Barisan Nasional

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Barisan Nasional
National Front
باريسن ناسيونل
国民阵线
பாரிசான் நேசனல்
Abbreviation BN
Chairman Najib Razak
Secretary-General Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor
Founder Abdul Razak Hussein
Deputy Chairman Muhyiddin Yassin
Vice Chairman Liow Tiong Lai
Subramaniam Sathasivam
Adenan Satem
Sim Kui Hian
Mah Siew Keong
M. Kayveas
Teo Chee Kang
Joseph Kurup
Madius Tangau
Joseph Pairin Kitingan
Tiong King Sing
James Jemut Masing
Women Leader Shahrizat Abdul Jalil
Youth Leader Khairy Jamaluddin
Treasurer-General Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah
Slogan Rakyat Didahulukan, Pencapaian Diutamakan
Founded 1 January 1973[1]
Legalised 1 June 1974
Preceded by Alliance
Headquarters Aras 8, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Jalan Tun Ismail 50480, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Newspaper Pro-BN newspapers:
New Straits Times
The Star
Utusan Malaysia
Berita Harian
Harian Metro
Kosmo!
Nanyang Siang Pau
Youth wing Barisan Nasional Youth Movement
Women's wing Barisan Nasional Women Movement
Membership  (2013) 450,000
Ideology Conservatism
Islamic democracy[2]
Political position Right-wing
Colours Blue and white
Anthem Barisan Nasional
Dewan Negara:
54 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:[3]
132 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
320 / 576
Website
www.barisannasional.org.my
Politics of Malaysia
Political parties
Elections
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia

The Barisan Nasional (BN) (Malay; National Front in English) is a major political party in Malaysia, formed in 1973 as the successor to the Alliance (Perikatan). Along with its predecessor, it has been Malaysia's federal ruling political force since independence in 1957, and is considered the longest continuing ruling party in the democratic world.[4][5] The coalition's headquarters is located in the nation's capital, Kuala Lumpur.

Barisan Nasional was formed under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak after the 1969 Malaysian general election, and was registered as a coalition of nine political parties in 1974.[6] It employed the same inter-communal governing model of the Alliance but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point.[1] It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from an alliance of opposition parties Pakatan Rakyat.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

The Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party (UMNO, MCA, MIC) Alliance coalition and was formed in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots. The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, as well as Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.[7] After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with former opposition parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by PAS.

In 1973, the Alliance Party was formally replaced by Barisan Nasional.[1] The Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak (Sabah Alliance Party, SUPP, PBB), was formed as a grand coalition of 11 parties.[8] It registered in June 1974 to contest the 1974 general election, which it won with considerable success.

1977-2007[edit]

In 1977, PAS was expelled from the Barisan Nasional following a revolt within the Kelantan state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government.[1] Barisan Nasional nevertheless won the 1978 general election convincingly, and it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan to PAS, and Sabah to Parti Bersatu Sabah.

By 2003, Barisan Nasional had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties. It performed particularly well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats.

2008-present[edit]

However, in the 2008 general elections, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak (which was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis) and Selangor, fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties greatly diminished in the Peninsula.[9]

The losses continued in the 2013 general election, and it recorded its worst ever election result. BN regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. It won only 47% of the popular vote, nevertheless it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament.[10]

Organisation[edit]

As of 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats are held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, practically each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:

Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.[11]

Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is only possible indirectly through one of the constituent parties. In the Alliance, one could hold direct membership, but this was abolished with the formation of the Barisan Nasional. The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.[12]

As of August 2009, Barisan Nasional's member parties include:

Barisan Nasional Supreme Council[edit]

Source: http://www.barisannasional.org.my/en/organisation-chart

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit]

Barisan Nasional state governments[edit]

High-ranking BN party officials holding copies of the party manifesto at a pre-election rally in 2013. In the front row, from left, are Chua Soi Lek (MCA), Muhyiddin Yassin, Najib Razak and Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO), and Abdul Taib Mahmud (PBB).

