Santander Cycles

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(Redirected from Barclays Cycle Hire)

Santander Cycles
OwnerTransport for London
LocaleLondon, United Kingdom
Transit typeBicycle sharing system
Number of stations800 [1]
Annual ridershipIncrease 10,941,264 (2021)[2]
WebsiteSantander Cycles
Began operation30 July 2010
Number of vehicles12,000 bicycles [1]

Santander Cycles (formerly Barclays Cycle Hire) is a public bicycle hire scheme in London in the United Kingdom. The scheme's bicycles are popularly and colloquially known as Boris Bikes, after Boris Johnson who was Mayor of London when the scheme began operating.[3]

The operation of the scheme was initially contracted by Transport for London (TfL) to Serco.[4] Bikes and docking stations are provided by 8D Technologies. The scheme is sponsored, with Santander UK being the main sponsor from April 2015.[5] Barclays was the first sponsor, from 2010 to March 2015.[6][7][8]

Credit for developing and enacting the scheme has been a source of debate. Johnson has taken credit for the plan,[9] although the initial concept was announced by his predecessor Ken Livingstone, during the latter's term in office.[10] Livingstone said that the programme would herald a "cycling and walking transformation in London",[11] and Johnson said that he "hoped the bikes would become as common as black cabs and red buses in the capital".[12]

A study showed cyclists using the scheme are three times less likely to be injured per trip than cyclists in London as a whole, possibly due to motorists giving cycle hire users more road space than they do other cyclists, although trips by hire bike users seemed to be much shorter on average.[13] Customer research in 2013 showed that 49 per cent of Cycle Hire members say that the scheme has prompted them to start cycling in London.[14]

As of July 2022, more than 111.2 million journeys had been made using the cycles,[15] with the record for cycle hires in a single day being 73,000.[16]

In October 2022, TfL introduced new e-bikes to the scheme, the first docked e-bikes in London.[17]


Number of hires of Santander bikes from June 2011 to April 2021.[15]

In August 2007, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, announced that he was planning to implement a cycle-hire scheme modelled on the successful Vélib' network in Paris. Following discussions with the Mayor of Paris, Livingstone instructed transport officials to study the Paris and similar schemes, and draw up proposals for London.[18] Discussions were conducted between Transport for London (TfL), the London boroughs and transport commissioners from Lyon, Brussels, Vienna, Berlin, Munich, Oslo and Copenhagen.[19]

In February 2008, plans for the London cycle-hire scheme were officially unveiled by Livingstone.[20] The CTC and Green Party hailed the proposals as revolutionary.[11]

The scheme commenced operations as Barclays Cycle Hire on 30 July 2010 with 5,000 bicycles and 315 docking stations distributed across the City of London area and parts of eight London boroughs.[21] The scheme was at first located mainly within the central zone, roughly bounded by the Zone 1 area of the Transport for London zoning system. The initial target was for it to comprise 400 docking stations when complete, at roughly 330-yard (300-metre) intervals. The initial planning and implementation costs were expected to total more than £140 million over the first six years of the project, exclusive of operating costs.

Initially, the scheme required initial payment of registration and membership fees to be paid in exchange for an electronic access key, but on 3 December 2010 this was changed to allow casual cycle hires by non-members who have a valid credit or debit card.[22]

The project was expected to cost £140 million for planning and implementation over six years, potentially the only TfL system to fully fund its annual cost of operation, a goal originally estimated to take two to three years.[23] The cost including installing the docking stations at around £200,000 each.[24]

Between December 2010 and the end of May 2013, the scheme had registered 22 million rides without a death.[25] The first fatality of a user of the scheme occurred in July 2013. A 20-year-old woman, Philippine De Gerin-Ricard, was killed outside Aldgate East Underground station after being struck by a lorry,[26] prompting a protest ride calling for improved separation between cycle routes and other traffic.[27]

Blue (Barclays Cycle Hire), yellow (2014 Tour de France) and red (Santander Cycles) cycles in a docking station.

Owing to the success of the scheme, major expansions have taken place to increase the number of bikes and docking stations across London.

