Bareilly

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Bareilly
Bas 'Bareilly
City
Bareilly
Bareilly is located in Uttar Pradesh
Bareilly
Bareilly
Location within India
Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415Coordinates: 28°21′50″N 79°24′54″E / 28.364°N 79.415°E / 28.364; 79.415
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Bareilly District
Government
 • MP Mr. Santosh Gangwar (Bharatiya Janta Party)
 • MLA Dr. Arun Kumar
 • Mayor Dr. I.S Tomar
Area
 • Total 235 km2 (91 sq mi)
Elevation 268 m (879 ft)
Population (Census 2011)
 • Total 10,00,000
 • Density 1,084/km2 (2,810/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Bareilite (Barelvi)
Time zone IST
PIN codes 2430xx
Vehicle registration UP-25
Website bareilly.nic.in

Bareilly (Listeni/bəˈrɛli/) is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the Ramganga, it is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. Bareilly is the fourth city in Uttar Pradesh with compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations (after Lucknow, Kanpur and Agra).[citation needed] It is the seventh-largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh and the 50th-largest city in India.[citation needed] Bareilly also figured amongst the PM Narendra Modi's ambitious 100 Smart City list in India.[citation needed]

The city is also known by the name Nath Nagri [1](known for the four Shiva temples located in four corners of the region - Dhopeshwar Nath, Madni Nath, Alakha Nath and Trivati Nath), Ala Hazrat,Shah Sharafat Miyan and Khankahe Niyazia (derived the famous Muslim Mausoleum), Zari nagari and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth).[2] The city is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion in the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior.[3] The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537.[4] Bareilly's 2011 population was 898,167.[5]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bareilly
Multi-coloured political map
Ahichchhatra (or Ahi-Kshetra) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala. The remains of this city have been discovered in Bareilly

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛṣṇā (Lord Krishna). When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahichchhatra in Bareilly.[6] The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichchhatra.[7]

In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the Islamic Turkic Invasion the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657.

Later the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and then to East India Company (transferred to the British India) and later becoming an integral part of India. The region has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history.

From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichchhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichchhatra (1940–44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichchhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichchhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichchhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal.[7]

Founding [edit]

Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun.[8]

The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements to control the Katehriyas succeeded if the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans (who had become local potentates) began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.

Multi-coloured political map
Regions of Uttar Pradesh, including Rohilkhand (capital Bareilly)

After the fall of the Mughal Empire, many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour.[9][10]

British East India Company[edit]

Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas, repulsing the invasion with the aid of the Nawab of Awadh. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs' help from Barech. When his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British (under Governor Warren Hastings and his Commander-in-Chief, Alexander Champion) to invade Rohilkhand. The combined forces of Daula and the Company defeated Barech (who was killed in battle at Miranpur Katra, ending Rohilla rule) in 1774.

Rohilkhand was handed over to Daula, and from 1774 to 1800 the province was ruled by the Nawab of Awadh. By 1801, subsidies due under the treaties to support a British force had fallen into arrears. To pay the debt, Nawab Saadat Ali Khan surrendered Rohilkhand to the East India Company in a treaty signed on 10 November 1801. [11]

During the reign of Shah Alam II, Bareilly was the headquarters of Rohilla Sardar Hafiz Rehmat Khan and many coins were minted. The city was later in the possession of Awadh Nawab Asaf-ud-Daulah, and his coins had Bareilly, Bareilly Aasfabad and the Bareilly kite and fish as identification marks. Coins were then minted by the East India Company.[12]

Modern period[edit]

Physical-political map of northern India
A 1912 map of northern India, showing the principal centres of the 1857–1859 rebellion: Meerut, Delhi, Bareilly, (Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi and Gwalior

After the Rohilla War, the change in the power structure increased discontent throughout the district. Increased taxation from 1812[13] to 1814 increased resentment of the British: "Business stood still, shops were shut and multitudes assembled near the courthouse to petition for the abolition of the tax." The Magistrate Dembleton, already unpopular, ordered the assessment to be made by a Kotwal. A skirmish between rebels and the sepoys (under Captain Cunningham) cost 300–400 lives. In 1818, Glyn[who?] was posted as Acting Judge and Magistrate of Bareilly and the Joint Magistrate of Bulundshahr.

