 °F) during the day and 5 °C (41 °F) at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare, particularly in the summer months.
Barcelona averages several rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm), and annual average relative humidity is 72%, ranging from 69% in July to 75% in October. Sunshine duration is 2,524 hours per year, from 138 (average 4.5 hours of sunshine a day) in December to 310 (average 10 hours of sunshine a day) in July.
|Climate data for Barcelona Airport (1981-2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.2
|Average low °C (°F)||4.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||37
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||4||4||5||5||5||4||2||5||5||6||5||4||53|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||158||171||206||239||258||287||293||264||229||196||153||137||2,591|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
The Barri Gòtic (Catalan for "Gothic Quarter") is the center of the old city of Barcelona. Many of the buildings date from medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Catalan modernista architecture (related to the movement known as Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe), developed between 1885 and 1950 and left an important legacy in Barcelona. Several of these buildings are World Heritage Sites. Especially remarkable is the work of architect Antoni Gaudí, which can be seen throughout the city. His best-known work is the immense but still unfinished church of the Sagrada Família, which has been under construction since 1882, and is still financed by private donations. As of 2007, completion is planned for 2026.
Barcelona was also home to Mies van der Rohe's Barcelona Pavilion. Designed in 1929 for the International Exposition for Germany, it is an iconic building that came to symbolize modern architecture as the embodiment of van der Rohe's aphorisms "less is more" and "God is in the details." The Barcelona pavilion was intended as a temporary structure, and was torn down in 1930 less than a year after it was constructed. A modern re-creation by Spanish architects now stands in Barcelona, however, constructed in 1986.
World Heritage Sites
|Name||Park Güell||Palau Güell||Casa Milà||Casa Vicens|
|Code, year||320-001, 1984||320-002, 1984||320-003, 1984||320-004, 2005|
|Name||Sagrada Família||Casa Batlló||Palau de la Música Catalana||Hospital de Sant Pau|
|Code, year||320-005, 2005||320-006, 2005||804-001, 1997||804-002, 1997|
Historic buildings and monuments
- Minor basilica of Sagrada Família, the international symbol of Barcelona
- Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, designed by Lluís Domènech i Montaner, included in the UNESCO Heritage List in 1997.
- Works by Antoni Gaudí, including Park Güell, Palau Güell, Casa Milà (La Pedrera), Casa Vicens, Sagrada Família (Nativity façade and crypt), Casa Batlló, Crypt in Colonia Güell. The first three works were inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1984. The other four were added as extensions to the site in 2005.
- The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and St. Eulalia (Gothic)
- Gothic basilica of Santa Maria del Mar
- Gothic basilica of Santa Maria del Pi
- Romanesque church of Sant Pau del Camp
- Palau Reial Major, medieval residence of the sovereign Counts of Barcelona, later Kings of Aragon
- The Royal Shipyard (gothic)
- Monastery of Pedralbes (gothic)
- The Columbus Monument
- The Arc de Triomf, a triumphal arch built for entrance to 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition.
- Expiatory church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus on the summit of Tibidabo.
Barcelona has a great number of museums, which cover different areas and eras. The National Museum of Art of Catalonia possesses a well-known collection of Romanesque art while the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art focuses on post-1945 Catalan and Spanish art. The Fundació Joan Miró, Picasso Museum and Fundació Antoni Tàpies hold important collections of these world-renowned artists, as well as Can Framis Museum, focused on post 1960 Catalan Art owned by Fundació Vila Casas. Several museums cover the fields of history and archeology, like the Barcelona City History Museum (MUHBA), the Museum of the History of Catalonia, the Archeology Museum of Catalonia, the Barcelona Maritime Museum and the private-owned Egyptian Museum. The Erotic museum of Barcelona is among the most peculiar ones, while Cosmocaixa is a science museum that received the European Museum of the Year Award in 2006. The FC Barcelona Museum has been the most visited museum in the city of Barcelona with 1506022 of visitors in 2013.
Barcelona contains sixty-eight municipal parks, of which twelve are historic parks, five are thematic (botanical) parks, forty-five are urban parks and six are forest parks. They range from vest-pocket parks to large recreation areas. The urban parks alone cover 10% of the city (549.7 ha or 1,358.3 acres). The total park surface grows about 10 ha (25 acres) per year, with a proportion of 18.1 square metres (195 sq ft) of park area per inhabitant.
Of Barcelona's parks, Montjuïc is the largest, with 203 ha located on the mountain of the same name. It is followed by Parc de la Ciutadella (which occupies the site of the old military citadel and which houses the Parliament building, the Barcelona Zoo and several museums); 31 ha or 76.6 acres including the zoo), the Guinardó Park (19 ha or 47.0 acres), Park Güell (designed by Antoni Gaudí; 17.2 ha or 42.5 acres), Oreneta Castle Park (also 17.2 ha or 42.5 acres), Diagonal Mar Park (13.3 ha or 32.9 acres, inaugurated in 2002), Nou Barris Central Park (13.2 ha or 32.6 acres), Can Dragó Sports Park and Poblenou Park (both 11.9 ha or 29.4 acres), the Labyrinth Park (9.10 ha or 22.5 acres), named after the garden maze it contains. There are also several smaller parks, for example, the Parc de les Aigües (2 ha or 4.9 acres). A part of the Collserolla Park is also within the city limits. PortAventura, one of the largest amusement parks in Europe with 3,000,000 visitors per year, is located one hour's drive from Barcelona. Also, within the city lies Tibidabo Amusement Park, a smaller amusement park in Plaza del Tibidabo, with the Muntanya Russa amusement ride.