The first major expansion was in March 2012, with a significant expansion in east London in Tower Hamlets and Hackney, with a minor expansion westwards to the new Westfield London shopping centre in Shepherds Bush. This expansion added 2,300 additional bikes and 4,800 docking points.[28] In December 2013, the scheme received a further significant expansion ('Phase 3') in west and south west London. This expansion added approximately 2,000 more bikes and 150 new docking points, with new stations in the boroughs of Wandsworth, Hammersmith & Fulham, Lambeth and Kensington & Chelsea.[29]

In 2015, sponsorship of the scheme transferred from Barclays to Santander, with the branding of the scheme becoming Santander Cycles. According to TfL, the £43.75 million sponsorship deal over seven years is the largest public sector sponsorship in the world.[5] Santander's sponsorship was extended in May 2021 for a further three years until May 2025.[30]

The scheme has continued to expand in recent years, to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in January 2016,[31] and Brixton in February 2018.[32] The scheme now spreads across 40 square miles (100 km2) of London with more than 12,000 bikes and 800 stations.[33][1] Vélib' Métropole, the public bicycle hire scheme in Paris, is much larger with 20,000 bikes and 1,400 stations spread across 450 km².[34][35]

In October 2022, TfL expanded the cycle scheme with the addition of 500 new docked e-bikes.[17]


Regular users of the scheme can register on the TfL website for ad hoc use (pay by journey), one month unlimited use (recurring subscription), or one year unlimited use. Registered users can undock the bike using an app, or can buy a key (£3) to operate the docking stations (up to four keys can be registered under a single account). The key allows a cycle to be released from the docking station.[36]

On 3 December 2010, the scheme was extended to casual users who are not members of the scheme but hold major payment cards.[37] The cost is the same to members and casual users, except that casual use for one year is not available. A credit or debit card can be used in a docking station to release a bicycle.

Usage charges are charged at £1.65 per every 30 minutes or part thereof, registered members that have a subscription can have unlimited rides of up to 60 minutes during their subscription period, then £1.65 per additional 30 minutes or part thereof[38]

Since 2022, electrically assisted bikes (e-bikes) have also been available. These are only available to registered users (unlocked via the app or a key), for £3.30 per journey up to 30 minutes (subscribers pay a £1 supplement per journey up to 60 minutes). All users pay £3.30 per additional 30 minutes.



Cycle on Lambeth Bridge
Hire bike handlebar

The original bicycles were built by Cycles Devinci to the following specification:[39][40][41]

  • Puncture-resistant tyres to increase durability.
  • Drum brakes on both wheels, controlled by right-front, left-rear brake levers on handlebar.
  • Three-speed hub gear operated by a twist grip on right handlebar.
  • Bell on left handlebar.
  • Chain guard.
  • Gear linkage guard.
  • Dynamo-powered front and rear LED lights (for visibility to other traffic, not road illumination) which flash when the bicycle is being ridden and for at least two minutes after it has stopped.
  • Small luggage rack in front of handlebar, open at the sides, with elastic shock cord to secure possessions.
  • Kickstand.
  • Reflective numbers affixed on both sides of frame by rear wheel axle, uniquely identifying each bike.

The bicycles are utility bicycles with a step-through frame. The cycles are not provided with locks (unlike the Vélib' scheme in Paris).

The one-piece aluminium frame and handlebars conceal cables and fasteners in an effort to protect them from vandalism, damage and inclement weather. The heavy-duty tyres are designed to be puncture-resistant and are filled with nitrogen to maintain proper inflation pressure longer.[42] A row of five LEDs on front of the luggage rack and twin LED rear lights are integrated into the robust frame, which weighs approximately 23 kg (51 lb).[41][43]

The bikes were designed by industrial designer Michel Dallaire and built in the Saguenay, Quebec region by Cycles Devinci.

The cycles are low-geared to compensate for their weight and to provide a way of limiting their top speed. Using a Shimano Nexus three-hub gear with a 38-tooth chainring in front and a larger than standard 23 tooth rear sprocket the setting is 32 gear inches in first gear, 44 gear inches in second gear, and 60 gear inches in third gear.[44] This gearing is about 22% lower than would be usual on a three-speed cycle of this sort.