Glyn asked Ghulam Yahya to write an account of "craftsmen, the names of tools of manufacture and production and their dress and manners". The most popular trades in and around Bareilly during the 1820s were manufacturing glass, jewellery, glass and lac bangles and gold and silver thread, crimping, bean drying, wire drawing, charpoy weaving, keeping a grocer's shop and selling kebabs.[8]

Rebellion of 1857 [edit]

Bareilly was a centre of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebellion began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys), employed by the British East India Company's army, against race- and religion-based injustices and inequities on 10 May 1857 in Meerut. It expanded into other mutinies and civilian rebellions, primarily in the major north-central Indian river valleys; local episodes extended northwest to Peshawar (on the northwest frontier with Afghanistan) and southeast (beyond Delhi). There were riots in many parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Muslims in Bareilly, Bijnor and Moradabad called for the revival of a Muslim kingdom.[14]

Old, multi-coloured physical-political map
Bareilly was made part of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.

The Rohillas actively opposed the British, but were disarmed.[15] Khan Bahadur Khan Rohilla, grandson of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, formed his own government in Bareilly in 1857 and a widespread popular revolt in Awadh, Bundelkhand and Rohilkhand took place. In 1857, Khan Bhadur Khan issued silver coins from Bareilly as an independent ruler.[16] When the rebellion failed, Bareilly was subjugated. Khan Bahadur Khan was sentenced to death, and hanged in the police station on 24 February 1860.

Independence [edit]

Bareilly Central Jail housed a number of political prisoners during the British Raj, including Yashpal (who married while imprisoned on 7 August 1936 was the first such ceremony in an Indian jail). The rules were changed, preventing future prison marriages.[17]

Geography[edit]

Bareilly is in northern India, at 28°10′N 78°23′E / 28.167°N 78.383°E / 28.167; 78.383. On its east are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur, Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to the north and Badaun to the south. The city is level and well-watered, sloping towards the south. Its soil is fertile, with groves of trees. A rain forest in the north, known as the tarai, contains tigers, bears, deer and wild pigs. The river Sarda (or Gogra) forms the eastern boundary and is the principal waterway. The Ramganga receives most of the drainage from the Kumaon mountains, and the Deoha also receives many small streams. The Gomati (or Gumti) is also nearby.[15]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Bareilly
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
24.0
(75.2)
30.6
(87.1)
36.8
(98.2)
39.9
(103.8)
38.6
(101.5)
33.9
(93)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
32.3
(90.1)
28.0
(82.4)
23.2
(73.8)
31.21
(88.18)
Average low °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.2
(59.4)
20.9
(69.6)
25.1
(77.2)
27.0
(80.6)
26.1
(79)
25.8
(78.4)
24.4
(75.9)
19.3
(66.7)
12.7
(54.9)
9.3
(48.7)
18.71
(65.67)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.9
(0.902)
25.3
(0.996)
14.5
(0.571)
8.9
(0.35)
19.3
(0.76)
106.4
(4.189)
307.0
(12.087)
290.9
(11.453)
186.1
(7.327)
44.9
(1.768)
3.9
(0.154)
9.7
(0.382)
1,039.8
(40.939)
Source: India Meteorological Department (1901–2000)[18]

Environment[edit]

Bareilly is on the Ganges plain, with fertile alluvial soil; however, the lower plain is flood-prone. The city is on the Ramganga, with seven other rivers passing through the district. The lower Himalayas are 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of the river.