Barcelona beach was listed as number one in a list of the top ten city beaches in the world according to National Geographic and Discovery Channel. Barcelona contains seven beaches, totalling 4.5 kilometres (3 miles) (2.8 mi) of coastline. Sant Sebastià, Barceloneta and Somorrostro beaches, both 1,100 m (3,610 ft) in length, are the largest, oldest and the most-frequented beaches in Barcelona.
The Olympic Harbour separates them from the other city beaches: Nova Icària, Bogatell, Mar Bella, Nova Mar Bella and Llevant. These beaches (ranging from 400 to 640 m (1,310 to 2,100 ft) were opened as a result of the city restructuring to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, when a great number of industrial buildings were demolished. At present, the beach sand is artificially replenished given that storms regularly remove large quantities of material. The 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures left the city a large concrete bathing zone on the eastmost part of the city's coastline.
According to Barcelona's City Council, Barcelona's population as of 1 June 2006 was 1,673,075 people, on a land area of 101.4 km2 (39 sq mi). It is the main component of an administrative area of Greater Barcelona, with a population of 3,218,071 in an area of 636 square kilometres (246 square miles) (density 5,060 hab/km²). The population of the urban area was 4,223,000. It is the central nucleus of the Barcelona metropolitan area, which relies on a population of 5,083,000.
The population density of Barcelona was 15,779 inhabitants per square kilometre (40,870/sq mi), with Eixample being the most populated district. 62% of the inhabitants were born in Catalonia, with a 23.5% coming from the rest of Spain. Of the 17.4% from other countries, a proportion which has more than quadrupled since 2001 when it was 3.9%, the majority come from (in order) Pakistan, Italy, China, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Morocco. The city has the largest Muslim community in Spain, 322.698 people in Barcelona are of Muslim faith. The city also has the largest Jewish community in Spain, with an estimated 3,500 Jews living in the city. There is a Japanese community clustered in Bonanova, Les Tres Torres, Pedralbes, and other northern neighborhoods, and a Japanese international school serves that community.
Spanish is the most spoken language in Barcelona (according to the linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia in 2013) and it is understood almost universally. After Spanish, Catalan language is the second most spoken one in the city, and it is understood by 95% of the population, while 74.6% can speak it, 75% can read it, and 47.1% can write it, thanks to the language immersion educational system.
While most of the population state they are Roman Catholic (208 churches), a number of Muslims due to immigration (169 locations, mostly professed by Moroccans in Spain), there are also a number of other groups, including Evangelical (71 locations, mostly professed by Roma), Jehovah's Witnesses (21 Kingdom Halls) and Buddhists (13 locations), and Eastern Orthodox.
In 1900, Barcelona had a population of 533,000 people, which grew steadily but slowly until 1950, when it started absorbing a high number of people from other less-industrialized parts of Spain. Barcelona's population peaked in 1979 with 1,906,998 people, and fell throughout the 1980s and 1990s as more people sought a higher quality of life in outlying cities in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. After bottoming out in 2000 with 1,496,266 people, the city's population began to rise again as younger people started to return, causing a great increase in housing prices.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
Note: This text is entirely based on the municipal statistical database provided by the city council.
Barcelona is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. For the year 2008 the city council calculated the population to 1,621,090 living in the 102.2 km2 sized municipality, giving the city an average population density of 15,926 inhabitants per square kilometre.
In the case of Barcelona though, the land distribution is extremely uneven. Half of the municipality or 50.2 km2, all of it located on the municipal edge is made up of the ten least densely populated neighbourhoods containing less than 10% of the city's population, the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area and Montjuïc forest park. Leaving the remaining 90% or slightly below 1.5 million inhabitants living on the remaining 52 km2 at an average density close to 28,500 inhabitants per square kilometre.
Of the 73 neighbourhoods in the city, 45 had a population density above 20,000 inhabitants per square kilometre with a combined population of 1,313,424 inhabitants living on 38.6 km2 at an average density of 33,987 inhabitants per square km. The 30 most densely populated neighbourhoods accounted for 57.5% of the city population occupying only 22,7% of the municipality, or in other words, 936,406 people living at an average density of 40,322 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city's highest density is found at and around the neighbourhood of la Sagrada Família where four of the city's most densely populated neighbourhoods are located side by side, all with a population density above 50,000 inhabitants per square kilometre.
In a 2011 survey conducted by InfoCatólica, 49.5% of Barcelona residents of all ages identified themselves as Catholic, while 45% of people between the ages of 14 and 25 did so. This was the first time that more than half of respondents did not identify themselves as Catholic. The numbers reflect a broader trend in Spain whereby the numbers of self-identified Catholics have declined.
The Barcelona metropolitan area comprises over 66% of the people in one of the richest regions in Europe – Catalonia, with a GDP per capita amounting to €28,400 (16% more than the EU average). The Barcelona metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $177 billion, equivalent to $34,821 in per capita terms (44% more than the EU average) making it the 4th most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world in 2009. Barcelona city had a very high GDP of €80,894 per head in 2004, according to Eurostat. Furthermore, Barcelona was Europe's fourth best business city and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year as of 2009.
Barcelona is the 14th most "livable city" in the world according to lifestyle magazine Monocle. Similarly, according to Innovation Analysts 2thinknow, Barcelona occupies 13th place in the world on Innovation Cities™ Global Index.
Barcelona has a long-standing mercantile tradition. Less well known is that the region was one of the earliest to begin industrialization in continental Europe, beginning with textile-related works from the mid-1780s but really gathering momentum in the mid-19th century, when it became a major center for the production of textiles and machinery. Since then, manufacturing has played a large role in its history.
Borsa de Barcelona (Barcelona Stock Exchange) is the main stock exchange in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.