The cycles and the docking stations are built in Canada by PBSC Urban Solutions and are based on the Bixi (bike taxi) cycle rental system that operates in many cities including Montreal,[45] Melbourne[46] and Toluca.[47]

In December 2015 it was decided to fit all the cycles with front laser lights. The laser projects a green cycle symbol approximately 15 feet (5 m) in front of the bike to warn drivers and effectively reduce blind angles.[48]


A new design made by Pashley Cycles was introduced in late 2017 with the following changes:[49]

  • Smaller frame
  • Smaller wheels: 24 inches (610 mm)
  • Shimano brakes
  • Puncture resistant tyres

2022 e-bikes[edit]

New e-bikes were introduced in October 2022, with the following changes:[50]

  • “Power assist” motor – maximum speed 15.5 mph (24.9 km/h)
  • Electric battery
  • Docking: when the battery charge falls to 20 per cent, maintenance staff receive an alert and the e-bikes cannot be released from their docking station until a fully-charged replacement battery is installed.

Coverage area and future expansion[edit]

The success of the scheme has led to its expansion into other areas of London. As of August 2018, the coverage area is roughly bounded by:[51]

The following boroughs are partly or fully covered: Hammersmith and Fulham, Kensington and Chelsea, Westminster, Camden, Islington, the City, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Southwark, Lambeth and Wandsworth.

But despite calls from other Londoners, the scheme has yet to expand into many areas close to central London, including central and north Islington.[52][53] Coverage[51] is noticeably poor in south-east London, an area that has a limited overall Tube network.[54] Coverage is exceptionally poor in Outer London, where the scheme is almost non-existent, even in areas adjacent to inner London districts and despite the majority of Londoners living there. In some cases, planned expansion has been delayed by Londoners who support the London Cycle Hire Scheme in principle, but dislike the idea of having a docking station on their street, or losing car parking spaces to make room for docking stations.[55]

Many Londoners are keen to see the system expand, with lobbying from Greenwich,[56] Southwark,[57] Hackney[24] and Richmond,[58] but funding is a challenge, owing to the high cost of the docking stations and the cost of the bikes.[24][59] The London Boroughs and TfL work with developers of major developments to secure funding for future cycle hire stations.[60]

Docking stations[edit]

Docking station

Docking stations consist of a terminal and docking points where users pick up and return cycles. The terminal at each docking station contains a screen allowing users to:[1]

  • Hire a cycle with a chip and PIN payment card if the user does not have a key;
  • Print a record of their journey;
  • Find other nearby docking stations, necessary if one is full when returning or empty when seeking a cycle;
  • Get extra time without charge to return the cycle to another docking station if one is full; and
  • See a local street map, scheme costs, the code of conduct, and information in other languages.

If there is a fault with a cycle that was rented, it can be docked at the nearest station and the red 'fault' button on the docking point pressed within ten seconds; another bike can then be taken at no extra cost.

Terminal screen

During high load hours the bikes are moved from the busiest stations to the emptiest using trailers pulled by Alkè ATX280E electric vehicles with zero CO2 emissions,[61] and Ford Transit vans with specially designed tail ramps. There are a number of mobile phone apps to help users find the nearest station.


The platform behind the bike share system was created by 8D Technologies,[62] who also supply the server technology for BIXI Montréal, Citi Bike in New York City, Capital Bikeshare in Washington DC, Melbourne Bike Share in Australia, and others.

The Bixi technology was replaced in mid-2017 for TfL under the new contract with Serco, and now makes use of AI and big data to improve bicycle availability and maintenance. The new technology is a AWS hosted service and uses a combination of technologies including AWS, Opensource, IBM and Oracle.[63]


In the first three months of the scheme, 95 percent of journeys did not exceed half an hour, earning TfL access fees but no usage fees.[64] The scheme generated £323,545 in revenue for usage in the first 96 days.[64] Only 72,700 of the first 1.4 million journeys earned any revenue, with 44% of income coming from users charged the £150 (US$252) "late return" fees.[64] With an average £3,370 income per day from journeys, the scheme needed to grow substantially over the following five years to meet its cost.[64] In this early period there was a steady growth in the number of bike journeys. It was expected that when casual use was introduced it would become the bigger revenue generator.[64] Access fees were doubled in January 2013,[65] which was expected to bring in an extra £4-6M annually.[66] User satisfaction level dropped after the increase.[67]