Demographics[edit]

Bareilly had a 2011 population of 904,797. In the 2001 census, the district recorded a 27.66 percent increase over 1991. Provisional 2011 data suggest a density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,810/sq mi), compared with 879 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,280/sq mi) in 2001.[19]

Religions in Bareilly (2011)[20]
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
58.58%
Muslims
  
38.80%
Sikh
  
0.90%
Christian
  
0.78%
Jains
  
0.05%
Others†
  
0.88%
Distribution of religions

The literacy rate in 2011 . The predominant languages are Hindi & Urdu. Other lessly spoken languages are Punjabi and Kumaoni. Large swathes of Punjabi Khatris and Aroras settled here in, after 1947's partition from Pakistan.

There were 669,681 children under age six (352,479 boys and 317,202 girls) in 2011, a decline of 6.9 percent from the 2001 census. They comprised 15 percent of the population, down from 19.88 percent in 2001. The district is home to 2.24 percent of the total Uttar Pradesh population, unchanged from 2001.[21]

In 2001, Hindus were 64.81 percent of the population.[19] Other groups are Baniya, Punjabi, Kayasth, Kurmi, Jatav and Deval Patwa Thakurs. Muslims constitute 33.89 percent of the population (90 percent Sunni Hanafi and 10 percent Shia Ithnā‘ashariyyah). Sikhs comprise 0.8 percent of population, Christians 0.2 percent, Jains 0.02 percent and others 0.28 percent.[19]

Culture[edit]

Entertainment and performing arts[edit]

Bareilly has arts and cultural organisations, art galleries and theatres. The annual Craft Fair at YugVeena Library showcases artists. Influenced by the migrants from nearby regions, Bareilly has a varied culture: Brij (of Mathura), Awadhi (of Lucknow), Pahaari (of the Kumaun region of Uttrakhand) and Harayanvi (of northwest Uttar Pradesh). The city hosts a number of fashion shows.[22] The Bollywood film Aligarh casting Manoj Bajpai and Woh 5 Din, a suspense thriller, was shot in Bareilly[23] and in 2005's Main, Meri Patni Aur Woh, Rajpal Yadav's wife Veena comes from the city. Bollywood actress and former Miss World Priyanka Chopra is from Bareilly and Parents of Mahanayak Amitabh Bacchan met for the first time in Bareilly College,Bareilly.Besides this notable Bollywood actor Rati Agnihotri was born in the city later shifted to Mumbai. Kavita Seth, famous Sufi and Bollywodd singer was born and brought up in the city.

Cuisine[edit]

Bareilly has a number of restaurants which follow the tradition of naming a cuisine after its creator. The city is known for its Seekh Kabaabs, which are sold throughout the old city. Minced meat (primarily lamb), mixed with spices and aromatic herbs, is grilled on skewers over tamarind charcoal.

Sports[edit]

Bareilly has two sports stadiums and one cricket academy:

The city is represented in sports tournaments by club teams and teams representing schools and colleges. Most colleges have home fields on campus.

Recreation[edit]

The city has a combined amusement and water park, Fun City Boond Amusement and Water Park and a number of clubs including its oldest Bareilly Club.

Ornate fountain at night, surrounded by trees
Phool Bagh Fountain

Other parks include:

  • Children's Park, Cantonment
  • Phool Bagh, Cantonment
  • Company Garden, Civil Lines
  • vatika ( park) Rampur Garden
  • C L Park, Prem Nagar
  • Mayur Van Chetna Kendra, University Road
  • Maharaja Agrasen Park, Rampur Garden
  • Akshar Vihar[24]
  • Lichi bagh, Qila
  • Mega Rolling Park, Super City
  • Gandhi Garden Civil Lines

Musical references [edit]

Several Bollywood songs have references to Bareilly and its musical genres, such as jhumka and kajra.

