Barium sulfide

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Barium sulfide
NaCl polyhedra.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.180
EC Number 244-214-4
Properties
BaS
Molar mass 169.39 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 4.25 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point 2,235[2] °C (4,055 °F; 2,508 K)
Boiling point decomposes
2.88 g/100 mL (0 °C)
7.68 g/100 mL (20 °C)
60.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility insoluble in alcohol
2.155
Structure
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
Octahedral (Ba2+); octahedral (S2−)
Hazards
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases (outdated) R20/22, R31, R50
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S28, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasolineHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 2: Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. E.g., phosphorusSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
2
2
Related compounds
Other anions
Barium oxide
Other cations
Magnesium sulfide
Calcium sulfide
Strontium sulfide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Barium sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. BaS is an important precursor to other barium compounds including BaCO3 and the pigment lithopone, ZnS/BaSO4.[3] Like other chalcogenides of the alkaline earth metals, BaS is a short wavelength emitter for electronic displays.[4] It is colorless, although like many sulfides, it is commonly obtained in impure colored forms.

Discovery, production, properties[edit]

BaS was prepared by Vincentius (or Vincentinus) Casciarolus (or Casciorolus, 1571-1624) via reduction of BaSO4 (available as the mineral barite).[5] It is currently manufactured by an improved version of Casciarolus's process using coke in place of flour. This kind of conversion is called a carbothermic reaction:

BaSO4 + 2 C → BaS + 2 CO2

The phosphorescence of the material made by Casciarolus made it a curiosity and various alchemists and chemists made experiments with the material which was known as Lapis Boloniensis, Chrysolapis or bologna stone.[6][7][8]

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf showed that calcite and gypsum were not very suitable for the production of the bologna stone, but a special heavy fluorspar, in the end he concluded that calcium sulfate is the material from which the bologna stone is made.[9] Recent investigations have shown that naturally occurring impurities of copper in the barium sulfide produced from barium sulfate deposits near Bologna are the likely cause of the phosphorescence.[10]

BaS crystallizes with the NaCl structure, featuring octahedral Ba2+ and S2− centres.

The observed melting point of barium sulfide is highly sensitive to impurities.[2]

Safety[edit]

BaS is quite poisonous, as are related sulfides, such as CaS, which evolve toxic hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
  2. ^ a b Stinn, C., Nose, K., Okabe, T. et al. Metall and Materi Trans B (2017) 48: 2922. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-017-1107-5
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  4. ^ Vij, D. R.; Singh, N. "Optical and electrical properties of II-VI wide gap semiconducting barium sulfide" Proceedings of SPIE (1992), 1523 (Conf. Phys. Technol. Semicond. Devices Integr. Circuits, 1992), 608-12.
  5. ^ F. Licetus, Litheosphorus, sive de lapide Bononiensi lucem in se conceptam ab ambiente claro mox in tenebris mire conservante, Utini, ex typ. N. Schiratti, 1640. See http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/delights/texts/Demonstration_21.htm
  6. ^ "Lapis Boloniensis". www.zeno.org.
  7. ^ Lemery, Nicolas (1714). Trait℗e universel des drogues simples.
  8. ^ Ozanam, Jacques; Montucla, Jean Etienne; Hutton, Charles (1814). Recreations in mathematics and natural philosophy .
  9. ^ Marggraf, Andreas Sigismund (1767). Chymische Schriften.
  10. ^ Lastusaari, Mika; Laamanen, Taneli; Malkamäki, Marja; Eskola, Kari O.; Kotlov, Aleksei; Carlson, Stefan; Welter, Edmund; Brito, Hermi F.; Bettinelli, Marco; Jungner, Högne; Hölsä, Jorma (2012). "The Bologna Stone: history's first persistent luminescent material". European Journal of Mineralogy. 24 (5): 885–890. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2012/0024-2224. ISSN 0935-1221.