Bark beetle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The unrelated sawyer beetles (Monochamus) and some other wood-boring beetle taxa (especially Cucujoidea) are sometimes called "bark beetles", too.
Bark beetles
Dendroctonus ponderosae.jpg
Mountain pine beetle,
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Curculionidae
Subfamily: Scolytinae
Latreille, 1804
Tribes

Cortylini
Cryphalini
Crypturgini
Dryocoetini
Hylastini
Hylesinini
Hypoborini
Ipini
Phloeosinini
Phloeotribini
Polygraphini
Scolytini
Scolytoplatypodini
Taphrorychini
Thamnurgini
Tomicini
Xyleborini
Xyloterini

A bark beetle is one of about 220 genera with 6,000 species of beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae. Traditionally, this was considered a distinct family Scolytidae, but is now understood to be very specialized members of the "true weevil" family (Curculionidae). Well-known species are members of the type genus Scolytus, namely the European elm bark beetle S. multistriatus and the large elm bark beetle S. scolytus, which like the American elm bark beetle Hylurgopinus rufipes, transmit Dutch elm disease fungi (Ophiostoma). The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae, southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, and their near relatives are major pests of conifer forests in North America. A similarly aggressive species in Europe is the spruce ips Ips typographus. A tiny bark beetle, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is a major pest on coffee plantations around the world.

Ecology[edit]

Bark beetles reproduce in the inner bark (living and dead phloem and cambium tissues) of trees. Many species, such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) attack and kill live trees. Most, however, live in dead, weakened, or dying hosts.[1] Bark beetles play an important role in forest ecology. Infestations have significant economic impact.[2] As secondary pests in undisturbed forests, bark beetles serve the useful purpose of hastening the recycling and decomposition of dead and dying wood and renewing the forest. A few species are aggressive and can develop large populations that invade and kill healthy trees and are therefore known as pests.

Bark beetles of the family Scolytidae feed and breed between the bark and the wood of various tree species, including spruces. More than 20 species feed on weakened, dying, or dead spruce, fir, and hemlock.[3] Most restrict breeding area to one part of the tree: twig, branch, stem, or root collar. Some breed in trees of only one species, others in trees of many species.

Bark beetles often attack trees that are already weakened by disease, drought, smog, overcrowding, conspecific beetles, or physical damage. Healthy trees may put up defenses by producing resin or latex, which may contain a number of insecticidal and fungicidal compounds that can kill or injure attacking insects, or simply immobilize and suffocate them with the sticky fluid. Under outbreak conditions, the sheer number of beetles can overwhelm the tree's defenses with resulting impacts on the lumber industry, water quality, fish and wildlife, and property values.[4]

Extensive mountain pine beetle infestation and destruction of lodgepole pine in northern Colorado along the Continental Divide - (seen from summit of Cascade Mountain in 2011)

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, native bark beetles cause high levels of tree mortality in California.[5] Massive outbreaks of mountain pine beetles in western North America after about 2005 have killed millions of acres of forest from New Mexico to British Columbia, threatening increases in mudslides, forest fires, and other adverse effects.[6] The outbreaks could be a consequence of global warming: the warmer winters in the region allow various species to expand their ranges and proliferate.[7]

Forests of Šumava damaged by Ips typographus and clearings after consecutive logging

Management of bark beetle infestation in the Šumava National Park in the Czech Republic's Bohemian Forest has been controversial with some advocating non-intervention and others supporting harvesting of infested old-growth trees.[8]

Some bark beetles form a symbiotic relationship with certain Ophiostomatales fungi, and are named "ambrosia beetles" after these "ambrosia fungi". The ambrosia beetles (such as Xyleborus) feed on fungal "gardens" and are one of only three insect groups known to farm fungi. The other two groups are ants and termites, neither of which is particularly closely related to beetles. Courtesy of the fungus, ambrosia bark beetles are able to indirectly feed from many more species of trees than their evolutionary relatives that do not feed on fungi, by having the fungi do the work of overcoming the plants' chemical defenses. The beetles carry the fungal spores in special structures, called mycangia, and infect the trees as they attack them.

Like many other insects, Scolytinae emit pheromones to attract conspecifics which are thus drawn to trees already colonized by bark beetles. This can result in heavy infestations and eventually death of the tree. Many are also attracted to ethanol, one of the byproducts of microbial growth in dead woody tissues.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Franceschi, Vincent R.; Krokene, Paal; Christiansen, Erik; Krekling, Trygve (2005-08-01). "Anatomical and chemical defenses of conifer bark against bark beetles and other pests". New Phytologist. 167 (2): 353–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01436.x. ISSN 1469-8137. 
  2. ^ http://www.usu.edu/beetle/
  3. ^ Rose, A.H.; Lindquist, O.H. 1985. Insects of eastern spruces, fir and, hemlock, revised edition. Gov’t Can., Can. For. Serv., Ottawa, For. Tech. Rep. 23. 159 p. (cited in Coates et al. 1994, cited orig ed 1977)
  4. ^ Fetting, Christopher; Klepzig, Kier; Billings, Ronald; Munson, A. Steven; Nebeker, T. Evan; Negrόn, Jose; Nowak, John (Jan 2007). "The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forest of the western and southern United States". Forest Ecology and Management. 238 (1). doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.10.011 – via Science Direct. 
  5. ^ "Bark Beetles in California Conifers Are Your Trees Susceptible" (PDF). 
  6. ^ Jim Robins (17 Nov 2008). "Bark Beetles Kill Millions of Acres of Trees in West". New York Times. 
  7. ^ Bentz, Barbara J.; et al. (2010). "Climate Change and Bark Beetles of the Western United States and Canada: Direct and Indirect Effects". BioScience. 60 (8): 602–613. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.6. 
  8. ^ Bláha, Jaromír; Kote˘cký, Vojtech (2015). "Spruce Bark Beetle in Šumava NP: A Precedent Case of EU Wilderness Protection, the Role of NGOs and the Public in Wilderness Protection" (PDF). USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-74. 2015. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved August 12, 2016. 

External links and further reading[edit]

on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site