In May 2012 (before access charges doubled in 2013), TfL estimated that the scheme would cost taxpayers £225M by 2015/16, almost five times the maximum due from Barclays.[68][69]

TfL funded a net £3.6M to the scheme in the 2016/17 period during which around 10 million bikes were hired, this equates to 16.9% of the scheme's operating costs being funded by subsidy[70] this is on par with TfL's operating costs as a whole, which are 16.1% funded by subsidy (including the congestion charge as subsidy).[71]

Reception and criticism[edit]

The scheme debuted with great fanfare, with more than 90,000 users registering one million cycle rides being taken in the first ten weeks of operation.[72] The millionth journey rider was awarded free membership to the scheme for five years for him and three friends.[73]

In particular, the scheme was criticised for allowing riders to have unlimited use by docking the bike every 30 minutes at a station (the first 30 minutes' use are free) resulting in a dependence upon late fees and penalties to make up revenues.[64][74] Other users complained of computer issues, erroneous charges, and problems with docking stations.[75][76][77][78] The system requires the cyclist to find docking stations close to the points of departure and destination, lacking one of the key advantages of the bicycle in an urban setting.[79] The system also does not enable transport to the suburbs; as TfL says, it is "best for short journeys".[80] Some users also found the bikes too heavy and unwieldy, at 23 kilograms (51 lb).[41][43]

In June 2011, TfL issued a "critical improvement plan" to the contractor, Serco, demanding immediate improvements in service, and in a comment to the press a TfL spokesman stated that "the service it (Serco) has provided for our Barclays Cycle Hire users has not reached the consistently high standards we expect," adding "We expect to see immediate improvements." Serco has in turn admitted that "some aspects of the service still need to be improved."[81]

Redistribution of bikes has also been hindered by the refusal of the councils of Westminster and of Kensington & Chelsea to allow Serco to move bikes around their boroughs at night, between the hours of 22:00 and 08:00, creating significant challenges in meeting morning peak demand.[82]

At the time of launch, anti-arms-trade campaigners protested against Barclays' involvement in the scheme and attached stickers to the bikes highlighting the bank's investment in the arms trade.[83][84]

The scheme and those who delivered it achieved recognition from a wide cross-section of industries impacted by the project. A total of 15 awards were received within a year of launch[citation needed] recognising not just the impact on transport in London but also the innovative design, the public relations exercise and the challenging delivery timescales. Those awards included "Best Facility" from the London Cycling Campaign,[85] and an Infrastructure award from the Institution of Civil Engineers.[86]

Repair and replacement[edit]

An Alkè ATX280E electric utility vehicle, used to redistribute bicycles

According to TfL, in the first six months of operation two-thirds of the fleet of London's Cycle Hire scheme fleet required repair.[87] Serco, the company contractor for bicycle operations, was repairing more than 30 bikes a day as of February 2011,[87] and at any one time around 200 of the 5,400 strong fleet were off the road for maintenance.[87] By February 2011, three bikes had been damaged beyond repair while in service, and ten bicycles had been stolen.[43] Six docking stations had been hit and damaged by motor vehicles and six had been vandalised.[87]


The pay as you go charge is £1.65 per every 30 minutes or part thereof for each bike hired. This can be paid on an app or at a street terminal alongside the bike docking stations.[38]

Other ways to pay are through a monthly membership fee of £20 or an annual fee of £120, which both give unlimited 60-minute rides.[38]

Bicycles must be returned within 24 hours. Failure to return a bicycle or damaging one can incur a charge of up to £300.[38]

