Barguna District

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Barguna

বরগুনা
Seabirds in Barguna Coastal area, Bangladesh (3).jpg
Front view of Tengragiri Wildlife Sanctuary.jpg
বিবি.jpg
Mangrove Forest in Barguna, Bangladesh (2).jpg
Barguna Coastal area, Bangladesh (2).jpg
Burishwar River in Barguna, Bangladesh (2).jpg
From top: Seabirds in Barguna Coastal area (Laldia beach), Tengragiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Bibicini Shahi Mosque, Haringhata Reserved Forest, Ashar Chor and Bibicini Shahi Mosque
Location of Barguna in Bangladesh
Location of Barguna in Bangladesh
Coordinates: 22°09′03″N 90°07′35″E / 22.1508°N 90.1264°E / 22.1508; 90.1264Coordinates: 22°09′03″N 90°07′35″E / 22.1508°N 90.1264°E / 22.1508; 90.1264
Country Bangladesh
DivisionBarisal Division
Government
 • District CommissionerQazi Obaidur Rahman
Area
 • Total1,939.39 km2 (748.80 sq mi)
Population
 (2011 census)
 • Total892,781
 • Density460/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
Literacy rate
 • Total62.10%
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)

Barguna (Bengali: বরগুনা Borguna) is a district in the division of Barisal, Bangladesh.[1] It is situated in the southern part of Bangladesh. Barguna subdivision was established in 1969 and promoted to district in 28 February 1984.

History[edit]

Barguna district was in the Sundarban area. In the evolution of time, people started clearing the forest by cutting down the trees and started to live here. Wood merchants used to come here to collect woods from the forest.

In the 14th century, the whole southern region was under Bakerganj. In the middle of the eighteenth century, the leader of East Bengal was Agabak Khan. His land ownership was in the Bakla Chandradip. Patuakhali and Barisal were called Bakla Chandradip. During the British Empire, for the administration of governance, the British government created Bakerganj district in the name of Agabak Khan. They established Patuakhali as a subdivision in 1871 for administrative purposes. There were five thanas in the Patuakhali subdivision. They were Patuakhali, Mirzaganj, Gulistan, Bauhaphul and Galachipa. At that time, Barguna was under Gulisakhali Police Station. In the later part of the century, Duma, Patharghata, Barguna, Betagi and Khepupara thana were formed for administrative reason. To control the area from pirates, a temporary police outpost in Phuljhori was constructed in the early 19th century on the bank of the Bichhali river. In 1904, a permanent police station was established in Barguna. In the meantime, human population started to grow and the Barguna police station area began to expand. In 1969, Patuakhali was established as a district and the Barguna was established as a subdivision. It was formed with Patharghata and Bamna thanas of Pashara, Amtali, Barguna, Betagi and Pirojpur. Then the subdivision was upgraded to district in 28 February 1984.[2]

Etymology[edit]

There is not enough strong proof of naming the district. Some historians say that timber traders of the northern region came here to buy timbers and waited for the favoring flow (Baro - Gone) to overcome and from there the name "Baro-Gana" was derived. Others say that it was named after a famous Rakhine resident of this district while some say that the name came from a bawali named "Barguna"[3]

Geography[edit]

The Barguna District has a total area of 1939.39 km². It was established as a district in 28 February 1984. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Jhalkathi, Barisal, Pirojpur and Patuakhali. In the east, it borders the Patuakhali district. On the south, Barguna is bounded by the Patuakhali district, and the Bay of Bengal. On the western side, it borders Pirojpur and Bagerhat districts.There are 6 upazilas, 6 thanas, 4 municipalities, 42 unions and 560 villages in Barguna district. Important rivers of Barguna district include the Paira River, Bishkhali River, khakdon river, Baleshwar River and Haringhata river. Total area of the river is 160 km2 which is 22% of the total area of the district. Moreover, there are 300 natural canals in the district. The average annual temperature is 33.3° Celsius and annual lowest temperature is 12.1° Celsius. Annual rainfall of the district is 2506 mm. Total area of reserved forest area is 30533.90 acres.[4]

Administration[edit]