Trade fair and exhibitions
Drawing upon its tradition of creative art and craftsmanship, Barcelona is known for its award-winning industrial design. It also has several congress halls, notably Fira de Barcelona – the second largest trade fair and exhibition center in Europe, that host a quickly growing number of national and international events each year (at present above 50). The total exhibition floor space of Fira de Barcelona venues is 405,000 m2 (41 ha), not counting Gran Via center on the Plaza de Europa. However, the Eurozone crisis and deep cuts in business travel affected the Council's positioning of the city as a convention center.
The city is known for hosting well as world-class conferences and expositions, including the 1888 Exposición Universal de Barcelona, the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition (Expo 1929), the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures and the 2004 World Urban Forum.
Barcelona is the 10th-most-visited city in the world and the third most visited in Europe after London and Paris, with 8 million tourists every year since 2012. With its Rambles, Barcelona is ranked the most popular city to visit in Spain.
Barcelona as internationally renowned a tourist destination, with numerous recreational areas, one of the best beaches in the world, mild and warm climate, historical monuments, including eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites, many good-quality hotels, and developed tourist infrastructure.
Industry generates 21% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of the region, with the energy, chemical and metallurgy industries accounting for 47% of industrial production. The Barcelona metropolitan area had 67% of the total number of industrial establishments in Catalonia as of 1997.
Barcelona has long been an important European automobile manufacturing center. Formerly there were automobile factories of AFA, Abadal, Actividades Industriales, Alvarez, America, Artés de Arcos, Balandrás, Baradat-Esteve, Biscúter, J. Castro, Clúa, David, Delfín, Díaz y Grilló, Ebro trucks, Edis, Elizalde, Automóviles España, Eucort, Fenix, Fábrica Hispano, Auto Academia Garriga, Fábrica Española de Automóviles Hebe, Hispano-Suiza, Huracán Motors, Talleres Hereter, Junior SL, Kapi, La Cuadra, M.A., Automóviles Matas, Motores y Motos, Nacional Custals, National Pescara, Nacional RG, Nacional Rubi, Nacional Sitjes, Automóviles Nike, Orix, Otro Ford, Partia, Pegaso, PTV, Ricart, Ricart-España, Industrias Salvador, Siata Española, Stevenson, Romagosa y Compañía, Garaje Storm, Talleres Hereter, Trimak, Automóviles Victoria, Manufacturas Mecánicas Aleu.
Today, the headquarters and a large factory of SEAT (the largest Spanish automobile manufacturer) are in one of its suburbs. There is also a Nissan factory in the logistics and industrial area of the city. The factory of Derbi, a large manufacturer of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, also lies near the city.
As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries are textiles, chemical, pharmaceutical, motor, electronic, printing, logistics, publishing, telecommunications and information technology services.
The traditional importance of textiles is reflected in Barcelona's drive to become a major fashion center. There have been many attempts to launch Barcelona as a fashion capital, notably Gaudi Home.
Beginning in the summer of 2000, the city hosted the prestigious Bread & Butter urban fashion fair until 2009, when its organisers announced that it would be returning to Berlin. This was a hard blow for the city as the fair brought €100 m to the city in just three days.
Since 2009, The Brandery, an urban fashion show, has been held in Barcelona twice a year. In 2012, Barcelona was named as the third most important fashion capital according to the Global Language Monitor’s annual ranking of the world's top fifty fashion capitals.
Government and administrative divisions
As the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, Barcelona is the seat of the Catalan government, known as the Generalitat de Catalunya; of particular note are the executive branch, the parliament, and the Supreme Court of Catalonia. The city is also the capital of the Province of Barcelona and the Barcelonès comarca (district).
Barcelona is governed by a city council formed by 41 city councillors, elected for a four-year term by universal suffrage. As one of the two biggest cities in Spain, Barcelona is subject to a special law articulated through the Carta Municipal (Municipal Law). A first version of this law was passed in 1960 and amended later, but the current version was approved in March 2006. According to this law, Barcelona's city council is organized in two levels: a political one, with elected city councillors, and one executive, which administrates the programs and executes the decisions taken on the political level. This law also gives the local government a special relationship with the central government and it also gives the mayor wider prerogatives by the means of municipal executive commissions. It expands the powers of the city council in areas like telecommunications, city traffic, road safety and public safety. It also gives a special economic regime to the city's treasury and it gives the council a veto in matters that will be decided by the central government, but that will need a favourable report from the council.
The Comissió de Govern (Government Commission) is the executive branch, formed by 24 councillors, led by the Mayor, with 5 lieutenant-mayors and 17 city councillors, each in charge of an area of government, and 5 non-elected councillors. The plenary, formed by the 41 city councillors, has advisory, planning, regulatory, and fiscal executive functions. The six Commissions del Consell Municipal (City council commissions) have executive and controlling functions in the field of their jurisdiction. They are composed by a number of councillors proportional to the number of councillors each political party has in the plenary. The city council has jurisdiction in the fields of city planning, transportation, municipal taxes, public highways security through the Guàrdia Urbana (the municipal police), city maintenance, gardens, parks and environment, facilities (like schools, nurseries, sports centers, libraries, and so on), culture, sports, youth and social welfare. Some of these competencies are not exclusive, but shared with the Generalitat de Catalunya or the central Spanish government. In some fields with shared responsibility (such as public health, education or social services), there is a shared Agency or Consortium between the city and the Generalitat to plan and manage services.
The executive branch is led by a Chief Municipal Executive Officer which answers to the Mayor. It is made up of departments which are legally part of the city council and by separate legal entities of two types: autonomous public departments and public enterprises.
The seat of the city council is on the Plaça de Sant Jaume, opposite the seat of Generalitat de Catalunya. Since the coming of the Spanish democracy, Barcelona had been governed by the PSC, first with an absolute majority and later in coalition with ERC and ICV. After the May 2007 election, the ERC did not renew the coalition agreement and the PSC governed in a minority coalition with ICV as the junior partner.
