1994 Barking by-election

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1994 Barking by-election

← 1992 9 June 1994 1997 →

Barking parliamentary seat
  First party Second party Third party
  Official portrait of Dame Margaret Hodge crop 2.jpg
Theresa May - Home Secretary and minister for women and equality.jpg
Candidate Margaret Hodge Gary White Theresa May
Party Labour Liberal Democrat Conservative
Popular vote 13,704 2,290 1,976
Percentage 72.06% 12.04% 10.39%
Swing Increase20.46 pp Decrease2.50 pp Decrease23.47 pp

MP before election

Jo Richardson

Subsequent MP

Margaret Hodge

The Barking by-election was held on 9 June 1994, following the death of Labour Party Member of Parliament for Barking Jo Richardson. Richardson had represented the seat since the February 1974 general election, following Tom Driberg.

The seat had been continuously held by Labour since it was created in 1945, and Richardson had retained her seat comfortably at the 1992 general election with an increased majority of over 6,000.[citation needed] Margaret Hodge, leader of Islington London Borough Council from 1982 to 1992, was selected as the Labour candidate and was the clear favourite to hold the seat at the by-election.[citation needed]

The Conservative Party had taken second place in 1992. John Kennedy, the candidate in 1992, was not selected to fight the 1994 by-election, the Conservative nomination going instead to Theresa May. She had been a councillor in the London Borough of Merton from 1986 to 1994,[citation needed] and had stood (and lost) in the safe Labour seat of North West Durham in 1992.[citation needed] Having lost two of the three previous by-elections of the Parliament to the Liberal Democrats, and failing to challenge Labour in the third, the Conservatives were not hopeful of gaining ground.

The Liberal Democrat candidate, Steve Churchman, had taken little more than a tenth of the votes cast in 1992, continuing a downward track since 1983. A new candidate, Garry White, at 21 the youngest parliamentary by-election candidate chosen by a British political party since universal suffrage,[citation needed] was chosen for the by-election.

Three other candidates stood: Gary Needs of the National Front, Gerard Batten of the UK Independence Party (UKIP), and HR Butensky of the Natural Law Party.


As expected,[by whom?] Hodge won the seat easily, with the Labour majority almost doubling, despite a turnout below 40%. The Liberal Democrats share of the votes declined slightly, but they still managed to push the Conservatives into third place, as they had a month before in Rotherham. The other three candidates all lost their deposits.

Barking by-election, 1994[1]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Margaret Hodge 13,704 72.1 +20.5
Liberal Democrat Gary White 2,290 12.0 −2.5
Conservative Theresa May 1,976 10.4 −23.5
National Front Gary Needs 551 2.9 N/A
UKIP Gerard Batten 406 2.1 N/A
Natural Law HR Butensky 90 0.5 N/A
Majority 11,414 42.4 +24.7
Turnout 19,017 38.3 -31.7
Registered electors 49,635
Labour hold Swing +22.0
General election 1992: Barking[2][3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Jo Richardson 18,224 51.6 +7.3
Conservative John G. Kennedy 11,956 33.9 −0.6
Liberal Democrat Stephen W. Churchman 5,133 14.5 −6.7
Majority 6,268 17.7 +7.9
Turnout 35,313 70.0 +3.1
Registered electors 50,454
Labour hold Swing +3.9


At the 1997 UK general election, Hodge retained the seat with an increased majority. May went on to be elected as MP for Maidenhead in 1997 and then became Prime Minister in 2016. Two other candidates in Barking in 1994 also stood in 1997: Needs contested Devon East for the National Democrats, and Batten contested Harlow for UKIP: both again secured only a few hundred votes. Batten was elected as a UKIP Member of the European Parliament for London in 2004. Batten and May both appeared on a ballot paper together again, 23 years later, when Batten stood against her in Maidenhead at the 2017 general election.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Boothroyd, David. "Results of Byelections in the 1992-97 Parliament". Election Demon. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  2. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  3. ^ "General Election 1992". Political Science Resources. 9 April 1992. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

External links[edit]