Barguna district has six upazilas and 42 unions.Taltali is the newest. The upazilas are:

Upazila Area (km2) No. of Unions Population (2011)
Amtali 720.76 7 244,438
Bamna 101.05 4 65,965
Barguna Sadar 454.39 10 219,729
Betagi 167.75 7 110,926
Patharghata 387.36 7 134,635
Taltali 258.94 7 88, 004

Economy[edit]

Barguna's economy is primarily dependent on agriculture. Principal crops include rice and pulses. Jute cultivation was once important, but it gradually lost popularity as a cash crop. Being a coastal district, Barguna has a thriving fishing industry. Produce of the district includes betel leaf, pulses, bananas, betel nut, molasses, marine fish, and shrimp. Total area of agricultural land is 104231 hectares.

There is no major industry in this district. A number of small manufacturing industries comprise mostly rice mills, saw mill, soap factory, flour mill, ice factory and pen factory. There are 25 food processing industries, 10 chemical industries, 10 textile home-craft industries and 35 miscellaneous industries in thos district. Majority of the industries are in the sadar area and the remainings are in different upazilas. Traditional cottage industries such as weaving, bamboo and cane art work, goldsmithing, blacksmithing, pottery, wood work, and tailoring also thrive in rural areas.[5]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011, Barguna District had an overall population of 892,781 with a population density of 460 persons/km². Females constitute a majority of the population with 51.01% while males constitute 48.99%. Total male population is 437,413 and total female population is 455,368. Total numbers of voters are 662,375.

Majority of the population of the district is Muslim. Among the total population 91.61% are Muslims, 8.18% are Hindus, 0.15% are Christians, 0.04% are buddhists and 0.01% are others. The district of Barguna has 3760 mosques, 144 temples, one church and 18 Buddhist pagoda.[4][6]

Education[edit]

Literacy rate of Barguna district is 62.10%. There are total 1332 educational institutions. There are 2 government and 22 non government colleges, 2 government and 148 non government high schools, 814 government primary schools, 339 madrasas, one non government B.Ed college, one government primary teachers training institute, one government polytechnic institute, one government technical institute and college and one government textile vocational institute. Notable educational institutions are:

Health[edit]

There is a modern government general hospital in this district which has 100 bed capacity but an upgradation of 250 bed capacity is under construction. Besides this, there are 5 upazila health complexes, 8 upazila health centres and 123 community clinics in this district. There are total 32 government doctors servicing this whole district. There is a lack of total 134 doctors in the hospitals and clinics.[4]

Transportation[edit]

There is direct connection from the capital to this district by road. Total length of upazila road is 464 km. Among which 352 km is concrete road and 112 km is dirt road. Total length of union road is 568 km. Among which 336 km is concrete road and 232 km is dirt road. Sakura travels, Mia travels, Abdullah travels, Sugandha travels, Patuakhali express, Meghna travels, Saudia travels etc. are major bus travels.

Total length of riverway is 250 nautical miles. M.V. Bandhan-7, Juboraj-4, Juboraj-2, Allahu Marji, Nusrat, Mashiran Khan, Tipu-3 are some of naval transports available in this district.

There is no airport in this district.[7]

Member of the eleventh Jatiyo Sangsad (2019 - current)[edit]

Area Elected MP Party
Barguna-1 Dhirendra Debnath Shambhu[8] Bangladesh Awami League
Barguna-2 Showkat Hasanur Rahman (Rimon)[8] Bangladesh Awami League

Notable places[6][edit]

  • Bibichini Shahi Mosque, located at Betagi
  • Buddhist temple, located at Taltali
  • Buddhist Academy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Md Monir Hossain Kamal (2012). "Barguna District". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal (ed.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  2. ^ "Barguna district". Bangladesh National portal.
  3. ^ "Background of district". Bangladesh national portal.
  4. ^ a b c "Barguna at a glance". Bangladesh national portal.
  5. ^ "Business and industries". Bangladesh national portal.
  6. ^ a b "Barguna district". Banglapedia.
  7. ^ "Transportation system of district". Bangladesh national portal.
  8. ^ a b "List of 11th parliament members". Bangladesh Parliament.

External links[edit]