Since 1987, the city has been divided into 10 administrative districts (districtes in Catalan, distritos in Spanish):
- Ciutat Vella
- Les Corts
- Sarrià-Sant Gervasi
- Nou Barris
- Sant Andreu
- Sant Martí
The districts are based mostly on historical divisions, and several are former towns annexed by the city of Barcelona in the 18th and 19th centuries that still maintain their own distinct character. Each district has its own council led by a city councillor. The composition of each district council depends on the number of votes each political party had in that district, so a district can be led by a councillor from a different party than the executive council.
Barcelona has a well-developed higher education system of public universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Barcelona (established in 1450), a world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city. Barcelona is also home to the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, and the newer Pompeu Fabra University, and, in the private sector the EADA Business School founded in 1957, became the first Barcelona institution to run manager training programmes for the business community. IESE Business School, as well as the largest private educational institution, the Ramon Llull University, which encompasses internationally prestigious schools and institutes such as the ESADE Business School. The Autonomous University of Barcelona, another public university, is located in Bellaterra, a town in the Metropolitan Area. The Open University of Catalonia, a private Internet-centered open university, is also based in Barcelona.
The city has a network of public schools, from nurseries to high schools, under the responsibility of a consortium led by city council (though the curriculum is the responsibility of the Generalitat de Catalunya). There are also many private schools, some of them Roman Catholic. Most such schools receive a public subsidy on a per-student basis, are subject to inspection by the public authorities, and are required to follow the same curricular guidelines as public schools, though they charge tuition. Known as escoles concertades, they are distinct from schools whose funding is entirely private (escoles privades).
The language of instruction at public schools and escoles concertades is Catalan, as stipulated by the 2009 Catalan Education Act (in court for discrimination). Spanish may be used as a language of instruction by teachers of Spanish literature or language, and foreign languages by teachers of those languages. An experimental partial immersion programme adopted by some schools allows for the teaching of a foreign language (English, generally) across the curriculum, though this is limited to a maximum of 30% of the school day. No public school or escola concertada in Barcelona may offer 50% or full immersion programmes in a foreign language, nor does any public school or escola concertada offer International Baccalaureate programmes.
Barcelona's cultural roots go back 2000 years. Since the arrival of democracy, the Catalan language (very much repressed during the dictatorship of Franco) has been promoted, both by recovering works from the past and by stimulating the creation of new works. Barcelona is designated as a world-class city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network.
Entertainment and performing arts
Barcelona has many venues for live music and theatre, including the world-renowned Gran Teatre del Liceu opera house, the Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, the Teatre Lliure and the Palau de la Música Catalana concert hall. Barcelona also is home to the Barcelona and Catalonia National Symphonic Orchestra (Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona i Nacional de Catalunya, usually known as OBC), the largest symphonic orchestra in Catalonia. In 1999, the OBC inaugurated its new venue in the brand-new Auditorium (l'Auditori). It performs around 75 concerts per season and its current director is Eiji Oue. The major thoroughfare of Las Ramblas is home to mime artists and street performers. Yearly two major pop music festivals take place in the city, the Sónar Festival and the Primavera Sound Festival. The city also has a thriving alternative music scene, with groups such as The Pinker Tones receiving international attention.
El Periódico de Catalunya, La Vanguardia and Ara are Barcelona's three major daily newspapers (the first two with Catalan and Spanish editions, Ara only in Catalan) while Sport and El Mundo Deportivo (both in Spanish) are the city's two major sports daily newspapers, published by the same companies. The city is also served by a number of smaller publications such as Ara and El Punt Avui (in Catalan), by nationwide newspapers with special Barcelona editions like El Pais (in Spanish, with an online version in Catalan) and El Mundo (in Spanish), and by several free newspapers like 20 minutos and Què (all bilingual).
Barcelona oldest and main online newspaper VilaWeb is the oldest one also in Europe (with Catalan and English editions)
Several major FM stations include Catalunya Ràdio, RAC 1, RAC 105 and Cadena SER. Barcelona also has a local TV stations, BTV, owned by city council. The headquarters of Televisió de Catalunya, Catalonia's public network, are located in Sant Joan Despí, in Barcelona's metropolitan area.
Barcelona has a long sporting tradition and hosted the highly successful 1992 Summer Olympics as well as several matches during the 1982 FIFA World Cup (at the two stadiums). It has also hosted, among others, about 30 sports events of international significance.
FC Barcelona is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the largest in the world and second richest football club in the world. It has 64 of national (likewise 41 runners-up) and 16 continental (likewise 10 runners-up) trophies, including five of the UEFA Champions League (likewise 3 runners-up) and two of the FIFA Club World Cup (likewise 1 runners-up). Also, it is the only men's club in the world to accomplish a sextuple. FC Barcelona also has teams in FC Barcelona Regal (basketball), FC Barcelona Handbol (the handball), FC Barcelona Hoquei (roller hockey), FC Barcelona Ice Hockey (ice hockey), FC Barcelona Futsal (futsal) and FC Barcelona Rugby (rugby union), all of them winners of the highest country or/and European competitions. The club's museum is the second most visited in Catalonia. Twice a season, FC Barcelona and cross-town rivals RCD Espanyol contest in the local derby in La Liga, while its basketball section has its own local derby in Liga ACB with nearby Joventut Badalona. Barcelona also has other clubs in lower categories, like CE Europa and UE Sant Andreu.