  • "Surma bareilly waala ankhiyon mein aisa daala", a song from the film Kismat sung by Asha Bhosle and Shamshad Begum, refers to Bareilly ("Jhumka Bareilly waala kaanon mein aisa daala. Jhumke ne le li meri jaan, haai re main tere qurbaan").[25]
  • The Barra Bazaar (market) in the city was popular during the Mughal period; the song "Jhumka Gira Re, Bareilly ke Bazar mein" (from the film Mera Saaya, sung by Asha Bhosle and written by Shakeel Badauni) mentions the market.
  • "Aaja Nachle" (from the film Aaja Nach Le, featuring Madhuri Dixit) connects jhumka and Bareilly.
  • "New Delhi mein Bareilly Jaisa Saiyaan", featuring Kajol and Ajay Devgan, from the film U Me Aur Hum
  • "Bareilly Ke bazaar mein", featuring Neil Nitin Mukesh, from the film Jail (directed by Madhur Bhandarkar)
  • "Bareli woh jaaye toh woh laaye surmeidaani" in song "Thoda Sa Pagla, Thoda Sayaana" written by Javed Akhtar for movie "Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya".
  • The Famous Ghazal Singer Khurshid Ali Khan also resides in Bareilly.

Politics[edit]

The 16th Lok Sabha Election for the Bareilly MP was won by Santosh Gangwar of the Bharatiya Janta Party. He defeated Praveen Singh Aron by huge margin to retain his stronghold. Bareilly has been a traditional battleground between the INC and the saffron parties. Regional parties such as the Samajwadi Party, led by Veerpal Singh Yadav, and the Bahujan Samaj Party have a limited influence.

Bareilly was a stronghold of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for 20 years (1989–2009), when both the Member of Parliament (MP) and the Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) was from the BJP. The city saw the emergence of Hindu nationalism during the last two decades, accompanied by the growth of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Vishva Hindu Parishad and Bajrang Dal in the region.

Santosh Gangwar was a Member of Parliament for Bareilly for 20 years (1989–2009). He was a former Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, with an additional charge of Parliament Affairs in the 13th Lok Sabha. Before this, Gangwar was Minister of State of Science and Technology with an additional charge of Parliamentary Affairs from October to November 1999 and chief whip of the BJP in the 14th Lok Sabha. He was narrowly defeated in the 15th Lok Sabha elections in 2009.

Economy[edit]

Since India began liberalising its economy, Bareilly has experienced rapid growth. Commerce has diversified with mall culture, although the area's rural economy remains agrarian, handicraft (zari-zardosi embroidery work on cloth material), bamboo and cane furniture. The city is equidistant from New Delhi and Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh.

Public sector undertakings [edit]

  • Indian Oil Divisional Office
  • Indian Oil Aonla Depot
  • Rama Shyama Paper
  • Campher and Allied Products
  • Keser Enterprises
  • J. K. Sugar
  • Oswal Overseas
  • Bharat Petroleum and Bottling Plants
  • N.E. Railway Workshop
  • IFFCO Aonla
  • Wimco
  • Kissan Sahakari Chini Mills
  • U.P. Sahakari Katai
  • Superior Industries
  • SK Industries
  • CAPL Commercial Automotive Private Limited (Rampur Road) Bareilly

Agriculture[edit]

Bareilly has very productive land (Tarai) for growing Sugarcane, Rice, pulses & wheat.[26] Hindustan Unilever has begun growing rice in Bareilly and the Punjab, but the company desires legal reforms and facility construction.[27]

Electricity[edit]

In 2009, Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) awarded pilot contracts to supply power to nine cities to companies who will collect revenue for the state government. Bareilly, Agra, Kanpur, Moradabad and Gorakhpur will be part of the first phase.[28]

Indian Fuel[edit]

The Indian government initiated a 10-percent-ethanol-blending programme on a pilot basis in Bareilly and Belgaum in Karnataka. The city also has CNG and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) outlets. Bareilly district was the first to implement India's bio-fuel standard.[29]*I

Transport [edit]

Roads [edit]

Highway map of road from New Delhi to Lucknow, passing through Bareilly
National Highway 24
Highway map of road from Rishikesh to Bareilly
National Highway 74 (Pilibhit By-pass Road)