E-bikes fees are set differently and require prior registration, which can be completed online.[38]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Docking Stations". Transport for London. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  2. ^ "Number of Bicycle Hires". London Datastore. Greater London Authority. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  3. ^ "'Boris bikes': The facts behind 10 years of London's cycle hire scheme". BBC News. 29 July 2020. Archived from the original on 17 April 2023. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  4. ^ "TFL Announcement for BCH Operator". Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Mayor announces Santander as new Cycle Hire sponsor" (Press release). Transport for London. 27 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Barclays' £25m sponsorship of London cycle hire scheme". BBC News. 28 May 2010.
  7. ^ "Boris, Barclays and the Big Blue Branding". CorpComms Magazine. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  8. ^ James Pickford (11 December 2013). "Barclays to end sponsorship of London's 'Boris bike' cycle scheme". Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  9. ^ Thelwell, Emma (30 July 2010). "London's 'Boris Bike' hire scheme launched". The World in 2010. Channel 4. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  10. ^ Taylor, Matthew (9 February 2008). "City's two-wheel transformation". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  11. ^ a b "Livingstone plan for street-corner cycle hire stands". London: 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  12. ^ Jon Clements (30 July 2010). "Phone fury man kicks 'Boris bike'- John Clements". Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  13. ^ "Safety of London Bike Scheme". 17 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  14. ^ "Boris Bikes extended to south-west London". ITV News. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  15. ^ a b "Number of Bicycle Hires – London Datastore".
  16. ^ "London celebrates five successful years of the cycle hire scheme". (Press release). Transport for London.
  17. ^ a b "Docked e-bikes now available for hire as part of London's record-breaking Santander Cycles scheme". Transport for London. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  18. ^ "Plans for bikes on street corners". 9 August 2007.
  19. ^ "Paris free bike hire scheme could work in London, says Mayor". 9 August 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  20. ^ "Livingstone announces major cycling scheme". 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Mayor's flagship cycling scheme - Barclays Cycle Hire - opens for business". Transport for London. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  22. ^ "Transport for London Mayor's flagship Barclays Cycle Hire is now open to anyone, anytime". Transport for London. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  23. ^ Whitehead, Frederika (13 October 2010). "London bike hire scheme on road to be only public transport system in profit". Guardian. UK. Retrieved 23 February 2011.: Once BCH revenues can fully pay for annual costs of operation, revenues may then be allocated towards repayment of the estimated £140 million in planning and implementation costs of the project.
  24. ^ a b c "Why are there so few TfL cycle hire docking stations in Hackney? - Hackney Citizen". Hackney Citizen. 9 November 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  25. ^ Spiegelhalter, David. "Fatality risk on Boris bikes?". Understanding Uncertainty. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  26. ^ "First 'Boris bike' cyclist killed in lorry crash". BBC. 6 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  27. ^ "Campaigners call for better cycle lanes after French student killed on Boris Bike near Aldgate". The Docklands & East London Advertiser. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  28. ^ "Major eastern expansion of Mayor's flagship Barclays Cycle Hire scheme goes live" (Press release). Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  29. ^ Beard, Matthew (13 December 2013). "Boris bike scheme makes tracks south and west as it grows 50%". Evening Standard. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  30. ^ Smith, Rebecca (28 May 2021). "Santander Extends Sponsorship of London Cycle Hire Until 2025". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  31. ^ "Santander Cycles expands to Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park" (Press release). Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  32. ^ "GLA - Brixton welcomes Santander Cycles" (Press release). Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  33. ^ "Cycle hire scheme celebrates best ever month of hires" (Press release). Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  34. ^ "About Vélib". Vélib' Métropole. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  35. ^ "Le vélo partagé accessible à tous". SAVM. Retrieved 18 June 2023.
  36. ^ "Santander Cycles membership".
  37. ^ Hugh Gladstone (3 December 2010). "How to use the London cycle hire scheme on casual basis". Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  38. ^ a b c d e "What you pay". Transport for London. Retrieved 1 February 2023.