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Share of seats Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1974
135 / 154
87.7% 1,287,400 60.8% Increase135 seats; Governing coalition Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
131 / 154
85.1% 1,987,907 57.2% Decrease4 seats; Governing coalition Hussein Onn
1982
132 / 154
85.7% 2,522,079 60.5% Increase1 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1986
148 / 177
83.6% 2,649,263 57.3% Increase16 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1990
127 / 180
70.6% 2,985,392 53.4% Decrease21 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1995
162 / 192
84.4% 3,881,214 65.2% Increase35 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1999
147 / 193
76.2% 3,748,511 56.53% Decrease15 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
2004
198 / 219
90.4% 4,420,452 63.9% Increase51 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
140 / 222
63.1% 4,082,411 50.27% Decrease58 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
133 / 222
59.9% 5,237,699 47.38% Decrease7 seats;[15] Governing coalition Najib Razak

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
1974
12 / 12
24 / 26
36 / 36
27 / 28
23 / 27
31 / 42
32 / 32
30 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
30 / 48
1976
1978
12 / 12
19 / 26
23 / 36
28 / 28
20 / 27
32 / 42
32 / 32
29 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
239 / 257
1979
1981
1982
11 / 12
24 / 26
26 / 36
23 / 28
25 / 27
38 / 42
31 / 32
31 / 33
22 / 24
18 / 20
32 / 32
1983
30 / 48
30 / 32
1985
6 / 48
6 / 48
1986
14 / 14
25 / 28
29 / 39
30 / 32
23 / 33
32 / 45
32 / 33
37 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
35 / 36
1 / 48
299 / 350
1987
28 / 48
28 / 48
1990
14 / 14
26 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
19 / 33
32 / 45
31 / 33
35 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
32 / 36
0 / 48
252 / 351
1991
49 / 56
49 / 56
1994
23 / 48
23 / 48
1995
15 / 15
34 / 36
7 / 43
25 / 32
32 / 33
51 / 52
37 / 38
45 / 48
30 / 32
22 / 25
40 / 40
338 / 394
1996
57 / 62
57 / 64
1999
12 / 15
24 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
30 / 33
44 / 52
30 / 38
42 / 48
32 / 32
21 / 25
40 / 40
31 / 48
312 / 329
2001
60 / 62
60 / 62
2004
14 / 15
31 / 36
21 / 45
28 / 32
38 / 40
52 / 59
41 / 42
54 / 56
34 / 36
26 / 28
55 / 56
59 / 60
452 / 504
2006
62 / 71
62 / 71
2008
14 / 15
14 / 36
6 / 45
24 / 32
11 / 40
28 / 59
37 / 42
20 / 56
21 / 36
23 / 28
50 / 56
59 / 60
307 / 504
2011
55 / 71
55 / 71
2013
13 / 15
21 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
31 / 59
30 / 42
12 / 56
22 / 36
21 / 28
38 / 56
48 / 60
275 / 505

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Joseph Liow, Michael Leifer (18 November 2014). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia (4th ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0415625326. 
  2. ^ http://www.barisannasional.org.my/objektif
  3. ^ "Keputusan Pilihan Raya Umum Ke-12". 
  4. ^ "Running Scared in Malaysia". The Wall Street Journal. 8 July 2011. 
  5. ^ "Malaysians vote to decide fate of world’s longest-ruling coalition". Toronto Sun. 5 May 2013. 
  6. ^ Cheah Boon Kheng (2002). Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-9812301543. 
  7. ^ Keat Gin Ooi, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 138-139. ISBN 979-1576077701. 
  8. ^ Kim, Nam-Kook, ed. (2014). Multicultural Challenges and Redefining Identity in East Asia. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1409455288. 
  9. ^ "Malaysia coalition extends rule despite worst electoral showing". REUTERS. 5 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "A dangerous result". The Economist. 11 May 2013. 
  11. ^ Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 12. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4.
  12. ^ Rachagan, p. 21.
  13. ^ News."GE13: Khaled expected to be sworn in as Johor MB next week", The Star Johor Baru, 8 May 2013. Retrieved on 9 May 2013.
  14. ^ Kow Kwan Yee."GE13: Azlan Man sworn in as Perlis MB", The Star, Arau, 7 May 2013. Retrieved on 9 May 2013
  15. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (16 August 2013). "Malaysia gov't bashed for $155m election ad spending". Inside Investor. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 

Literature[edit]

External links[edit]