The street system in Bareilly is traditional, with most roads oriented towards different cities. The city centre is the intersection of Nainital Road and Bada Bazaar–Shahamat Ganj Road at a street known as Kutubkhana. It is a congested street, and the entry of cars or heavy vehicles is prohibited during the day. The Ayyub Khan Choraha–Chaupla and Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Roads run from Lucknow Road to Delhi Road National Highway 24. Government of Uttar Pradesh has proposed 200 km six lane expressway from Faridpur near Bareilly to Pariyar in Unnao district (near Bithoor) to connect Bareilly with Kanpur and reduce distance between both cities from 10 hours to 3 hours. Nainital Road (including the Pilibhit By-pass Road) and Badaun Road begain at Kutubkhana. Heavy traffic is allowed on these roads only from Koharapeer Sabji-Mandi and Chaupla Crossroads.

Arterial streets include:

  • Stadium Road (connecting Pilibhit Road (D.D. Puram) to the ShyamGanj crossroad)
  • Macnair Road (connecting Nainital Road to Stadium Road)
  • Pilibhit By-pass Road, connecting Pilibhit Road to Lucknow Road (National Highway 24)
  • SH-33 Bareilly to Mathura via Subhash Nagar & ( Vishwanathpuram ), Budaun and Kasganj
  • Mini By-Pass, connecting Delhi Road (National Highway 24) to Nanital Road
  • Shahamat Ganj–Ayyub Khan Choraha–Chaupla–Quila–C.B. Ganj Road (National Highway 24)
  • Shahamat Ganj–Bareilly Cantt–Chowki Chauraha–Chaupla Road
  • I.V.R.I. Road (connecting Nainital Road to Pilibhit Road)
  • Civil Lines Road
  • Highway connecting Delhi to Lucknow four lane via Bareilly is a 29 km long highway which bypasses the city crowd of Bareilly, ensuring the smooth running of local traffic.

The inter-city satellite bus stand is just outside the city, at the intersection of National Highway 24 and the Pilibhit By-pass Road. The old bus stand in Civil Lines still well-used by state-owned buses to Delhi.

Improvements [edit]

As part of the expansion of National Highway 24 (connecting Lucknow to New Delhi via Shahjahanpur, Bareilly, Rampur, Moradabad and Ghaziabad) to four lanes, two contracts were awarded on a Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Bareilly Ring Road (Bypass) provides an excellent platform for setting up of industries, MNCs, residential townships, shopping malls, school and colleges, hospitals, airport, railways, etc.

Rail [edit]

Old map of India, with rail lines
Indian Railways network in 1909

Bareilly has been connected to the rest of India by rail since the 19th century, and a 1909 map shows that Bareilly was a railway junction during the early 20th century. Six rail lines intersect in the city. In 1890 the Bengal and North Western Railway leased the Tirhoot State Railway to increase the latter's revenue, and the Lucknow-Sitapur-Seramow Provincial State Railway merged with the Bareilly-Pilibheet Provincial State Railway to form the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway on 1 January 1891. The Lucknow-Bareilly Railway was owned by the Government of India, and operated by the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway.

The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was formed on 1 January 1943 by the merger of the Bengal and North Western Railway, the Tirhut Railway (BNW operated), the Mashrak-Thawe Extension Railway (BNW operated), the Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway and the Lucknow-Bareilly Railway (R&K operated). The Oudh and Tirhut Railway was later renamed the Oudh Tirhut Railway; it merged with the Assam Railway and the Kanpur-Achnera section of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway to form North Eastern Railway (headquartered in Gorakhpur, with a divisional headquarters in Izzatnagar), one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways.[30][31][32][33]

Low building, with motor vehicles outside
Bareilly Junction station

Six railway stations serve the city:

Bareilly is on the Moradabad-Lucknow route. Trains from the north (including Jammu Tawi and Amritsar) and Delhi running east and northeast (to Gorakhpur, Barauni, Howrah, Guwahati and Dibrugarh) pass through Bareilly, and the city is also on the route from Uttarakhand to Kasganj and Mathura. Many trains to railway stations in Uttarakhand pass through Bareilly.