  39. ^ "The cycles | Cycling | Transport for London". Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  40. ^ "Riding the Barclays Cycle Hire". Croydon Cyclist. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  41. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen (30 July 2010). "Boris bike gets The Engineer test". The Engineer. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  42. ^ Ross Lydall (21 May 2010). "Taking a ride on Boris's hot wheels hire bikes". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  43. ^ a b c Brady, Brian (2011), Two-thirds of London's Boris Bikes need repairs, The Independent, 20 February 2011
  44. ^ "Know your Boris Bike". 5 January 2024.
  45. ^ "Bixi: PBSC Urban Solutions brings bike-sharing to the world (Part 3)". Montreal Gazette. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  46. ^ "Melbourne Bike Share | FAQ". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  47. ^ "PBSC Urban Solutions launched Huizi Toluca, the city's brand new bike-sharing program". Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  48. ^ Murgia, Madhumita (22 December 2015). "All 11,500 'Boris bikes' to be fitted with lasers to improve cyclist safety".
  49. ^ Cycling Weekly
  50. ^ Lydall, Ross (12 August 2022). "E-bikes to be added to 'Boris Bike' fleet from September". Evening Standard. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  51. ^ a b "Find a docking station". Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  52. ^ "Call for Boris Bikes to be extended to Upper Street". 12 May 2011.
  53. ^ "Plea for 'Boris Bikes'". 21 July 2012.
  54. ^ "BBC - London - Travel - London Underground Map".
  55. ^ "Residents from Wandsworth complain about Docking Station being installed on their street". 11 April 2013.
  56. ^ "LET'S BRING BORIS BIKES TO GREENWICH". 22 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  57. ^ "Hopes for cycle hire scheme expansion in Southwark diminished". 2018 Site. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  58. ^ "Could the London cycle hire scheme be expanded to cover more of the capital? - Cycling Weekly". Cycling Weekly. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  59. ^ "Will Cycle Hire Ever Come To Greenwich?". 29 November 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  60. ^ "Urban planning and construction / Cycling guidance". Transport for London. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  61. ^ "Barclays Cycle Hire and Serco | Source London". Archived from the original on 18 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Cycle hire re-let (memo)". TFL., published 19 July 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016
  63. ^ "The journey to AI: Keeping London's cycle hire scheme on the move". IBM. 23 June 2020.
  64. ^ a b c d e f Quilty-Harper, Conrad & Payne, Sebastian (7 January 2011). "London bicycle hire scheme in uphill struggle to make money". The Daily Telegraph.
  65. ^ "Barclays Cycle Hire scheme charges double in 2013".
  66. ^ "Motorists and cyclists to pay TfL an additional £12m every year". 3 May 2013.
  67. ^ "Boris Bikes satisfaction levels fall after price hike". 17 April 2013.
  68. ^ "Exclusive: TfL reveals how much Barclays has paid for Cycle Hire scheme". 19 December 2012.
  69. ^ "TfL: We don't know when Boris's Cycle Hire scheme will be self-funding". 15 August 2012.
  70. ^ "Santander Cycles - Frequently requested statistics" (PDF). Transport for London. September 2017.
  71. ^ "TfL Mayor's Budget 2017/18 - GLA Consultation Extracts December 2016" (PDF). Transport for London.
  72. ^ "In praise of ... Boris's bikes". The Guardian. London. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  73. ^ Appleton, Mark (27 October 2010). "Millionth Boris bike journey rider identified". Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  74. ^ TimeOut London, The London Cycle Hire Scheme (2011)
  75. ^ Cridland, James, A message to Barclays Cycle Hire 9 February 2011
  76. ^ London Cycle Hire: good, but not great,, 30 August 2010
  77. ^ Radnedge, Aidan: Transport for London reported in June 2011 that thousands of BCH users had been sent erroneous billings.
  78. ^ Macmichael, Simon, Hidden charges - Boris bike user hit with £900 charge for "free" journeys...but he's still a fan,, Farrelly Atkinson Ltd., 13 September 2010
  79. ^ May, James, Cycling Proficiency with James May, The Daily Telegraph, 21 October 2010
  80. ^ "How it works". Transport for London. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  81. ^ "London cycle hire operator Serco penalised £5m". BBC News. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  82. ^ "Barclays Bicycle Redistribution - a Freedom of Information request to Transport for London". WhatDoTheyKnow. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  83. ^ "Anti Arms Trade Activists sticker Barclays Bikes - UK Indymedia".
  84. ^ "PFI Turns Into Ongoing PR Disaster for Barclays - UK Indymedia".
  85. ^ "London Cycling Award winners show off best-practice in the capital".
  86. ^ "ICE London Awards: Civil engineers reveal top London projects of 2011 - Institution of Civil Engineers". Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  87. ^ a b c d Sutton, Mark, (2011), London bike hire faring better than Paris scheme for write offs Bike Biz Magazine, 22 February 2011

External links[edit]