Barcelona has two UEFA elite stadiums: FC Barcelona's Camp Nou, the largest stadium in Europe with a capacity of 100,000 and the publicly owned Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys, with a capacity of 55,000; used for the 1992 Olympics. Also, the city has several smaller stadiums such as Mini Estadi, with a capacity of 15,000 and Camp Municipal Narcís Sala, Nou Sardenya with a capacity of 7,000. In the suburbs of Barcelona there is a third UEFA elite stadium – Estadi Cornellà-El Prat, with a capacity of 40,000. Also, except Palau Sant Jordi (St. George's sporting arena), with a capacity of 12,000–24,000 (depending on use), city has two other larger sporting and concert arena: Palau Blaugrana, with a capacity of 7,500 and Palau dels Esports de Barcelona.
Several road running competitions are organized year-round in Barcelona: the Barcelona Marathon every March with over 10,000 participants in 2010, the Cursa de Bombers in April, the Cursa de El Corte Inglés in May (with about 60,000 participants each year), the Cursa de la Mercè, the Cursa Jean Bouin, the Milla Sagrada Família and the San Silvestre. The Open Seat Godó, a 50-year-old ATP World Tour 500 Series tennis tournament, is held annually in the facilities of the Real Club de Tenis Barcelona (Barcelona Royal Tennis Club). Also, each Christmas, a swimming race across the port is organized. Near Barcelona, in Montmeló, the 107,000 capacity Circuit de Catalunya / Circuit de Barcelona racetrack hosts the Formula One World Championship, Formula One Spanish Grand Prix, Catalan motorcycle Grand Prix, Spanish GT Championship and GP2 Series. Skateboarding and bicycling are also very popular in Barcelona. In the city and the metropolitan area, there are tens of km of bicycle paths.
|FC Barcelona||Primera División||Football||Camp Nou||1899||100,000|
|RCD Espanyol||Primera División||Football||Estadi Cornellà-El Prat||1900||40,500|
|CE Europa||Tercera División||Football||Nou Sardenya||1907||7,000|
|FC Barcelona Bàsquet||Primera División||Basketball||Palau Blaugrana||1926||7,585|
|FC Barcelona Handbol||Primera División||Handball||Palau Blaugrana||1942||7,585|
|FC Barcelona Ice Hockey||Primera División||Ice hockey||Palau de Gel||1972||1,256|
|FC Barcelona Hoquei||Primera División||Roller hockey||Palau Blaugrana||1942||7,585|
|FC Barcelona Futsal||Primera División||Futsal||Palau Blaugrana||1986||7,585|
|FC Barcelona Rugby||Primera División||Rugby union||CDMVdHT||1924||no data|
|Barcelona Dragons||World League||American football||Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys||1991 (withheld)||56,000|
|Barcelona Búfals||Primera División||American football||Camp Municipal Narcís Sala||1987||6,550|
Barcelona is served by Barcelona-El Prat Airport, about 17 km (11 mi) from the center of Barcelona. It is the second-largest airport in Spain, and the largest on the Mediterranean coast, which handles above 37.5 million passengers per year, showing an annual upward trend. It is a main hub for Vueling Airlines and Ryanair, and also a focus for Iberia and Air Europa. The airport mainly serves domestic and European destinations, although some airlines offer destinations in Latin America, Asia and the United States. The airport is connected to the city by highway, commuter train (Barcelona Airport railway station) and scheduled bus service. A new terminal (T1) has been built, and entered service on 17 June 2009.
Some low-cost airlines, such as Transavia.com and Ryanair, also use Girona-Costa Brava Airport, about 90 km (56 mi) to the north, Reus Airport, 77 km (48 mi) to the south, or Lleida-Alguaire Airport, about 150 km (93 mi) to the west, of the city. Sabadell Airport is a smaller airport in the nearby town of Sabadell, devoted to pilot training, aerotaxi and private flights.
The Port of Barcelona has a 2000-year old history and a great contemporary commercial importance. It is Europe's ninth largest container port, with a trade volume of 1.72 million TEU's in 2013. The port is managed by the Port Authority of Barcelona. Its 10 km2 (4 sq mi) are divided into three zones: Port Vell (the old port), the commercial port and the logistics port (Barcelona Free Port). The port is undergoing an enlargement that will double its size thanks to diverting the mouth of the Llobregat river 2 kilometres (1 mile) (1¼ mi) to the south.
The Barcelona harbour is the leading European cruiser port and a most important Mediterranean turnaround base. In 2013, 3,6 million of pleasure cruises passengers used services of the Port of Barcelona.
The Port Vell area also houses the Maremagnum (a commercial mall), a multiplex cinema, the IMAX Port Vell and one of Europe's largest aquariums – Aquarium Barcelona, containing 8,000 fish and 11 sharks contained in 22 basins filled with 4 million litres of sea water. The Maremagnum, being situated within the confines of the port, is the only commercial mall in the city that can open on Sundays and public holidays.
Barcelona is a major hub for RENFE, the Spanish state railway network. The city's main Inter-city rail station is Barcelona-Sants station, whilst Estació de França terminus serves a secondary role handling suburban, regional and medium distance services. Freight services operate to local industries and to the Port of Barcelona.
RENFE's AVE high-speed rail system, which is designed for speeds of 310 km/h (193 mph), was extended from Madrid to Barcelona in 2008 in the form of the Madrid–Barcelona high-speed rail line. A shared RENFE-SNCF high-speed rail connecting Barcelona and France (Paris, Marseilles and Toulouse, through LGV Perpignan–Figueres) was launched in 2013. Both these lines serve Barcelona Sants terminal station.
Besides RENFE's services, other rail services in the Barcelona area are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC), owned by the Catalonian government. The FGC operates largely commuter rail services, but also carries freight to the Port of Barcelona, as well as a number of rack railways and funiculars, and three of the lines of the Barcelona Metro (see local public transport below). Other suburban services are operated by Rodalies de Catalunya over RENFE tracks.