Air[edit]

The Indian Air Force has a base at Izzatnagar, on the outskirts of Bareilly. Although it is not open to civilian aviation (except for high government officials), there are plans for a civilian terminal adjacent to the runway.[34]

Defence installations[edit]

In addition to the air-force base, Bareilly is the regimental centre and a major settlement of the Jat Regiment (one of the longest-serving and most-decorated infantry regiments of the Indian Army.[35] The regiment won 19 battle honours from 1839 to 1947,[36] and five battle honours, eight Mahavir Chakra, eight Kirti Chakra, 32 Shaurya Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena Medals since independence.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/City-to-have-1-25-quintal-silver-Shivling/articleshow/51718932.cms
  2. ^ Shailvee Sharda (21 November 2012). "Maitreya project: UP's loss is advantage Bihar". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Bulandshahr roads lead to Delhi". The Times of India. 7 February 2010. 
  4. ^ MSKathayat (10 February 2011). "Mahesh Singh Kathayat: Katheria Rajput and Kathayat's History". Mskathayat.blogspot.com. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  5. ^ Uttar Pradesh. Population, Population in the age group 0–6 and literates by sex – Urban Agglomeration /Town : 2001. Census 1 March 2001
  6. ^ http://members.rediff.com/gangwar/Bareilly.html
  7. ^ a b history
  8. ^ a b "Introduction". Library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  9. ^ HISTORY OF MY PEOPLE: The Afghan Muslims of Guyana
  10. ^ "The Afghan Muslims of Guyana and Suriname". Guyana.org. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Collect Britain has moved". Collectbritain.co.uk. 30 November 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  12. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. 
  13. ^ Conybeare, p. 677
  14. ^ R. C. Majumdar: Sepoy Mutiny and Revolt of 1857, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1963, pp. 2303–31
  15. ^ a b "Bareilly – LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 1 September 2006. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  16. ^ "When Bareilly was in currency". The Times of India. 22 June 2003. 
  17. ^ Friend, Corinne (Fall 1977). "Yashpal: Fighter for Freedom -- Writer for Justice". Journal of South Asian Literature. 13 (1): 65–90. JSTOR 40873491.  (subscription required)
  18. ^ "Climate of Bareilly" (PDF). India meteorological department. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  19. ^ a b c [1]. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  20. ^ "Bareilly City Population Census 2011". Census 2011 India. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  21. ^ Bareilly Population Census 2011, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh literacy sex ratio and density. Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  22. ^ Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week begins. Hindustan Times (5 April 2011). Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  23. ^ "From Kanglish to Hindi". The Times of India. 10 December 2009. 
  24. ^ "Bareilly – Bareilly is a small city of Uttar Pradesh". Infoofindia.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  25. ^ "Lyrics of hindi song Kajra Mohabbat Waala". Hindilyrix.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  26. ^ "Traders may not benefit from wheat export". The Times of India. 18 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "HLL initiates contract farming for basmati rice". The Times of India. 17 December 2002. 
  28. ^ "UPPCL invites bids for franchisee system". The Times of India. 4 February 2009. 
  29. ^ "Govt launches ethanol blending on pilot basis". Business Standard. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  30. ^ Rao 1988, pp. 42–3
  31. ^ Northeastern Railway
  32. ^ Rao 1988, p. 37
  33. ^ "Chapter 1 – Evolution of Indian Railways-Historical Background". Ministry of Railways website. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. 
  34. ^ "SP govt not promoting civil aviation in state: Ajit Singh - The Times of India". The Times of India. 22 December 2012. 
  35. ^ a b Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade. India Defence. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  36. ^ "BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR: Volume 3(4)". Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
Works
  • Husain, Iqbal (1994). The Rise and Decline of the Ruhela Chieftaincies in 18th Century India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 
  • Rao, M.A. (1988). Indian Railways. New Delhi: National Book Trust. ISBN 8123725892. 

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