Bardiya National Park
|Bardiya National Park|
Forest in Bardiya National Park
|Area||968 km2 (374 sq mi)|
|Governing body||Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation|
Bardiya National Park (Nepali: बर्दिया राष्ट्रिय निकुञ्ज; Bardiya Rastriya Nikunja.ogg (help·info)), also spelled Bardia, is a protected area in Nepal that was established in 1988 as Royal Bardia National Park. Covering an area of 968 km2 (374 sq mi) it is the largest and most undisturbed national park in Nepal's Terai, adjoining the eastern bank of the Karnali River and bisected by the Babai River in the Bardiya District. Its northern limits are demarcated by the crest of the Siwalik Hills. The Nepalgunj-Surkhet highway partly forms the southern boundary, but seriously disrupts the protected area. Natural boundaries to human settlements are formed in the west by the Geruwa, a branch of the Karnali River, and in the southeast by the Babai River.
Together with the neighboring Banke National Park, the coherent protected area of 1,437 km2 (555 sq mi) represents the Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU) Bardia-Banke that extends over 2,231 km2 (861 sq mi) of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests.
In 1815, Nepal lost this region to the East India Company through the Sugauli Treaty. For 45 years it was a part of British India and returned to Nepal in 1860 in recognition for supporting the suppression of the Indian Independence movement in 1857. Today, this annexed area is still called Naya Muluk meaning new country. An area of 368 km2 (142 sq mi) was set aside as Royal Hunting Reserve in 1969 and gazetted as Royal Karnali Wildlife Reserve in 1976. In 1982, it was proclaimed as Royal Bardia Wildlife Reserve and extended to include the Babai River Valley in 1984. Finally in 1988, the protected area was gazetted as national park.
The approximately 1500 people who used to live in this valley have been resettled elsewhere. Since farming has ceased in the Babai Valley, the natural regenerated vegetation makes the area a prime habitat for wildlife.
About 70% of the park is covered with forest, with the balance a mixture of grassland, savannah and riverine forest. The flora recorded in the park comprises 839 species of flora, including 173 vascular plant species comprising 140 dicots, 26 monocots, six fern, and one gymnosperm species.
The wide range of vegetation types in forest and grassland provides excellent habitat for 642 faunal species. The Karnali-Babai river system, their small tributaries and myriads of oxbow lakes is habitat for 125 recorded species of fish. A small population of gharial inhabits the rivers. Apart from the mugger crocodiles, 23 reptile and amphibian species have been recorded.
Rhinoceros: Translocation of rhinos from Chitwan to Bardia National Park commenced in 1986, with 58 individuals relocated until 2000. From 1994 to 2000, hunters have been unsuccessful at poaching rhinos. In April 2000, there were 67 rhinos in the park, most of them resident in the Babai Valley. In May 2006, a reconnaissance survey was carried out in the Babai River floodplain, which revealed an alarming decline in the rhino population. Poaching was suspected to be the main cause of this decline. Subsequent surveys in 2007 and 2008 have confirmed the complete disappearance of rhinos from Babai Valley. In different habitats of the Karnali floodplain 25 rhinos were recorded based on direct observation and indirect signs of rhino dung and tracks. They were mostly congregated in the floodplain grassland, riverine forest and wetlands. In March 2008, only 22 rhinos were counted, and two of them were poached after the count. The World Wide Fund for Nature reported that by 2015, the rhino population had risen to 29, mainly because of increased security measures.
Elephants: In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in the park, and named Raja Gaj and Kanchha. They roamed the park area together and made occasional visits to the females. Raja Gaj stood 11.3 ft (3.4 m) tall at the shoulder and had a massive body weight. His appearance has been compared to that of a mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head. His forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants. In 1993, five elephants were seen entering the park, and one year later another 16 individuals arrived. A population count in summer 1997 revealed 41 resident individuals. In 2002, more than 60 individuals were estimated to reside in the Karnali floodplain and the Babai Valley.
Current checklists include 407 bird species, among them the Bengal florican, white-rumped vulture, peafowl, and bar-headed geese, which are symbolic of the park. Lesser florican and sarus crane are present; grey-crowned prinia, jungle prinia, pale-footed bush warbler, aberrant bush warbler, striated grassbird, golden-headed cisticola and chestnut-capped babbler occur in the park's grasslands.
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- Wikramanayake, E.D., Dinerstein, E., Robinson, J.G., Karanth, K.U., Rabinowitz, A., Olson, D., Mathew, T., Hedao, P., Connor, M., Hemley, G., Bolze, D. (1999). Where can tigers live in the future? A framework for identifying high-priority areas for the conservation of tigers in the wild. In: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S., Jackson, P. (eds.) Riding the Tiger. Tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. hardback ISBN 0-521-64057-1, paperback ISBN 0-521-64835-1
- Nepalnews (2010). article Govt announces creation of 550 sq km Banke National Park Archived January 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Nepalnews 13 May 2010
- Dinerstein, E. (1979) An ecological survey of the royal Karnali-Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Part I: Vegetation, modifying factors, and successional relationships. Biological Conservation 15(2): 127–150 Abstract
- Bhuju, U. R., Shakya, P. R., Basnet, T. B., Shrestha, S. (2007). Nepal Biodiversity Resource Book. Protected Areas, Ramsar Sites, and World Heritage Sites (PDF). Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, in cooperation with United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN 978-92-9115-033-5.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Martin, E. (2001) What strategies are effective for Nepal’s rhino conservation: a recent case study. Pachyderm No. 31 July–December 2001: 42–51.
- Thapa, K., Williams, A. C., Khaling, S., Bajimaya, S. (2009) Observations on habitat preference of translocated rhinos in Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Pachyderm No. 45 July 2008–June 2009: 108–113.
- DNPWC (2008) Rhino Count - 2008, Nepal Archived July 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Kathmandu.
- Furaha tenVelde, P. (1997) The wild elephants of the Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Gajah: Journal of the IUCN/SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group 17: 41–44.
- Bhatta, S. R. (2006) Efforts to conserve the Asian elephant in Nepal. Gajah: Journal of the IUCN/SSC Asian Elephant Specialist Group 25: 87–89.
- Kafle, M. R. (2005). Distribution and Habitat Preference of Grey Crowned Prinia (Prinia cinerocapilla) in Bardia, Kailali and Kanchanpur Districts of Nepal. Report submitted to Oriental Bird Club.
- Jane Wilson-Howarth (2012). A Glimpse of Eternal Snows: a journey of love and loss in the Himalayas. Bradt Travel Guides, UK. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-84162-435-8.
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