Roads and highways
Barcelona lies on three international routes, including European route E15 that follows the Mediterranean coast, European route E90 to Madrid and Lisbon, and European route E09 to Paris. It is also served by a comprehensive network of motorways and highways throughout the metropolitan area, including A-2, A-7/AP-7, C-16, C-17, C-31, C-32, C-33, C-60.
The city is circled by three half ring roads or bypasses, Ronda de Dalt (B-20) (on the mountain side), Ronda del Litoral (B-10) (along the coast) and Ronda del Mig (separated into two parts: Travessera de Dalt in the north and the Gran Via de Carles III), two partially covered fast highways with several exits that bypass the city.
The city's main arteries include Diagonal Avenue, which crosses it diagonally, Meridiana Avenue which leads to Glòries and connects with Diagonal Avenue and Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, which crosses the city from east to west, passing through its center. The famous boulevard of La Rambla, whilst no longer an important vehicular route, remains an important pedestrian route.
Local public transport
Barcelona is served by a comprehensive local public transport network that includes a metro, a bus network, two separate modern tram networks, a separate historic tram line, and several funiculars and aerial cable cars. Most of these networks and lines form a coordinated fare system, administered by the Autoritat del Transport Metropolità (ATM), although they are operated by a number of different bodies.
The largely underground Barcelona Metro network comprises eleven lines, identified by an "L" followed by the line number as well as by individual colours. Eight of these lines are operated on dedicated track by the Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB), whilst three lines are operated by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) and share tracks with that company's commuter lines.
Another company, TRAMMET, operates the city's two modern tram networks, known as Trambaix and Trambesòs. The historic tram line, the Tramvia Blau, connects the metro (L7, operated by FGC) to the Funicular del Tibidabo (operated by TMB). The Funicular de Tibidabo climbs the Tibidabo hill, as does the Funicular de Vallvidrera (FGC). The Funicular de Montjuïc (TMB) climbs the Montjuïc hill. The city has two aerial cable cars: the Montjuïc Cable Car (to the Montjuïc castle) and the Port Vell Aerial Tramway that runs via Torre Jaume I and Torre Sant Sebastià over the port.
Buses in Barcelona are a major form of public transport, with extensive local, interurban and night bus networks. Most local services are operated by the TMB, although some other services are operated by a number of private companies, albeit still within the ATM fare structure. A separate private bus line, known as Aerobús, links the airport with the city center, with its own fare structure.
Barcelona has a metered taxi fleet governed by the Institut Metropolità del Taxi (Metropolitan Taxi Institute), composed of more than 10,000 cars. Most of the licences are in the hands of self-employed drivers. With their black and yellow livery, Barcelona's taxis are easily spotted, and can be caught from one of many taxi ranks, hailed on street, or called by telephone.
On 22 March 2007, Barcelona's City Council started the Bicing service, a bicycle service understood as a public transport. Once the user has their user card, they can take a bicycle from any of the more than 400 stations spread around the city and use it anywhere the urban area of the city, and then leave it at another station. The service has been a success, with 50,000 subscribed users in three months.
Twin towns and sister cities
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
- Montpellier, France, 1963
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1972
- Monterrey, Mexico, 1977
- Boston, USA, 1983
- Busan, South Korea, 1983
- Cologne, Germany, 1984
- São Paulo, Brazil, 1985 
- Montevideo, Uruguay, 1985
- Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1985
- Gdańsk, Poland, 1990
- Havana, Cuba, 1993
- Kobe, Japan, 1993
- Antwerp, Belgium, 1997
- Istanbul, Turkey, 1997
- Gaza, Palestinian Territories, 1998
- Tel Aviv, Israel, 1998
- Dublin, Ireland, 1998
- Athens, Greece, 1999
- Isfahan, Iran, 2000
- Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2000
- Valparaíso, Chile, 2001
- Shanghai, China, 2001
- Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2006
- Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 2008
- Cebu City, Philippines, 2009
- Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009
- San Francisco, USA, 2010
Partnerships and cooperations
Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes exist to many cities worldwide.
Santa Maria del Mar church
Santa Maria del Pi church
The Arc de Triomf
The Torre de Collserola on the Tibidabo is the tallest structure in Barcelona (288.4m).
The view from Gaudí's Park Güell
The Venetian Towers in Plaça d'Espanya
La Rambla, famous for its living statues
- List of markets in Barcelona
- List of tallest buildings in Barcelona
- Plans for Winter Olympics held in Barcelona
- Demographia: World Urban Areas - Demographia, 2015
- Trias aprueba definitivamente el presupuesto de Barcelona para 2014, La Vanguardia.
- INE (1 January 2012). "Population of Barcelona". Instituto Nacional de Estadistica. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 2011.
- "Inventory of World Cities". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
- "2012 Global Cities Index". Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". Pricewaterhouse Coopers. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- Emilia Istrate; Carey Anne Nadeau (30 November 2012). "Brookings analysis of data from Oxford Economics, Moody’s Analytics, and the U.S. Census Bureau". Brookings Global MetroMonitor. Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Paris, London and Barcelona are Europe’s top city brands". Citymayors.com. 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Best European business cities". City Mayors. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- Tobias Buck (3 October 2013). "Spain: Seeds of recovery". Financial Times Analysis. Financial Times. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Barcelona 5.0 or Barcelona smart city". tvbrussel. 4 December 2014.
- "Port of Barcelona traffic statistics Accumulated data December 2013" (PDF). Statistics Service. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Ralph Tragale (1 April 2013). "2012 Annual Traffic Report" (PDF). Annual Traffic Report of the Aviation Department. Port Authority of NY & NJ. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "First commercial trips" (in Spanish). Europapress.es. 10 December 2010. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Emerita: Revista de Lingüística y Filología clasica 11 (1943), p.468
- Ptolemy, ii. 6. § 8
- Gudmund Schütte (1917). Ptolemy's Maps of Northern Europe: A Reconstruction of the Prototypes. H. Hagerup. p. 45.
