3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||169.39 g/mol|
|Density||4.25 g/cm3 |
|Melting point||2,235 °C (4,055 °F; 2,508 K)|
|2.88 g/100 mL (0 °C) |
7.68 g/100 mL (20 °C)
60.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Solubility||insoluble in alcohol|
Refractive index (nD)
|Halite (cubic), cF8|
|Fm3m, No. 225|
|Octahedral (Ba2+); octahedral (S2−)|
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases (outdated)||R20/22, R31, R50|
|S-phrases (outdated)||(S2), S28, S61|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. BaS is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4. Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays. It is colorless, although like many sulfides, it is commonly obtained in impure colored forms.
Discovery, production, properties
BaS was prepared by Vincentius (or Vincentinus) Casciarolus (or Casciorolus, 1571-1624) via reduction of BaSO4 (available as the mineral barite). It is currently manufactured by an improved version of Casciarolus's process using coke in place of flour. This kind of conversion is called a carbothermic reaction:
- BaSO4 + 2 C → BaS + 2 CO2
The phosphorescence of the material made by Casciarolus made it a curiosity and various alchemists and chemists made experiments with the material which was known as Lapis Boloniensis, Chrysolapis or bologna stone.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf showed that calcite and gypsum were not very suitable for the production of the bologna stone, but a special heavy fluorspar, in the end he concluded that calcium sulfate is the material from which the bologna stone is made. Recent investigations have shown that naturally occurring impurities of copper in the barium sulfide produced from barium sulfate deposits near Bologna are the likely cause of the phosphorescence.
BaS crystallizes with the NaCl structure, featuring octahedral Ba2+ and S2− centres.
The observed melting point of barium sulfide is highly sensitive to impurities.
BaS is quite poisonous, as are related sulfides, such as CaS, which evolve toxic hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water.
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