- Smith, Sir William (1854). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: Abacaenum-Hytanis. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company. p. 378.
- Rufus Festus Avienus Ora Maritima « et Barcilonum amoena sedes ditium. » v514 Archived 12 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Gustav Parthey (1848). Itinerarium Antonini Avgvsti et Hierosolymitanvm: ex libris manvscriptis. F. Nicolai. p. 188.
- Petrus Wesseling; Hierocles (The Grammarian) (1735). Vetera Romanorum itineraria, /: sive Antonini Augusti Itinerarium. apud J. Wetstenium & G. Smith. p. 390.
- Joel Cook (1910). The Mediterranean and Its Borderlands. p. 334.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- Oros. vii. 143; Miñano, Diccion. vol. i. p. 391; Auson. Epist. xxiv. 68, 69, Punica Barcino.
- Plin. iii. 3. s. 4
- Inscr. ap. Gruter, p. 426, nos. 5, 6.
- ii. 6
- Avien. Ora Maritima. 520: "Et Barcilonum amoena sedes ditium."
- Paul. Dig. 1. tit. 15, de Cens.
- "Roman walls, Barcelona". Bluffton.edu. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- The Usatges of Barcelona: The Fundamental Law of Catalonia, ed. Donald J. Kagay, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), 7.
- Roger Collins, Caliphs and Kings, 796-1031, (Blackwell Publishing, 2012), 191.
- T.N. Bisson (1986). "II. The age of the Early Count-Kings (1137–1213) (The Principate of Ramon Berenguer IV 1137–1162)". In Clarendon Press – Oxford. The medieval Crown of Aragon. A short story. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-820236-3.
- Cateura Benàsser, Pau. Els impostos indirectes en el regne de Mallorca. (PDF). ISBN 978-84-96019-28-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2008. El Tall dels Temps, 14. (Palma de) Mallorca: El Tall, 1996.
- The Bankers magazine, volume 11, page 595, J. Smith Homans Jr., New York 1857.
- Chapter 15: A History of Spain and Portugal, Stanley G. Payne Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Adler, Ken (2002). The measure of all things – The seven year odyssey that transformed the world. Abacus. ISBN 978-0-349-11507-8.
- Decree of 5 April 1938.
- "Barcelona (Spain)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived 13 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Barcelona". Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana 3. Barcelona: Edicions 62. July 1971. pp. 193–229.
- "11 Barcelona.indd" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Barcelona Spain Tibidabo Sagrat Cor Church. Full Screen QTVR panoramic image". Panoramas.dk. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- "Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya". Meteo.cat. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on 10 April 2014.
- "Weather2Travel.com: Barcelona Climate Guide". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Barcelona / Aeropuerto". Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)".
- "RIBA Royal Gold Medallists" (PDF). RIBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- The seventh element of Place World Heritage "Works of Antoni Gaudí" is the Crypt in Colònia Güell, which is located at Santa Coloma de Cervelló.
- Parcs i Jardins, Institut Municipal. "Parcs i Jardins> Els Parcs> Els Parcs de Barcelona". Bcn.es. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 26 June 201. Check date values in:
- Parcs i Jardins, Institut Municipal. "Parcs i Jardins> Els Parcs> Història> La ciutat i el verd". Bcn.es. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Parcs i Jardins, Institut Municipal. "Parcs i Jardins> Els Parcs> Història> La democràcia". Bcn.es. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- The Global Attractions Attendance Report – Themed Entertainment Association, 2009
- "Top 10 Beach Cities". Archived from the original on 21 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- Movie "Worlds Best Beaches", Discovery Channel 2005 Video on YouTube
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona: Estadística: Indicadors demogràfics. 2005". Web.archive.org. 21 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2009 revision), (United Nations, 2010), Table A.12. Data for 2007. Archived 31 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona: Estadística: Densitat de població. 2005". Web.archive.org. 21 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "The Jewish Virtual History Tour: Barcelona". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Conte-Helm, Marie. The Japanese and Europe: Economic and Cultural Encounters (Bloomsbury Academic Collections). A&C Black, 17 December 2013. ISBN 1780939809, 9781780939803. p. 111.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona: Estadística: Coneixement de la llengua catalana per grans grups d'edat. 2001". Web.archive.org. 21 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Barcelona: Directory: Theme: Religion". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Orthodox Church in Catalonia". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona: Estadística: Evolució de la població. 1900–2005". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Barcelona DaTaSHeeT 2012" (PDF). Ajuntament de Barcelona. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Urban Audit – CityProfiles: Barcelona – Eurostat, 2004 Archived 23 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Monocle, Issue June 2009". Monocle.com. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 17 May 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Independent city analysis and rankings for innovation in 2009". 2thinknow. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
- "Barcelona, recognized as the top Southern European city with future economic potential". Barcelona Growth. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15". fDi Magazine. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- Fira de Barcelona Archived 20 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Bremner, Caroline (2011). "Euromonitor International’s top city destinations ranking". Euromonitor International. Archived from the original on 31 October 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
- "Best Spanish Cities". Gospain.about.com. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Movie "Worlds Best Beaches", Discovery Channel 2005
- "Valor afegit brut a preus bàsics. Base 2000 Per sectors (%)" (en: "Gross value added at basic prices. Base by sector (%)") - Idescat, 2008 Archived 10 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Valor afegit brut. Indústria per branques d'activitat (%)" (en: "Gross Value Added. Branches of industry (%)") - Idescat, 2008 Archived 10 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Els recursos econòmics i l'economia: La indústria i els sectors afins
- "Die große Automobil-Enzyklopädie" - Harald H. Linz, Halwart Schrader, BLV, Munich 1986, ISBN 978-3-405-12974-3
- "The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile" - Nick Georgano, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago 2001, ISBN 978-1-57958-293-7
- "NISSAN |CORPORATE INFORMATION |Outline of Company |Facilities Overseas |Europe". Nissan-global.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Cómo llegar". Derbi. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Leticia Blanco (20 January 2009). "La feria de moda urbana Bread and Butter deja Barcelona". El Mundo. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
- EFE (23 January 2009). "El presidente del Bread&Butter confirma oficialmente que la feria abandona Barcelona". El Periódico. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
[Karl Heinz Muller, the entrepreneur behind B&B in announcing the move in a press conference held on January 23, 2009 said] No llores Barcelona, levántate y haz algo [don't cry Barcelona, get up and do something about it] Barcelona in Europe is a metropolis of fashion.
- The Top Global Fashion Capitals for 2012 – The Global Language Monitor, 2012 Archived 23 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "BOE – LEY 1/2006, de 13 de marzo, por la que se regula el Régimen Especial del municipio de Barcelona". Boe.es. 14 March 2006. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona> Ajuntament> El Govern de la Ciutat". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona: Organització política". Bcn.cat. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona> Council> The city government> Council Executive". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona> Council> The city government> Plenary". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona> Council> The city government> Committees of the Municipal Council". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona". www.aspb.cat. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- "Ajuntament de Barcelona> Council> The municipal administration". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 22 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network – Inventory of World Cities". Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- "L'Auditori: OBC". Auditori.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Roberts, Nina (6 August 2006). "Catalan Musical Stew Keeps Barcelona Up All Night – New York Times". Barcelona (Spain): Travel.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
- Football Money League – Deloitte, 2011
- http://www.bcn2013.com Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- To 2009, home stadium of club is Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys in Barcelona, today is Estadi Cornellà-El Prat lies in suburb of Barcelona, in El Prat de Llobregat.
- AENA Aeropuerto de Barcelona El Prat 2014
- Port of Barcelona traffic statistics 2013 - Port de Barcelona, 2014
- "Port de Barcelona" (in Spanish). Apb.es. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Port Barcelona - Cruises". Portdebarcelona.cat. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Barcelona estrena TGV" (in Catalan). Avui. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "The last High Speed railway stretch between Barcelona and France has finally been unveiled after years of delays". Catalan News Agency. 8 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "The covered Rondes (by-pass)". Bcn.es. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "News related with the council plans for the tram network union". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Information of Tramvia Blau". Tmb.net. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Barcelona Taxi Information". Barcelona.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- L'Administració i la gestió del Taxi de Barcelona[dead link]
- "Noticies: Data d'inici 22 de març a les 14:00 h. Pots realitzar l'alta al servei a partir del dia 16/03/07". Bicing. Archived from the original on 29 October 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Què és". Bicing. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Notícies: El Biking ja té més de 50.000 abonats". Biking. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Barcelona internacional – Ciutats agermanades" (in Catalan). 2006–2009 Ajuntament de Barcelona. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- List of Busan's sister cities, Busan Metropolitan City; (English) , (Korean)  Archived 20 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "São Paulo – Sister Cities Program". 2005–2008 Fiscolegis – Todos os direitos reservados Editora de publicações periodicas – LTDA / 2008 City of São Paulo. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
- Prefeitura. Sp – Descentralized Cooperation Archived 24 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities". Prefeitura.sp.gov.br. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- "Miasta partnerskie i zaprzyjaźnione – Twin cities and partnerships". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
- "Kobe's Sister Cities". Kobe Trade Information Office. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
- Erdem, Selim Efe (1 July 2009). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
49 sister cities in 2003
- "Dublin City Council: Facts about Dublin City". 2006–2009 Dublin City Council. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- daenet d.o.o. "Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities". Sarajevo.ba. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- Twinning Cities Agreements UAE Official Website Archived 30 May 2013 at WebCite
- UAEinteract.com. "Twinning agreement brings a taste of Spain to Dubai UAE – The Official Web Site – News". Uaeinteract.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "WWF España - Barcelona y Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia): ciudades hermanadas por los bosques" (in Spanish). Wwf.es. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- "Province eyes investors from Spain – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI TPHCM". mofahcm.gov.vn. 9 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "SF, Barcelona Sign Sister-City Pact". cbs5.com. 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Barcelona internacional – Cooperation agreements". Ajuntament de Barcelona. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs - Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 22 March 2008. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 31 May 2012 at WebCite
- 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 20 January 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 31 May 2012 at WebCite
- 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 13 September 2011. (Translation by Google Translate.) Archived 31 March 2014 at WebCite
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
- "Barcelona". Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana. Barcelona: Ed. Enciclopèdia Catalana S.A.
- Busquets, Joan. Barcelona: The Urban Evolution of a Compact City (Harvard UP, 2006) 468 pp.
- McDonogh, G. W. (January 2011). "Review Essay: Barcelona: Forms, Images, and Conflicts: Joan Busquets (2005)". Journal of Urban History 37 (1): 117–123. doi:10.1177/0096144210384250.
- Marshall, Tim, ed. Transforming Barcelona (Routledge, 2004), 267 pp.
- Ramon Resina, Joan. Barcelona's Vocation of Modernity: Rise and Decline of an Urban Image (Stanford UP, 2008). 272 pp.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Official website of Barcelona
- Official website of Barcelona in the Spain's national tourism portal
- Official website of Barcelona–El Prat International Airport
- Official website of Barcelona's Metropolitan Transports